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Ruby

This page kindly sponsored by Dawn Markus
Formula:
Al2O3
Colour:
Red
Hardness:
9
Crystal System:
Hexagonal
A variety of Corundum

A red, gem variety of corundum. The red colour is caused by minor amounts of trivalent Cr replacing Al in the crystal structure.

In traditional gemmological terms, ruby has to be blood-red and of clear, facetable quality to justify the name, however in wider usage any corundum with a red or reddish colour has attracted the name 'ruby', and this name is usually applied in this way by mineral collectors.

Pink corundum is usually referred to in gemmological terminology as pink sapphire rather than ruby.

Pure Cr2O3 occurs in nature as the mineral eskolaite which is green.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Ruby.


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Pronounciation of RubyHide

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of RubyHide

Colour:
Red
Hardness:

Chemical Properties of RubyHide

Formula:
Al2O3

Crystallography of RubyHide

Crystal System:
Hexagonal

Synonyms of RubyHide

Other Language Names for RubyHide

Arabic:ياقوت
Basque:Errubi
Bulgarian:Рубин
Czech:Rubín
Danish:Rubin
Dutch:Robijn
Esperanto:Rubeno
Estonian:Rubiin
Finnish:Rubiini
French:Rubis
Galician:Rubí
German:Rubin
Indonesian:Rubi
Italian:Rubino
Japanese:ルビー
Korean:루비
Latvian:Rubīns
Lithuanian:Rubinas
Norwegian (Bokmål):Rubin
Persian:یاقوت
Polish:Rubin
Portuguese:Rubin
Romanian:Rubin
Russian:Рубин
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Рубин
Simplified Chinese:红宝石
Slovak:Rubín
Slovenian:Rubin
Spanish:Rubí
Swedish:Rubin
Traditional Chinese:紅寶石
Turkish:Yakut
Ukrainian:Рубін
Vietnamese:Hồng ngọc

Varieties of RubyHide

BarklyiteA magenta-coloured variety of ruby (Corundum).
Originally reported from Victoria, Australia.
Star RubyA variety of ruby exhibiting a star pattern when viewed down the c axis. The chatoyance is due to oriented microscopic inclusions (nanorods) of diaspore (Nadin, 2007).
Trapiche rubyVariety showing six-spoked growth features.
Compare trapiche emerald.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Pargasite53 photos of Ruby associated with Pargasite on mindat.org.
Zoisite47 photos of Ruby associated with Zoisite on mindat.org.
Calcite30 photos of Ruby associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Phlogopite27 photos of Ruby associated with Phlogopite on mindat.org.
Sapphire23 photos of Ruby associated with Sapphire on mindat.org.
Painite18 photos of Ruby associated with Painite on mindat.org.
Mavinite18 photos of Ruby associated with Mavinite on mindat.org.
Muscovite14 photos of Ruby associated with Muscovite on mindat.org.
Rhodolite14 photos of Ruby associated with Rhodolite on mindat.org.
Fuchsite11 photos of Ruby associated with Fuchsite on mindat.org.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for RubyHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Edmond Frémy (1891): Synthèse du rubis. Vve. Ch. Dunod, France. [https://archive.org/details/SyntheseDuRubis]

Internet Links for RubyHide

Localities for RubyHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Afghanistan
 
  • Badakhshan Province (Badakshan Province; Badahsan Province)
    • Shighnan District
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
  • Kabol Province (Kabul Province)
    • Surobi District (Sorobi District)
Garnier, V., Giuliani, G., Ohnenstetter, D., Fallick, A.E., Dubessy, J., Banks, D., Vinh, H.Q., Lhomme, T., Maluski, H., Pêcher, A., Bakhsh, K.A., Long, P.V., Trinh, P.T., and Schwarz, D. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 169-191.
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Gloucester Co.
      • Barrington Tops
    • Selwyn Co.
      • Tumbarumba
Wagga Wagga Mine Data Sheets, 1982
    • Wellington Co.
      • Mudgee
[var: Barklyite] Liversidge, A. (1896) On some New South Wales and other minerals. The Chemical News and Journal of Physical Science, Volume 74:113-114 Sept. 4.
  • Northern Territory
    • Central Desert Region
[MinRec 11:271]; Giuliani, G., Fallick, A., Rakotondrazafy, M., Ohnenstetter, D., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., ... & Ralison, B. (2007). Oxygen isotope systematics of gem corundum deposits in Madagascar: relevance for their geological origin. Mineralium Deposita, 42(3), 251-270.; Zia U. Bajwah, Huckitta 1:250 000 Mineral deposit data series, Northern Territory Geological Survey, 1994
        • Ambalindum Station
          • Spriggs Creek Bore (Spriggs Bore)
McColl, D.H., Warren, R.G. (1979): The first discovery of ruby in Australia. The Australian Mineralogist, 26, 121-125.
  • Queensland
    • Central Highlands Region
(1907) Proceedings of the Royal Society of Queensland XX:p64-78
  • South Australia
    • Mt Lofty Ranges
      • South Mt Lofty Ranges (Adelaide Hills)
        • Williamstown
Barossa SI5409 6628I Record of mines - Summary Card No:68
  • Victoria
    • Alpine Shire
[var: Barklyite] Liversidge, A. (1896) On some New South Wales and other minerals. The Chemical News and Journal of Physical Science, Volume 74:113-114 Sept. 4.
    • Cardinia Shire
Birch, W. D. and Henry, D. A. (1997): Gem Minerals of Victoria
GHF Ulrich (1870) Contributions to the Mineralogy of Victoria
    • East Gippsland Shire
    • Pyrenees Shire
      • Amphitheatre
  • Western Australia
    • Ashburton Shire
David Sheumack collection
    • Cue Shire
      • Poona
Groat, L.A., Giuliani, G., Marshall, D.D., and Turner, D. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 87-112.
Fetherston, J., Stocklmayer, S., Stocklmayer, V(2013): Gemstones of WA, Geological Survey of WA
    • Upper Gascoyne Shire
Tom Kapitany collections
Austria
 
