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About TschermakiteHide

Gustav Tschermak von Seysenegg
Medium green to dark green to green-black to black, brown (rare).
5 - 6
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Named after Gustav Tschermak von Sessenegg (1836-1927), Austrian mineralogist.
Tschermakite is defined as a Tschermakite Group member with Mg>Fe2+ and Al>Fe3+ in the C position. Tschermakite has been redefined in the 2012 Amphibole nomenclature in that:
1) The formula is changed from ☐(Ca2)(Mg3AlFe3+)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2 to ☐(Ca2)(Mg3Al2)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2. Consequently all pre-2012 literature references to tschermakite should be checked to verify that Al>Fe3+ in the C position. If Fe3+>Al in the C position the material will be ferri-tschermakite.

2) The tschermakite group is in the 2012 nomenclature defined with C(Al+Fe3++2Ti)>1,5 apfu, whereas the pre-2012 definition was defined with 5,5 < Si < 6,5 apfu. This redefinition does not change the formula, but many amphiboles qualifying as tschermakite pre-2012 will now be ferro-hornblende or ferro-ferrihornblende.

It should also be noted that pre-1978 tschermakite was defined with A+B(Na+K+Ca)<2,5. As tschermakite often contains less than 2 apfu Ca, older literature may describe amphiboles with A(Na+K)>0,5 as tschermakites. These are now considered pargasites.

NOTE! Amphiboles from Longido District, Arusha Region, Tanzania are still erroneous labeled tschermakite or alumino-tschermakite. The identification of these amphiboles as pargasite are well documented by Simonet, Cedric (2000) and others.

Classification of TschermakiteHide

Renamed by the IMA
Approval History:
Renamed by IMA: 2012

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
E : Inosilicates with 2-periodic double chains, Si4O11; Clinoamphiboles

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
11 : Aluminosilicates of Ca and Mg with or without alkalis

Physical Properties of TschermakiteHide

Medium green to dark green to green-black to black, brown (rare).
Pale grey-green
5 - 6 on Mohs scale
on {110}
on {100}{001}
3.15 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.25 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of TschermakiteHide

Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.623 - 1.660 nβ = 1.630 - 1.680 nγ = 1.638 - 1.688
Measured: 60° to 90°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.015 - 0.028
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
r > v strong
In browns and greens

Chemical Properties of TschermakiteHide

IMA Formula:
Common Impurities:

Crystallography of TschermakiteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.762(6) Å, b = 17.994(12) Å, c = 5.325(6) Å
β = 105.10(8)°
a:b:c = 0.543 : 1 : 0.296
Unit Cell V:
903.08 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Prismatic crystals, reaction rims on other minerals.
single or multiple parallel to {100}

Synonyms of TschermakiteHide

Other Language Names for TschermakiteHide

Relationship of Tschermakite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
Ferro-tschermakite☐{Ca2}{Fe2+3Al2}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

Garnet SupergroupX3Z2(TO4)3
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
5 photos of Tschermakite associated with ZoisiteCa2Al3[Si2O7][SiO4]O(OH)
5 photos of Tschermakite associated with RubyAl2O3
1 photo of Tschermakite associated with Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
1 photo of Tschermakite associated with Almandine-Pyrope Series