  • Lower Austria
    • Waldviertel
      • Drosendorf-Zissersdorf
Harald Schillhammer collection
Brazil
 
Rui Nunes collection
Cambodia
USGS Minerals yearbook (1994) THE MINERAL INDUSTRY OF CAMBODIA
  • Bătdâmbâng Province (Khet Batdambang Province; Battambang Province)
    • Samlot field
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (1993) Atlas of Mineral Resources for the Escap Region Cambodia Vol 10 UN.
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (1993) Atlas of Mineral Resources for the Escap Region Cambodia Vol 10 UN.
  • Krong Pailin Municipality (Pailin Municipality)
Peter Cristofono; Eldridge M. Moores, Rhodes Whitmore Fairbridge (1997) Encyclopedia of European and Asian regional geology
Rocks & Min.: 20:467.
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (1993) Atlas of Mineral Resources for the Escap Region Cambodia Vol 10 UN.
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (1993) Atlas of Mineral Resources for the Escap Region Cambodia Vol 10 UN.
Concise Field Report Volume 1: Pailin, Cambodia (Dec 2008 – Feb 2009) Vincent Pardieu GIA Laboratory, Bangkok
  • Môndól Kiri Province (Mondulkiri Province)
Eldridge M. Moores, Rhodes Whitmore Fairbridge (1997) Encyclopedia of European and Asian regional geology
  • Rattanakiri Province (Ratanakiri Province; Rotanokiri Province)
Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (1993) Atlas of Mineral Resources for the Escap Region Cambodia Vol 10 UN.
China
 
  • Anhui Province
    • Lu'an Prefecture
      • Huoshan Co.
Jiazhen Li (1994): Mineral Resources and Geology 8(2), 33-40
  • Hainan Province (Hainan Island)
    • Ding'an Co.
      • Penglai
Wang Furui (1988): Gems & Gemology 24(3), 155-160.
  • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
    • Akesu Prefecture (Aksu Prefecture; Aqsu Prefecture)
      • Baicheng Co. (Bay Co.)
Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
    • Kezilesu Autonomous Prefecture (Kizilsu Autonomous Prefecture; Qizilsu Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Aketao Co. (Akto Co.; Aqto Co.)
        • Subashi (Subashen)
Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
  • Yunnan Province
    • Yuxi Prefecture
      • Yuanjiang Co.
Yunkui Qian (2004): Yunnan Geology 23(3), 337-342; Dong Ye and Xueliang Liu (2006): Journal of Gems and Gemmmology 8(3), 21-24.
Colombia
 
  • Cauca Department
    • Mun. de Mercaderes
Sutherland, F.L., Duroc-Danner, J.M., and Meffre, S. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 155-168.
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Liberec Region
      • Jizerské Mtn (Iser Mtn)
Kotrlý, M., Malíková, P., Holub F. X.: Malá Jizerská louka, klasické naleziště drahokamové asociace. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1997, roč. 4-5, s. 25-40. and Kotrlý, M., Malíková, P.: Klasická lokalita Malá Jizerská louka. Minerál, 2002, roč. 10, č. 4, s. 251 - 262.
France
 
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Haute-Loire
      • Lavoûte-Chilhac
        • Saint-Ilpize
FORESTIER F. H., LASNIER B. (1969) – Découverte de niveaux d’amphibolites à pargasite, anorthite, corindon et saphirine dans les schistes cristallins de la vallée du Haut-Allier – Existence du faciès granulite dans la massif Central Français, Contr. Mineral. And Petrol. 23, pp. 194-235.
          • la Redonde
collected by Guy Pégère and François Périnet.
        • Saint-Privat-du-Dragon
          • Feneyrolles
Collected by Guy Pégère
PERINET F., PEGERE G. (2009) – Les sables éluvionnaires à rubis et sapphirine du secteur de Peygerolles, St-Privat-du-Dragon, Haute-Loire – Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, n° 104, pp. 35-41.
  • Centre-Val de Loire
    • Loiret
      • Gien
collected by François Périnet
  • Grand Est
    • Haut-Rhin
      • Sierentz
        • Kembs
Collected by François Périnet
  • Occitanie
    • Aveyron
      • Viala-du-Tarn
BAISSIERES D. (2010) – Ma vallée des rubis… Viala-du-Tarn, Aveyron. Le Règne Minéral n°93, pp 67-69.
    • Lozère
      • Marvejols
BAISSIERES D. (2010) – Ma vallée des rubis… Viala-du-Tarn, Aveyron. Le Règne Minéral n°93, pp 67-69.
Germany
 