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.DE.Clino-suenoite□{Mn2+2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.05Clino-holmquistite Root Name☐{Li2}{Z2+3Z3+2}(Si8O22)(OH,F,Cl)2Mon.
9.DE.05Grunerite☐{Fe2+2}{Fe2+5}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.05Ferri-fluoro-leakeite{Na}{Na2}{Mg2Fe3+2Li}(Si8O22)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.10Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.10Ferro-tschermakite☐{Ca2}{Fe2+3Al2}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.10Magnesio-hornblende☐{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.10Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.10Parvo-manganotremolite☐{CaMn2+}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.10Fluoro-tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.10Ferro-ferri-hornblende☐Ca2(Fe2+4Fe3+)(AlSi7O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Fluoro-edenite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : P2/m
9.DE.15Magnesio-fluoro-hastingsite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Potassic-fluoro-hastingsite{K}{Ca2}{Fe2+4Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Potassic-chloro-hastingsite{K}{Ca2}{Fe2+4Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(Cl,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Fluoro-pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Parvo-mangano-edenite{Na}{CaMn2+}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Potassic-magnesio-hastingsite{K}{Ca2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-pargasite{K}{Ca2}{Fe2+4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Chromio-pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Cr3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Potassic-fluoro-pargasite{K}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Ferri-kaersutiteNaCa2(Mg3Fe3+Ti)(Al2Si6O22)O2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Vanadio-pargasiteNaCa2(Mg3+4V)(Al2Si6)O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.20Ferro-taramiteNa(CaNa)(Fe2+3Al2)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-katophoriteNa(NaCa)(Fe2+4Fe3+)(Si7Al)O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.20Ferro-barroisite☐{CaNa}{Fe2+3Al2}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.20Ferro-winchite ☐{CaNa}{Fe2+4Al}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon.
9.DE.20Richterite{Na}{NaCa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.20Winchite☐{CaNa}{Mg4Al}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m
9.DE.20Taramite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg3Al2}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.20Fluoro-richterite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m
9.DE.20Katophorite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg4Al}[(AlSi7)O22](OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.20Potassic-richterite{K}{CaNa}{Mg5}Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.20Ferri-ghoseite☐[Mn2+Na][Mg4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m
9.DE.20Ferri-winchite☐[CaNa][Mg4(Fe3+,Al)]Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.20Fluoro-taramite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg3Al2}(Al2Si6O22)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.20Ferri-fluoro-katophoriteNa(CaNa)(Mg4Fe3+)(AlSi7O22)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Arfvedsonite[Na][Na2][Fe2+4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25EckermanniteNaNa2(Mg4Al}Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Magnesio-arfvedsonite{Na}{Na2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25NybøiteNaNa2(Mg3Al2)(AlSi7O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Riebeckite◻[Na2][Fe2+3Fe3+2]Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-nybøiteNaNa2[(Fe2+3,Mg)Fe3+2](AlSi7O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Clino-ferro-ferri-holmquistite◻{Li2}{Fe2+3Fe3+2}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Potassic-ferri-leakeite[K][Na2][Mg2Fe3+2Li]Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Fluoro-nybøiteNaNa2(Mg3Al2)(AlSi7O22)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Mangani-dellaventuraite{Na}{Na2}{MgMn3+2LiTi4+}Si8O22O2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Fluoro-pedriziteNaLi2(Mg2Al2Li)(Si8O22)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Potassic-arfvedsonite[(K,Na)][Na2][Fe2+4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Mangani-obertiiteNa(Na2)(Mg3Mn3+Ti)(Si8O22)O2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-pedrizite[Na][Li2][Fe2+2Fe3+2Li]Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Potassic-magnesio-arfvedsonite[K][Na2][Mg4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25PedriziteNaLi2(LiMg2Al2)(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Ferro-pedriziteNaLi2(Fe2+2Al2Li)Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Ferro-fluoro-pedrizite{Na}{Li2}{Fe2Al2Li}(Al2Si6O22)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Fluoro-leakeiteNaNa2(Mg2Al2Li)(Si8O22)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-obertiiteNaNa2(Fe2+3Fe3+Ti)Si8O22O2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Ferri-obertiiteNa(Na2)(Mg3Fe3+Ti)(Si8O22)O2Mon. 2/m : B2/m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

16.11.1MadisoniteCa2Mg2Al2Si3O13 or near
16.11.5ClintoniteCa(Mg,Al)3(Al3SiO10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
16.11.6JuaniteCa10Mg4Al2Si11O39 · 4H2O or near
16.11.7Pumpellyite-(Mg)Ca2MgAl2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2OMon.
16.11.8TacharaniteCa12Al2Si18O33 (OH)36Mon.
16.11.10Taramite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg3Al2}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
16.11.14Katophorite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg4Al}[(AlSi7)O22](OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
16.11.15Beidellite(Na,Ca0.5)0.3Al2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon.
16.11.15Magnesiosadanagaite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg3Al2}(Al3Si5O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for TschermakiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Winchell, A.N. (1945) Variations in composition and properties of calciferous amphiboles. American Mineralogist: 30:27-50
American Journal of Science (1945): 243: 29.
Phillips, M.W., Draheim, J.E., Popp, R.K., Clowe, C.A., Pinkerton, A.A. (1989) Effects of oxidation-dehydrogenation in tschermakitic hornblende. American Mineralogist: 74: 764-773.
Mandarino, J.A. (1998) The Second List of Additions and Corrections to the Glossary of Mineral Species (1995). The Amphibole Group. Mineralogical Record: 29: 169-174.
Hawthorne, F.C., Oberti, R. (2006) On the classification of amphiboles. The Canadian Mineralogist: 44: 1-21.
Ishida, K., Hawthorne, F.C. (2006) Assignment of infrared OH-stretching bands in calcic amphiboles through deuteration and heat treatment. American Mineralogist: 91: 871-879.
Abdu, Y.A., Hawthorne, F.C. (2009) Crystal structure and Mössbauer spectroscopy of tschermakite from the ruby locality at Fiskenaesset, Greenland. The Canadian Mineralogist: 47: 917-926.
Hawthorne, F.C., Oberti, R., Harlow, G.E., Maresch, W.V., Martin, R.F., Schumacher, J.C., Welch, M.D. (2012) Nomenclature of the amphibole supergroup. American Mineralogist: 97: 2031-2048.