  • Saxony
    • Döbeln
      • Waldheim
H. Vollstädt, R. Baumgärtel: "Einheimische Edelsteine", 2nd. ed., Steinkopff (Dresden), 1977
Greece
 
  • Macedonia Department
    • Dráma Prefecture
Christos Spiromitros collected specimens.
Greenland
 
  • Sermersooq
    • Nuuk (Godthåb)
Petersen, O. V. & Secher, K. (1993): The Minerals of Greenland. Mineralogical Record 24 (2): 1-67
        • Bjørnesund
Petersen, O.V & Johnsen, O. (1980): Giant crystals of Kornerupine. Mineralogical Record 11,93-96
Friend, C.R.L. (1982): A1-Cr substitution in peraluminous sapphirines from the Bjoernesund area, Fiskenaesset region, southern West Greenland. Mineralogical Magazine. 46, 323-328
India
 
  • Andhra Pradesh
    • Anantapur District
specimen in the collection of Rock Currier
Rob Lavinsky
  • Karnataka
    • Dakshina Kannada District (South Kanara; South Canara)
[www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]
    • Kodagu District (Coorg District)
http://www.conventus.de/fileadmin/media/2012/mm7/Poster/PS1-P04_R.Schumacher.pdf
W. F. Smeeth and P. Sampat Iyengar (1916) Mineral Resources of Mysore. Mysore (India : State). Dept. of Mines and Geology Bulletin 7
  • Tamil Nadu
Martins da Pedra collection
Israel
 
  • Haifa District
Howard Coopersmith, Vered Toledo, John Ward, Michiel De Wit, R Spaggiari, Emmanuel Fritsch: "Geology and Exploration of Gem Deposits at Mt. Carmel, Northern Israel: Natural Moissanite, Sapphire, Ruby & Diamond."
Italy
 
  • Veneto
    • Vicenza Province
      • Lugo of Vicenza
Panebianco R. (1886-87): Berillo e altre gemme di Lonedo. Atti R. Ist. Ven. Sci. Lett. Arti, ser. 6, 5, 387-396; Boscardin M., Girardi A., Violati Tescari O. (1975): Minerali nel Vicentino. Club Alpino Italiano, Sezione di Vicenza, 144 pp.; Boscardin M., Violati Tescari O. (1996): Gemme del Vicentino. Comune di Montecchio Maggiore, Museo Civico "G. Zannato", Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), 114 pp.; Zordan A. (2014): Provincia di Vicenza. In: Zorzi F., Boscardin M. (eds.), Minerali del Veneto. Alla scoperta dei tesori della nostra regione. Museo di Storia Naturale e Archeologia di Montebelluna - Treviso, Cierre Edizioni, Sommacampagna, 173-246.
Japan
 
  • Kyushu Region
    • Oita prefecture
      • Saiki City
Chishitsu Chousajo (1902)
Kenya
 
  • Central Province
    • Kiambu District
Bulletin of the Imperial Institute - Geology and Mineral Resources of Kenya (1948) p297
  • Coast Province
    • Taita Taveta District
Mercier A., Debat P. & Saul J.M. (1999): Exotic origin of the ruby deposits of the Mangari area in SE Kenya. Ore Geology Reviews, 14, 83-104.
Mercier A., Debat P. & Saul J.M. (1999): Exotic origin of the ruby deposits of the Mangari area in SE Kenya. Ore Geology Reviews, 14, 83-104.
      • Tsavo West
[www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]
        • Tsavo West
Alexander G. Levitski, David H.R. Sims, Surface geochemical techniques in gemstone exploration at the Rockland Ruby Mine, Mangare area, SE Kenya, Journal of Geochemical Exploration, Volume 59, Issue 2, June 1997, Pages 87-98,
A. Mercier, P. Debat, John M. Saul, Exotic origin of the ruby deposits of the Mangari area in SE Kenya, Ore Geology Reviews, Volume 14, Issue 2, March 1999, Pages 83-104,
Madagascar
 
  • Antananarivo Province
    • Vakinankaratra Region
      • Antsirabe II District
Rakotondrazafy, A.F.M., Giuliani, G., Ohnenstetter, D., Fallick, A.E., Rakotosamizanany, S., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., Razanatseheno, M., Offant, Y., Garnier, V., Maluski, H., Dunaigre, C., Schwarz, D., and Ratrimo, V. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 134-154.
Giuliani, G., Fallick, A., Rakotondrazafy, M., Ohnenstetter, D., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., Rakotosamizanany, S., Razanatseheno, M., Offant, Y., Garnier, V., Dunaigre, C., Schwarz, D., Mercier, A., Ratrimo, V., and Ralison, B. (2007): Mineralium Deposita 42, 251-270.
  • Fianarantsoa Province
    • Horombe Region
      • Ihosy District
        • Ilakaka Commune
Gem News.Gems & Gemmology 39 (3): 222-249
        • Zazafotsy Commune
Pezzotta F. (2005): Rubini e zaffiri. Corindoni policromi di Amboarohy, Ihosy, Madagascar. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana,30 (2): 116-124
  • Toamasina Province (Tamatave)
    • Alaotra-Mangoro Region
      • Ambatondrazaka District
Giuliani, G., Fallick, A., Rakotondrazafy, M., Ohnenstetter, D., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., Rakotosamizanany, S., Razanatseheno, M., Offant, Y., Garnier, V., Dunaigre, C., Schwarz, D., Mercier, A., Ratrimo, V., and Ralison, B. (2007): Mineralium Deposita 42, 251-270.
      • Andilamena District
Vincent Pardieu, Supharart Sangsawong, and Stanislas Detroyat (2015)Rubies from a New Deposit in Zahamena National Park, Madagascar, Gems & Gemology, Winter 2015, Vol. 51, No. 4.
    • Analanjirofo Region
      • Fenoarivo East District (Fenerive)
Giuliani, G., Fallick, A., Rakotondrazafy, M., Ohnenstetter, D., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., Rakotosamizanany, S., Razanatseheno, M., Offant, Y., Garnier, V., Dunaigre, C., Schwarz, D., Mercier, A., Ratrimo, V., and Ralison, B. (2007): Mineralium Deposita 42, 251-270.
T.R.Yager: The Mineral Industry of Madagascar. US.Geological Survey Yearbook 2001, 201-204.
    • Eastern Region (Atsinanana Region)
      • Vatomandry District
Giuliani, G., Fallick, A., Rakotondrazafy, M., Ohnenstetter, D., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., ... & Ralison, B. (2007). Oxygen isotope systematics of gem corundum deposits in Madagascar: relevance for their geological origin. Mineralium Deposita, 42(3), 251-270.
  • Tuléar Province (Toliara)
    • Anosy Region (Fort Dauphin Region)
      • Amboasary District
        • Tranomaro Commune
Martins da Pedra photo
      • Betroka District
        • Isoanala Commune
Giuliani, G., Fallick, A., Rakotondrazafy, M., Ohnenstetter, D., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., Rakotosamizanany, S., Razanatseheno, M., Offant, Y., Garnier, V., Dunaigre, C., Schwarz, D., Mercier, A., Ratrimo, V., and Ralison, B. (2007): Mineralium Deposita 42, 251-270.
    • Southwestern Region
      • Ampanihy District
        • Ejeda Commune
Giuliani, G., Fallick, A., Rakotondrazafy, M., Ohnenstetter, D., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., Rakotosamizanany, S., Razanatseheno, M., Offant, Y., Garnier, V., Dunaigre, C., Schwarz, D., Mercier, A., Ratrimo, V., and Ralison, B. (2007): Mineralium Deposita 42, 251-270.
        • Gogogogo Commune
Giuliani, G., Fallick, A., Rakotondrazafy, M., Ohnenstetter, D., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., Rakotosamizanany, S., Razanatseheno, M., Offant, Y., Garnier, V., Dunaigre, C., Schwarz, D., Mercier, A., Ratrimo, V., and Ralison, B. (2007): Mineralium Deposita 42, 251-270.; Giuliani, G., Fallick, A., Rakotondrazafy, M., Ohnenstetter, D., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., ... & Ralison, B. (2007). Oxygen isotope systematics of gem corundum deposits in Madagascar: relevance for their geological origin. Mineralium Deposita, 42(3), 251-270.
        • Vohitany Commune
Giuliani, G., Fallick, A., Rakotondrazafy, M., Ohnenstetter, D., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., Rakotosamizanany, S., Razanatseheno, M., Offant, Y., Garnier, V., Dunaigre, C., Schwarz, D., Mercier, A., Ratrimo, V., and Ralison, B. (2007): Mineralium Deposita 42, 251-270.
Malawi
 
  • Mwanza District
  • Ntcheu District
H.G. Dill, A review of mineral resources in Malawi: With special reference to aluminium variation in mineral deposits, Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 47, Issue 3, March 2007, Pages 153-173, ISSN 1464-343X, 10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2006.12.006.; Dill, H. G., & Ludwig, R. R. (2008). Geomorphological-sedimentological studies of landform types and modern placer deposits in the savanna (Southern Malawi). Ore Geology Reviews, 33(3), 411-434.
Mozambique
 
  • Cabo Delgado Province
http://gemexplorer.org/archives/montepuez-mozambique
http://gemexplorer.org/archives/niassa-mozambique
  • Tete Province
    • Chimessolo
António Manuel Ináçio Martins.
Myanmar
 