Internet Links for TschermakiteHide

Localities for TschermakiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Western Australia
    • Coolgardie Shire
      • Coolgardie
Geological Society of Australia WA Div., 12th Australian Geological Convention, Excursion Guidebook 8. Ore Deposits of the Eastern Goldfields, WA, Sept 1994
    • Upper Gascoyne Shire
      • Glenburgh Station
Roche, L.K. (2016), Unravelling the Upper Amphibolite Facies Glenburgh Gold Deposit. Gascoyne Province- Evidence for Metamorphosed Mineralisation, GSWA, State Government of Western Australia, Report 155, 2016
  • Minas Gerais
Jour. of South American Earth Sci. 15:709–723
  • Paraíba
    • Borborema mineral province
      • Catingueira
Souza Neto, J.A., Legrand, J.M., Volfinger, M., Pascal, M.-L., and Sonnet, P. (2008): Mineralium Deposita 43, 185-205.
  • Manitoba
    • Lynn Lake District
Samson I M, Blackburn W H, Gagnon J E (1999) Paragenesis and composition of amphibole and biotite in the MacLellan gold deposit, Lynn Lake greenstone belt, Manitoba, Canada, The Canadian Mineralogist 37, 1405-1421
  • Ontario
    • Algoma District
    • Kenora District
      • Balmer Township
Charles A. Tarnocai, Keiko Hattori, and Louis J. Cabri (1997) "Invisible" gold in sulfides from Campbell Mine, Red lake greenstone belt, Ontario; evidence for mineralization during the peak of metamorphism. Can Mineral 35:805-815
  • Anhui
    • Anqing
      • Taihu Co.
        • Lake Hualiangting
Franz, L., Romer, R.L., Klemd, R., Schmid, R., Oberhänsli, R., Wagner, T., and Dong Shuwen (2001): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 141, 322-346.
      • Yuexi Co.
        • Wumiao
          • Marble quarry
C. Lemanski, Jr. (re-entry of lost Mindat data).
  • Guangdong
    • Yangjiang
      • Yangchun Co.
Zheng, W., Mao, J. W., Pirajno, F., Zhao, H. J., Zhao, C. S., Mao, Z. H., & Wang, Y. J. (2015). Geochronology and geochemistry of the Shilu Cu–Mo deposit in the Yunkai area, Guangdong Province, South China and its implication. Ore Geology Reviews, 67, 382-398.
  • Henan
    • Pingdingshan
      • Lushan Co.
Dongyang Zhang, Huimin Su, Lei Tian, Jianli Kang, and Yang Gao (2010): Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology 31(1), 53-63
  • Xinjiang
    • Hami Prefecture (Kumul Prefecture; Qumul Prefecture)
      • Hami Co. (Kumul Co.; Qumul Co.)
        • Huangshan-Jing'erquan ore belt
Weidong Hui, Pengda Zhao, Kezhang Qin, Jinzhu San, Qinghua Xiao, and Jian Wu (2011): Geology and Exploration 47(3), 388-399
Czech Republic
  • Olomouc Region
    • Šumperk District
      • Vernířovice
Zimák, J., Juránková, Z. (2018). Petrografie a mineralogie krupníkového tělesa na lokalitě Zadní Hutisko u Vernířovic (Hrubý Jeseník). Geologické výzkumy na Moravě a ve Slezsku, 25, 1–2, 97–107.
  • Plzeň Region
    • Klatovy District
Cílek, V., Černý, P., Palivcová, M.: Tremolitické horniny z okolí Tětic u Klatov (západočeské svrchní proterozoikum). Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii, 1984, roč. 29, č. 3, s. 235-254.
  • Greenland
    • Sermersooq
      • Nuuk (Godthåb)
Petersen, O. V. & Secher, K. (1993): The Minerals of Greenland. Mineralogical Record 24 (2): 1-67
  • Lapland
    • Enontekiö
Sipilä, Pekka 1992. The Caledonian Halt-Ridnitsohkka igneous complex in Lapland. Geological Survey of Finland Bulletin 362, 75 p. 23 app. pages
  • Northern Savonia
    • Leppävirta
Papunen, H. and Koskinen, J. 1985. Geology of Kotalahti nickel-copper ore. in: Nickel-copper deposits of the Baltic Shield and Scandinavian Caledonides. Geological Survey of Finland, Bulletin 333, 228-240.
  • Southwest Finland
    • Pargas
Laitakari, Aarne (1916): Le gisement de calcaire cristallin de Kirmonniemi à Korpo en Finlande. Geological Survey of Finland, Bulletin - Bulletin de la Commission Géologique de Finlande, Vol 46, 39p.
  • Bourgogne-Franche-Comté
    • Haute-Saône
      • Château-Lambert
        • Saint-Maurice-sur-Moselle
F. André and J. Béhien, Bull. Minéral. , France, 1983, 106, pp. 341-351.
  • New Caledonia
    • Northern Province
      • Poya North Commune
        • Népoui
T. Sameshima et al. , Am. Min. , 1983, 68, pp. 1076-1082. / C. Campiglio et al. , Bull. Minéral. , 1986, 109, pp. 423-440.
  • Occitanie
    • Aveyron
      • Saint-Beauzély
Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéralo. Cristallo. , 1974, 97, pp. 465-469.
      • Viala-du-Tarn
Arliguie M collection
  • Hesse
    • Odenwald
      • Bensheim
        • Hochstädten
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • East Macedonia and Thrace
    • Rhodope
      • Thermes
Eur. J. Mineral. , 1994, 6, pp. 733-738.
  • Baranya County
    • Komló
  • Fejér County
  • Heves County
    • Eger
      • Szarvaskő
Mineral Species of Hungary, 2005
    • Mátraderecske
  • Karnataka
    • Kolar District
      • Kolar Gold Fields
Narayanan Kutty, T.R. and Anantha Iyer, G.V. (1977) Indian Journal of Earth Sciences, 4, #2, 141-159.
  • Odisha
    • Sundargarh District (Sundergarh District)
Chowdhury, S., & Lentz, D. R. (2011). Mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of scheelite-bearing skarns, and genetic relations between skarn mineralization and petrogenesis of the associated granitoid pluton at Sargipali, Sundergarh District, Eastern India. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 108(1), 39-61.; Chowdhury, S. (2007). Mineralogy, petrochemistry and genesis of scheelite-bearing skarns and related acid magmatism at Sargipali, Eastern India. Journal of Nepal Geological Society, 36, 9.
  • Campania
    • Naples
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
        • Monte Somma
          • Ercolano
            • San Vito
Russo, M., Punzo, I. (2004): I minerali del Somma-Vesuvio, AMI
  • Sardinia
    • Sassari Province
      • Olbia
Gamboni, A., Gamboni, T. (2006): Gallura, tesori nel granito, i minerali delle pegmatiti granitiche. Webber Editore, Sassari, 190 pp.
  • Chihuahua
    • Pueblito de Allende
American Mineralogist, Volume 94, pages 1483–1486, 2009
New Zealand
  • Southland Region
    • Invercargill City
Mossman, D.J., Coombs, D.S., Kawachi, Y., Reay, A. (2000) High-Mg Arc-Ankaramitic Dikes Greenhills Complex Southland New Zealand, The Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 38, 191-216.
Mossman, D.J., Coombs, D.S., Kawachi, Y., Reay, A. (2000) High-Mg Arc-Ankaramitic Dykes, Greenhills Complex, Southland, New Zealand. The Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 38, 191-216.
  • Nordland
    • Vefsn
      • Husvika
Birkeland, A. & Bjørlykke, A. (1993): Pb isotopic constraints on the origin of the Husvika Zn-Pb deposit in Nordland, north-central, Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 73 (1), 43-54
  • Sogn og Fjordane
    • Selje
      • Årsheim
Smith, D. S.(1988): Eclogites and Eclogite Facies Rocks. Elsevier Science Limited, 1988. 524p. (p.51)
  • Dhofar
The Meteoritical Bulletin, No. 88, 2004 JULY, Meteoritics & Planetary Science 39, Axxx–Axxx (2004)
  • Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
    • Mohmand Agency; DH&Z
  • Lower Silesian Voivodeship
    • Kamienna Góra Co.
      • Gmina Marciszów
        • Wieściszowice
Oberc-Dziedzic, T., Mochnacka, K., Mayer, W., Pieczka, A., Creaser, R.A., Góralsk, M. (2011) Studies on magnetite and pyrite mineralization, and on their early palaeozoic ocean-floor host-rocks from the Leszczyniec Unit (West Sudetes, Poland). Annales Societatis Geologorum Poloniae, Vol. 81, 133-160.
  • Bistrița-Năsăud