  • Kachin State
Han Htun & George E. Harlow. Identifying Sources among Burmese Rubies. American Museum Natural History website accessed 7/3/2013
    • Mohnyin District (Moe Hnyin District)
      • Hpakant Township (Hpakan; Phakant; Phakan)
Han Htun & George E. Harlow. Identifying Sources among Burmese Rubies. American Museum Natural History website accessed 7/3/2013
    • Myitkyina District
Han Htun & George E. Harlow. Identifying Sources among Burmese Rubies. American Museum Natural History website accessed 7/3/2013
  • Mandalay Region (Mandalay Division)
    • Pyin-Oo-Lwin District
Shigley, J. E., Dirlam, D. M., Laurs, B. M., Boehm, E. W., Bosshart, G., & Larson, W. F. (2000). Gem localities of the 1990s. Gems & Gemology, 36(4), 292-335.
http://www.ruby-sapphire.com/r-s-bk-burma4.htm
Adams, F.D. and Graham, R.P.D. (1926) On some minerals from the Ruby Mining District of Mogok, Upper Burma. Transactions of the Royal Society of Canada, Section IV, 113-136.; Morris, N. (2005) Diamonds and other gems. Appleseed Editions, East Sussex.; Doppler, G. (2010) Petrogenese und Geochemie von ausgewählten Korund (Rubin)-lagerstätten. Master’s Thesis, University of Graz, Austria, 140 pp. (in German); Harlow, G. E. & Bender, W. (2013) A study of ruby (corundum) compositions from the Mogok Belt, Myanmar: Searching for chemical fingerprints. American Mineralogist 98, 1120-1132.
        • Bernardmyo
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • Chaung-gyi
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
[var: Star Ruby] Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems and Mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems and Mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • Kathé (Kathe)
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • Kin (Guard Post)
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • Kyatpyin Central
          • Baw-lon-gyi (Big Ball)
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • Kyatpyin North
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • Kyauk-Pyat-That
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Harlow, G.E. & Hawthorne, F.C. (2008): Herderite from Mogok, Myanmar, and comparison with hydroxyl-herderite from Ehrenfriedersdorf, Germany. American Mineralogist, 93, 1545-1549.
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok; Kyaw Thu (2007) The Igneous Rocks of the Mogok Stone Tract: Their Distributions, Petrography, Petrochemistry, Sequence, Geochronology and Economic Geology. PhD Thesis University of Yangon, Myanmar
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok; Kyaw Thu (2007) The Igneous Rocks of the Mogok Stone Tract: Their Distributions, Petrography, Petrochemistry, Sequence, Geochronology and Economic Geology. PhD Thesis University of Yangon, Myanmar
Pavel M. Kartashov data
          • Yadanar-kaday-kadar
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • Marble Ark
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok; Yui, T.-F., Khin Zaw, Wu, C.-M. (2008): A preliminary stable isotope study on Mogok Ruby, Myanmar. Ore Geol. Rev. 34, 192-199.
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
          • Pyaung-pyin
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • Mogok Valley
Rob Lavinsky
            • Dattaw-mid
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Themelis, Ted, 2008, Gems and Mines of Mogok.
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Themelis, Ted, 2008, Gems and Mines of Mogok.; Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
        • Nampai Valley (Nampan Valley)
Dana 6: 1031.
        • Pein-Pyit (Painpyit; Pyan Pyit)
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems and Mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems and Mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems and Mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
Ted Themelis (2008) Gems and Mines of Mogok
      • Thabeikkyin Township (Tha Pate Kyin Township)
http://www.ruby-sapphire.com/r-s-bk-burma4.htm
  • Shan State
    • Kyaukme District
      • Momeik Township
Win, T.T., Davies, R.M., Griffin, W.L., Wathanakul, P. & French, D.H. (2001). Distribution and characteristics of diamonds from Myanmar. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences, 19, 563-577.
    • Loilem District (Loilen District)
Garnier, V., Ohnenstetter, D., Giuliani, G., Blanc, P., & Schwarz, D. (2002). Trace-element contents and cathodoluminescence of “trapiche” rubies from Mong Hsu, Myanmar (Burma): geological significance. Mineralogy and petrology, 76(3-4), 179-193; Doppler, G. (2010): Petrogenese und Geochemie von ausgewählten Korund (Rubin)-lagerstätten. Master’s Thesis, University of Graz, Austria, 140 pp. (in German).
    • Mu Se District
      • Namhkam Township (Nanhkan Township; Namhkan Township)
Themelis, Ted, 2008, Gems and Mines of Mogok.
Han Htun & George E. Harlow. Identifying Sources among Burmese Rubies. American Museum Natural History website accessed 7/3/2013
Nepal
J. Gemmol. 1986. V. 20. N 1. P. 3-10
  • Bagmati Zone
    • Dhading District
      • Ganesh Himal (Ganesha)
Garnier, V., Giuliani, G., Ohnenstetter, D., Fallick, A.E., Dubessy, J., Banks, D., Vinh, H.Q., Lhomme, T., Maluski, H., Pêcher, A., Bakhsh, K.A., Long, P.V., Trinh, P.T., and Schwarz, D. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 169-191.
Garnier, V., Giuliani, G., Ohnenstetter, D., Fallick, A.E., Dubessy, J., Banks, D., Vinh, H.Q., Lhomme, T., Maluski, H., Pêcher, A., Bakhsh, K.A., Long, P.V., Trinh, P.T., and Schwarz, D. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 169-191.
Rob Lavinsky specimen
New Zealand
 