    • Rodna Mtn (Rodnei Mtn)
      • Rodna
        • Valea Vinului
Delia Cristina Papp, Ionel Ureche, Ioan Seghedi, Hilary Downes, Luigi Dallai, (2005), Petrogenesis of convergent-margin calc-alkaline rocks and the significance of the low oxygen isotope ratios: the Rodna-Bârgău Neogene subvolcanic area (Eastern Carpathians), Geologica Carpathica, 56, 1, p.77-90
  • Chelyabinsk Oblast
    • Miass
Sorokina, E. S., Rassomakhin, M. A., Nikandrov, S. N., Karampelas, S., Kononkova, N. N., Nikolaev, A. G., ... & Kotlyarov, V. A. (2019). Origin of Blue Sapphire in Newly Discovered Spinel–Chlorite–Muscovite Rocks within Meta-Ultramafites of Ilmen Mountains, South Urals of Russia: Evidence from Mineralogy, Geochemistry, Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd Isotopic Data. Minerals, 9(1), 36.
  • Irkutsk Oblast
    • Uda–Biryusa district
Ognitite, NiBiTe, a new mineral species, and cobaltian maucherite from the Ognit ultramafic complex, Eastern Sayans, Russia (electronic preprint)
  • Republic of Karelia
    • Louhi District
Nikolay Serebryakov data
      • Oulanka plutonic complex
        • Olanga River (Oulanka River)
A. Yu. Barkov et al. , Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, pp. 311-316.
      • Tedino
        • Dyadino lake
P.M. Kartashov data
  • Bratislava Region
    • Bratislava Co.
      • Bratislava
        • Staré Mesto
Ozdín D., Uher P., Bačík P., 2007: Amfiboly a minerály skupiny epidotu v porfyrickom diorite na lokalite Bratislava-Okánikova ulica. Mineralia Slovaca, 39,4, Geovestník, 4.
  • Košice Region
    • Rožňava Co.
Spišák,J., Hovorka,D., Rybka,R.,Turan,J., 1989: Spessartín a piemontit v metasedimentochstaršieho paleozoika vnútorných Západných Karpát. Čas. Pro min. a geol., 1, 17 – 29
  • Prešov Region
    • Prešov Co.
Ďuďa,R., et al., 1981: Mineralógia severnej časti Slanských vrchov. Min.Slovaca, Monografia 2, 98s
  • Galicia
    • Pontevedra
      • A Cañiza
Martin-Izard, A., Paniagua, A., Moreiras, D. (1995) Metasomatism at a granitic pegmatite-dunite contact in Galicia: the Franqueira occurrence of chrysoberyl (alexandrite), emerald, and phenakite. Canadian Mineralogist, 33, 775-792.
  • Grisons
    • Bregaglia Valley (Bergell)
      • Löbbia
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 297.
  • Ticino
    • Blenio Valley
      • Santa Maria Valley
        • Acquacalda
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 263.
  • Arusha Region
    • Longido District
Cedric Simonet (2000): “Geology of Sapphire and Ruby Deposits -The example of the John Saul Ruby Mine, Mangare area, Southern Kenya” PhD Thesis, University of Nantes
Tindle, A.G. (2008) Minerals of Britian and Ireland
    • Highland
      • Ballachulish
Ferry, J.M. (1996) Three novel isograds in metamorphosed siliceous dolomites from the Ballachulish aureole, Scotland. American Mineralogist, 81(3-4), 485-496.
    • South Ayrshire
Smellie, J.L. and Stone, P. (1984) ‘Eclogite’ in the Ballantrae Complex: a garnet-clinopyroxenite segregation in mantle harzburgite? Scottish Journal of Geology, 20, 315–27.
  • Wales
    • Conwy
      • Northern Snowdonia
Eur. J. Mineral. , 1993, 5, pp. 925-935.
  • Alaska
    • Kenai Peninsula Borough
      • Kachemak Bay
        • Seldovia
Geological Society of America Bulletin, 1974, V 85, N 2, pp. 285-292.
  • Arizona
    • Santa Cruz Co.
      • Tyndall Mining District
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 403.
  • California
    • Siskiyou Co.
      • Little Mount Hoffman
Mertzman, S.A. (1978) A tschermakite-bearing high-alumina olivine tholeite from the Southern Cascades, California. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 67: 261-265; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California: 401-402.