  • South Island
    • Arahura Valley
Christie, T., Brathwaite, B., & Thompson, B. (1993). Mineral commodity report 1-aluminium. New Zealand mining, 12, 20-23.
    • West Coast (Westland)
Grapes, R., Palmer, K. (1996) (Ruby—Sapphire)—Chromian Mica—Tourmaline Rocks from Westland, New Zealand. Journal of Petrology, 37(2), 293-315.
Norway
 
  • Aust-Agder
    • Froland
Oftedahl, Chr. (1963): Contributions to the mineralogy of Norway No 19. Red corundum of Froland at arendal. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 43, 431-439; Eldjarn, K. (1979): Mineraler i Norge- Korund. NAGS-nytt 6 (4): 29-31
Pakistan
 
  • Azad Kashmir
    • Muzaffarabad district
Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut)
      • Neelum Valley
Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut)
  • Gilgit-Baltistan (Northern Areas)
    • Astor District (Astore District)
Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut)
    • Baltistan
      • Skardu District
        • Basha Valley (Basha Nala; Basna)
Ikram Mineralogy
    • Gilgit District
Gübelin, E. (1982): Die Edelsteinvorkommen Pakistans. 1. Teil. Die Rubine aus dem Hunzatal. LAPIS 7 (5),19-26
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 55
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 55
Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut)
  • Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (North-West Frontier Province)
    • Mansehra District
      • Kaghan Valley
Jan, M. Q., & Khan, M. A. (1995). Potential For Ruby Mineralization In Upper Kaghan, Nw Himalaya. Journal Of Himalayan Earth Sciences, 28.
Poland
 
  • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
    • Sowie Góry Block
      • Świdnica District
Eligiusz Szełęg "Atlas skał i minerałów". Pascal 2007.
Republic of Macedonia
 
  • Prilep
    • Sivec Mountain
Dan Weinrich
Russia
 
  • Northern Region
    • Karelia Republic
      • Northern Karelia
[MinRec 28:132]
    • Murmanskaya Oblast'
      • Kovdor Massif
Pavel M. Kartashov data
  • Urals Region
    • Middle Urals
      • Sverdlovskaya Oblast'
        • Rezh District
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 62
        • Shilovka River
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 62
    • Southern Urals
      • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
        • Plast
          • Kochkar' District
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 50
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 50
  • Western-Siberian Region
    • Polar Urals
      • Tyumenskaya Oblast'
[MinRec 32:42]
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 57
Somaliland
 
Thomas R. Yager (2002) The Mineral Industries Of Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, And Somalia — 2002. U.S. Geological Survey Minerals Yearbook
Sri Lanka
 
  • Central Province
LANKA, G. (1984). State Gem Corporation, Mount Lavinia, Sri Lanka. Non-Metallic Mineral Ores, 15, 343.
  • North Central Province
    • Polonnaruwa District
LANKA, G. (1984). State Gem Corporation, Mount Lavinia, Sri Lanka. Non-Metallic Mineral Ores, 15, 343.
  • Sabaragamuwa Province
    • Ratnapura District
Shigley, J. E., Dirlam, D. M., Laurs, B. M., Boehm, E. W., Bosshart, G., & Larson, W. F. (2000). Gem localities of the 1990s. Gems & Gemology, 36(4), 292-335.
Shigley, J. E., Dirlam, D. M., Laurs, B. M., Boehm, E. W., Bosshart, G., & Larson, W. F. (2000). Gem localities of the 1990s. Gems & Gemology, 36(4), 292-335.
Shigley, J. E., Dirlam, D. M., Laurs, B. M., Boehm, E. W., Bosshart, G., & Larson, W. F. (2000). Gem localities of the 1990s. Gems & Gemology, 36(4), 292-335.
Econ Geol (1981) 76:733-738
  • Western Province
Switzerland
 
  • Bern
    • Hasli Valley
      • Grimsel area
        • Lower Aar glacier area
          • Lower Aar glacier
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 242.
  • Grischun (Grisons; Graubünden)
    • Misox (Mesolcina Valley)
      • Roveredo
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 242.
  • Ticino (Tessin)
    • Arbedo-Castione
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 242.
    • Leventina
      • Piumogna Valley
http://gemexplorer.org/archives/campolungo-switzerland
Tajikistan
 
  • Viloyati Mukhtori Gorno-Badakhshan (Viloyati Badakhshoni Kuni)
[MinRec 32:42]
http://gemexplorer.org/archives/ruby-mines-east-tajikistan
Litvinenko A.K., Barnov N.G. (2010): The history of Pamirs gemstones. Izvestiya Visshikh Uchebnykh Zavedeniy, Geologiya Razvedka (Proceedings of Higher Educational Institutions, Geology and Prospecting), No. 4, 70–74 (in Russian).
        • Rangkul
Elena S. Sorokina, Andrey K. Litvinenko, Wolfgang Hofmeister, Tobias Häger, Dorrit E. Jacob, and Zamoniddin Z. Nasriddinov (2015): Rubies and sapphires from Snezhnoe, Tajikistan. Gems & Gemology 51, 160-175.
E.Ya. Kievlenko, Geology of gems, 2003, p. 51; Sorokina E.S., Ozhogina E.G., Jacob D.E., Hofmeister W. (2012): Some features of corundum ontogeny and the quality of ruby from Snezhnoe deposit, Tajikistan (the Eastern Pamirs). Zapiski RMO (Proceedings of the Russian Mineralogical Society), 141 (6), 100–108 (in Russian).; Elena S. Sorokina, Andrey K. Litvinenko, Wolfgang Hofmeister, Tobias Häger, Dorrit E. Jacob, and Zamoniddin Z. Nasriddinov (2015): Rubies and sapphires from Snezhnoe, Tajikistan. Gems & Gemology 51, 160-175.
Smith, C.P. (1998): Rubies and pink sapphires from the Pamir Mountain Range in Tajikistan, former USSR. Journal of Gemmology, 26, 103-109.
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 53
Eugenii Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of Gems
      • Pyandzh River Valley
        • Kukh-i-Lal (Kukhilal; Kuhi-lal)
Pavel M. Kartashov data
Tanzania
 
  • Arusha Region
Mineralogical Record 35:145
    • Lake Manyara
Emeralds of the World English extraLapis Vol. 2 2002 pp24-35
    • Longido
      • Muriatata hills
Hintze, J. (2010): Safari ndjema - Afrikanisches Tagebuch (II): Rubin in Zoisit - ein Klassiker aus Longido in Tansania. Lapis 35 (12), 15-19 (in German)
Hintze, J. (2010): Safari ndjema - Afrikanisches Tagebuch (II): Rubin in Zoisit - ein Klassiker aus Longido in Tansania. Lapis 35 (12), 15-19 (in German)
  • Dodoma Region
    • Mpwapwa District (Mpwampwa)
      • Mpapwa
Schmetzer, K., Radl, W. & Schwarz, D. (2009): Winza ein neues Rubinvorkommen in Tansania. Lapis 34 (5), 41-46.
  • Morogoro Region
    • Kilosa District
Thomas Krassmann Collection
    • Mahenge
Hintze, J. (2011): Afrikanisches Tagebuch (III): Die Spinelle von Mahenge, Tansania. Lapis 36 (7-8), 26-30.
Hintze, J. (2011): Afrikanisches Tagebuch (III): Die Spinelle von Mahenge, Tansania. Lapis 36 (7-8), 26-30.
Hintze, J. (2011): Afrikanisches Tagebuch (III): Die Spinelle von Mahenge, Tansania. Lapis 36 (7-8), 26-30.
  • Rukwa Region
    • Nkasi District
      • Chala village
Hamza Kondo, 2003 Tanzanian Ruby Find Brings Hope. Colored Stone
USGS (2003) Minerals Yearbook - Tanzania.
  • Ruvuma Region
    • Songea Urban District
Lomthong, P. (2004) Characteristics of some Corundum from Songea Deposit, Tanzania.
    • Tunduru District
http://gemexplorer.org/archives/tunduru-tanzania; Macfarlane, M., Tallontire, A., & Martin, A. (2003). Towards an Ethical Jewellery Business. Natural Resources Institute, University of Greenwich, London.
  • Tanga Region
Jaroslav Hyrsl specimens; Henry Hanni (1987) On Corundums from Umba Valley, Tanzania. J. Gemm. 20:278-284.
Thailand
Sutthirat, C., Saminpanya, S., Droop, G. T. R., Henderson, C. M. B., & Manning, D. A. C. (2001). Clinopyroxene-corundum assemblages from alkali basalt and alluvium, eastern Thailand: constraints on the origin of Thai rubies. Mineralogical Magazine, 65(2), 277-295.
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 44
    • Bo Rai District
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 66
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 66
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 66
USA
 