  • Georgia
    • Rabun Co.
American Mineralogist, Volume 72, pages 1086-1096, 1987
  • Kentucky
    • Calloway Co.
American Mineralogist, Volume 94, pages 1483–1486, 2009
  • North Carolina
Stapor, Frank W.Jr and Flaisher, Chris, Mar, 2006, Altered Amphibolite Hypotheisis for the origin of Todd- type Chlorite Bodies in the Ashe Formation , North west North Carolina: Evidence from Amphibole Mineralogy and Pargentic Sequence
Stapor, Frank W. Jr and Flaisher, Chris, Mar , 2006, Altered Amphibolite Hypotheisis for the origin of Todd- type Chlorite Bodies in the Ashe Formation, North west North Carolina : Evidence from Amphibole Mineralogy and Pargentic Sequence, Earth Sciences, Tennessee Technological University
    • Clay Co.
Lang, 2001
    • Davie Co.
McSween,Jr,Harry Y.,Sando,Thomas W.,Clark,Stephan R.,Harden,James T.,and Strange,E.Allison (1984) The Gabbro-Metagabbro Association Of The Southern Appalachian Piedmont,America Journal Of Science,Vol.284,April/May,1984,p.437-461
    • Haywood Co.
Anderson,Eric Douglas and Moecher,David P.,(2009) Formation of high -pressure metabasites in the southern Appalachian Blue Ridge via taconic continental subduction beneath the Laurentian margin: Tectonic Vol.28 Issue 5,Oct 2009
    • Jackson Co.
Nathan Clay Collins (2011) Geochemical Systematics Among Amphibolitic Rocks in the Central Blue Ridge Province of southwestern North Carolina: University of South Florida
    • Macon Co.
Nathan Clay Collins (2011) Geochemical Systematics Among Amphibolitic Rocks in the Central Blue Ridge Province of southwestern North Carolina:University of South Florida
      • Cowee Valley
        • Ellijay Mining District
          • Franklin
EL-Shazley,A.K.,Loehn C.,and Tracy R.J.,(2011) P-T-t evolution of granulite facies metamorphism and partial melting in the Winding Stair Gap,Central Blue Ridge,North Carolina,USA: Journal of Metamorphic Geology
Collins,Nathan Clay(2011) Geochemical Systematics among amphibolitic Rocks in the Central Blue Ridge Province of southwestern North Carolina:University of South Florida
    • Mecklenburg Co.
McSween Jr,Harry Y.,Sando,Thomas W.,Clark,Stephen R.,Harden,James T.,and Strange,E.Allison (1984) The Gabbro-MetaGabbro Association Of The Southern Appalachian Piedmont,American Journal Of Science,Vol.,284,April/May,1984,P.437-461
    • Mitchell Co.
      • Bakersville
Page,F.Zeb,Essene,E.J and Mukasa,S.B (2004) Quartz Exsolution In Clinopyroxene Is Not Proof Of Ultra-High Pressures:Evidence From Phase Equilibria And Eclogite From The Eastern Blue Ridge,Southern Applachians,USA
Page,F. Zeb,Essene,E.J and Mukasa.S.B (2004) Quartz Exsolution In Clinopyroxene Is Not Proof Of Ultra-High Pressures:Evidence From Phase Equilibria And Eclogite From The Eastern Blue Ridge ,Southern Appalachians,USA
    • Rowan Co.
McSween,Jr,Harry Y.,Sando,Thomas W.,Clark,Stephan R.,Harden,James T and Strange,E.Allison (1984) The Gabbro-Metagabbro Association Of The Southern Appalachian Piedmont,American Journal Of Science, Vol.284,April/May,1984,p.437-461
Stapor, Frank,W.Jr, and Flaisher,Chris, Mar, 2006, Altered Amphibolite Hypotheisis for the orgin of Todd - type Chlorite Bodies in the Ashe Formation Northwest North Carolina : Evidence from Amphibole Mineralogy and Pargentic Sequence, Earth Sciences, Tennessee Technological University
  • Midlands
    • Shurugwi District (Selukwe District)
Chaumba, J. (2017). Hydrothermal Alteration in the Main Sulfide Zone at Unki Mine, Shurugwi Subchamber of the Great Dyke, Zimbabwe: Evidence from Petrography and Silicates Mineral Chemistry. Minerals, 7(7), 127.
The Moon
Mokhov A.V., Kartashov P.M., Bogatikov O.A. (2007) Moon under a microscope, - Moscow, Nauka, p.128 (in Rus.)
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