  • Alabama
Gems and Minerals of America- Jay Ellis Ransom-1974
  • California
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • San Gabriel Mts
Widely distributed in numerous collections.
  • Georgia
Gems and Minerals of America-Jay Ellis Ransom-1974
Gems and Minerals of America- Jay Ellis Ransom-1974
Gems and Minerals of America- Jay Ellis Ransom-1974
Gems and Minerals of America- Jay Ellis Ransom-1974
Gems and Minerals of America- Jay Ellis Ransom-1974
  • Indiana
Gems and Minerals of America- Jay Ellis Ransom-1974
  • Montana
    • Granite Co.
      • Rock Creek District
USGS Bull 269
Jay Ellis Ransom,1974, Gems and Minerals of America
    • Madison Co.
      • Alder Gulch District (Virginia City District; Fairweather District)
[var: Star Ruby] Gobla, M.J. (2012) Montana mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 87, #3, 208-240.
USGS Bull 269
  • New Jersey
Gems and Minerals of America- Jay Ellis Ransom -1974
  • North Carolina
    • Clay Co.
Michael Streeter,2003, A Rockhounding Guide to North Carolinas Blue Ridge Mountains
      • Elf School area
Michael Streeter,2003, A Rockhounding Guide to North Carolinas Blue Ridge Mountains
[www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]
U.S Bureau of Mines,Spatial Data Extracted from the Minerals System/Mineral Industry Location System(MAS/MILS)CD-Rom,Sep,1995
Ransom,Jay Ellis,1974,Gems and Minerals of America
    • Lincoln Co.
      • Lincolnton
Rocks & Min.: 60:56.
    • Macon Co.
      • Alarka
U.S Bureau of Mines,Spatial Data Extracted from the Minerals System/Mineral Industry Location System (MAS/MILS)CD-Rom,Sep,1995
U.S Bureau of Mines,Spatial Data Extracted from the Minerals System/Mineral Industry Location System(MAS/MILS)CD-Rom,Sep,1995
Wilson,W.F and McKenzie,B.J,1978,Mineral Collecting Sites in North Carolina
U.S Bureau of Mines,Spatial Data Extacted from the Minerals System/Mineral Industry Location System(MAS/MILS)CD-Rom,Sep,1995.
U.S Bureau of Mines, Sep, 1995
U.S Bureau of Mines, Sep, 1995
      • Cowee Valley
        • Ellijay District
            • Corundum Hill
Corundum and the peridotites of western North Carolina By Joseph Hyde Pratt, Joseph Volney Lewis
U.S Bureau of Mines, Sep, 1995
U.S Bureau of Mines, Sep,1995
U.S Bureau of Mines, Sep,1995
U.S Bureau of Mines, Sep,1995
U.S Bureau of Mines, Sep,1995
Wilson,W.F and McKenzie,B.J,1978,Mineral Collecting Sites in North Carolina,Information Circular 24
Dana 6: 1077.
Wilson,W.F and McKenzie,B.J (1978)Mineral Collecting Sites in North Carolina;NCGS Information Circular 24
    • Transylvania Co.
Richard James Jacquot,Jr.2003,Rock,Gem,and Mineral Collecting Sites In Western North Carolina, pg # 144; American Mineralogist,Vol.18,No.4,April,1933
    • Wake Co.
      • Barton's Creek
Rocks & Minerals 47:645-648 (1972)
  • Utah
    • Tooele Co.
      • Oquirrh Mts
        • Ophir District
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
  • Washington
    • Okanogan Co.
      • Riverside
Minerals of Washington, Bart Cannon 1975
  • Wyoming
    • Fremont Co.
      • Granite Mts
        • Graham Ranch
Rocks & Minerals 77:5 pp334-339
Rocks & Minerals 77:5 pp334-339; USGS Bull 1042G
      • Tin Cup Mountain
Rocks & Minerals 76:386
Vietnam
 
  • Nghe An Province (Nghe Tinh Province)
Van Long, P., Quang Vinh, H., Garnier, V., Giuliani, G., Ohnenstetter, D., Lhomme, T., Schwarz, D., Fallick, A.E., Dubessy, J. and Trong Trinh, P. (2004): Gem corundum deposits in Vietnam. Journal of Gemmology, 29, 129-142; Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004; Nguyôn Kinh Quèc, Nguyôn Quúnh Anh () Aquamarine, Beryl And Possibility Of Finding Emerald And Alexandrite In Việt Nam. Generations, 41, 50-58.
Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
  • Yenbai Province (Yen Bai Province)
[www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]
E.Ya. Kievlenko (2003) Geology of gems, p. 66; Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
Le Thi-Thu Huong, Laura M. Otter, Tobias Häger, Tim Ullmann, Wolfgang Hofmeister, Ulrike Weis, and Klaus Peter Jochum (2016): A New Find of Danburite in the Luc Yen Mining Area, Vietnam. Gems & Gemology, 52 (4), 393-401.
Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
Garnier, V., Giuliani, G., Ohnenstetter, D., Fallick, A.E., Dubessy, J., Banks, D., Vinh, H.Q., Lhomme, T., Maluski, H., Pêcher, A., Bakhsh, K.A., Long, P.V., Trinh, P.T., and Schwarz, D. (2008): Marble-hosted ruby deposits from Central and Southeast Asia: Towards a new genetic model. Ore Geology Reviews 34, 169-191.; Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004; Khoi, N.N., Sutthirat, C., Tuan, D. A., Nam, N.V., Thuyet, N.T.M. and Nhung N.T. (2011) Ruby and sapphire from the Tan Huong-Truc Lau area, Yen Bai province, northern Vietnam. Gems & Gemol., 47 (3), 182–195.
Pham Van Long, Gaston Giuliani, Virginie Garnier, Daniel Ohnenstetter (2004) Gemstones in Vietnam. The Australian Gemmologist Volume 22, Number 4, October–December 2004
Zimbabwe
 
  • Masvingo
    • Chiredzi Mining District (Hartley Mining District)
MUGUMBATE, R. OESTERLEN, P.M., MASIYAMBIRI, S. & DUBE, W. (2001): Industrial Minerals and Rock Deposits of Zimbabwe.- Zimbabwe Geological Survey Mineral Resources Series No. 27., Harare; 159 pages.
  • Matabeleland South
    • Beitbridge District
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 82.
  • Midlands
    • Gweru District (Gwelo District)
Cairncross, B. (2004) Field Guide To Rocks & Minerals Of Southern Africa: 82.
Extra Lapis English 14:58-59
Mineral and/or Locality  
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