Log InRegister
Home PageAbout MindatThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusWho We AreContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatCorporate SponsorshipSponsor a PageSponsored PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on Mindat
Learning CenterWhat is a mineral?The most common minerals on earthInformation for EducatorsMindat Articles
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryAdvanced Locality SearchRandom MineralRandom LocalitySearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch ArticlesSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
Keyword(s):
 
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportCoordinate Completion ReportAdd Glossary Item
Mining CompaniesStatisticsThe ElementsUsersBooks & MagazinesMineral MuseumsMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryDevice Settings
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day Gallery

Centennial Mine, Centennial, Houghton Co., Michigan, USAi
Regional Level Types
Centennial MineMine
Centennial- not defined -
Houghton Co.County
MichiganState
USACountry

This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.
Key
Lock Map
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
47° 15' 29'' North , 88° 25' 42'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Calumet703 (2017)2.3km
Laurium1,941 (2017)2.6km
Copper City187 (2017)4.2km
Ahmeek146 (2017)5.1km
Lake Linden989 (2017)7.3km


An underground copper mine consisting of 7 incline shafts near the community of Centennial, just north of Calumet. The Schoolcraft Mining Co. was organized in 1863 and worked the Calumet Conglomerate in a small scale operation until it went bankrupt in 1873. In 1876, the Centennial Mining Co. organized on the previously owned Schoolcraft property and worked the Osceola Amygdaloid until 1896, at which time the company re-organized as the Centennial Copper Co. Work was discontinued on the Calumet Conglomerate and the Osceola Amygdaloid and two new incline shafts were driven on the Kearsarge Amygdaloid. In 1923, Calumet and Hecla took control of the mine and operated it until 1931 when it closed. In 1944, shaft #2 was reopened and operated until 1966 when the mine closed for good. Before C&H took control, the Centennial Mine produced approximately 37 million lbs. of refined copper. The mine today offers the collector a wide range of minerals. A visit to #3 or #6 can produce copper "skulls" and an occasional greenstone (Chlorastrolite). Shafts #1 and #2 can yield copper crystals, silver, datolite, and incredible quartz/epidote crystals. A note about #1 and #2, the county owns these piles and uses them for their activities; at last check these piles were almost gone!

Regions containing this locality

North America PlateTectonic Plate
Keweenaw Peninsula, Michigan, USAPeninsula

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded from this region.


Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

25 valid minerals. 3 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Analcime
Formula: Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Reference: Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
Anthonyite (TL)
Formula: Cu(OH,Cl)2 · 3H2O
Type Locality:
Reference: Williams, S.A. (1963): Anthonyite and calumetite, two new minerals from the Michigan Copper District. American Mineralogist. 48, 614-619; Rocks & Min.:58:109.
Atacamite
Formula: Cu2(OH)3Cl
Reference: Rocks & Min.:58:109.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: Rocks & Min.:58:109.
Buttgenbachite
Formula: Cu19(NO3)2(OH)32Cl4 · 2H2O
Reference: Rocks & Min.:58:109.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Rocks & Min.:58:109.
Calumetite (TL)
Formula: Cu(OH,Cl)2 · 2H2O
Reference: Williams, S.A. (1963): Anthonyite and calumetite, two new minerals from the Michigan Copper District. American Mineralogist. 48, 614-619; Rocks & Min.:58:109.
Centennialite (TL)
Formula: CaCu3Cl2(OH)6 · nH2O (n ~ 0.7)
Type Locality:
Reference: Crichton, W.A. and Müller, H. (2014) Centennialite, IMA 2013-110. CNMNC Newsletter No. 19, February 2014, page 168; Mineralogical Magazine, 78, 165-170; Crichton, W. & Müller, H. (2017): Centennialite, CaCu3(OH)6Cl2.nH2O, n = 0.7, a new kapellasite-like species, and a reassessment of calumetite. Mineralogical Magazine:, 81: 1105-1124.
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Reference: Rocks & Min.:58:109.
Chalconatronite
Formula: Na2Cu(CO3)2 · 3H2O
Reference: Mineralogy of Michigan (E. W. Heinrich & G. W. Robinson)
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 21:664.
Copper
Formula: Cu
Reference: Rocks & Min.:58:109.
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: Rocks & Min.:58:109.
Datolite
Formula: CaB(SiO4)(OH)
Reference: Rocks & Min.:58:109.
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 21:664; 58:109.
Hoganite
Formula: Cu(CH3COO)2 · H2O
Reference: In the collection of Brent Thorne. Collected by David Schuder. PXRD by Tony Kampf. Jason Smith label.
'K Feldspar'
Reference: Rocks & Minerals 82:276-297
'K Feldspar var: Adularia'
Formula: KAlSi3O8
Reference: Rocks & Minerals 82:276-297
Kinoite
Formula: Ca2Cu2(H2O)2[Si3O10]
Reference: Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
Laumontite
Formula: CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 21:664; 58:109.
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Rocks & Min.:58:109.
'Monazite'
Reference: Rocks & Min.:58:109.
Monazite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(PO4)
Reference: Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
Paratacamite
Formula: Cu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
Description: Found as an alteration of native copper in datolite nodules causing the blue color.
Reference: Rocks & Min.:58:109. 80:163
Powellite
Formula: Ca(MoO4)
Reference: R&M 76:3 p156-188
Prehnite
Formula: Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Reference: Rocks & Minerals 82:276-297
'Pumpellyite'
Reference: Rocks & Min.:58:109.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Rocks & Min.:58:109.
Saponite ?
Formula: Ca0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Reference: Travis Olds photo
Tremolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Rocks & Min.:58:109.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Copper1.AA.05Cu
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Chalcocite2.BA.05Cu2S
Group 3 - Halides
Anthonyite (TL)3.DA.40Cu(OH,Cl)2 · 3H2O
Atacamite3.DA.10aCu2(OH)3Cl
Buttgenbachite3.DA.25Cu19(NO3)2(OH)32Cl4 · 2H2O
Calumetite (TL)3.DA.40Cu(OH,Cl)2 · 2H2O
Centennialite (TL)3.DA.CaCu3Cl2(OH)6 · nH2O (n ~ 0.7)
Paratacamite3.DA.10cCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Cuprite4.AA.10Cu2O
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Chalconatronite5.CB.40Na2Cu(CO3)2 · 3H2O
Malachite5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Baryte7.AD.35BaSO4
Powellite7.GA.05Ca(MoO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Monazite-(Ce)8.AD.50Ce(PO4)
Group 9 - Silicates
Analcime9.GB.05Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Datolite9.AJ.20CaB(SiO4)(OH)
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Kinoite9.BH.10Ca2Cu2(H2O)2[Si3O10]
Laumontite9.GB.10CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Prehnite9.DP.20Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Saponite ?9.EC.45Ca0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Tremolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 10 - Organic Compounds
Hoganite10.AA.35Cu(CH3COO)2 · H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Chlorite Group'-
'K Feldspar'-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
'Monazite'-
'Pumpellyite'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
X(OH)2
Anthonyite (TL)6.2.6.1Cu(OH,Cl)2 · 3H2O
Calumetite (TL)6.2.5.1Cu(OH,Cl)2 · 2H2O
Group 10 - OXYHALIDES AND HYDROXYHALIDES
A2(O,OH)3Xq
Atacamite10.1.1.1Cu2(OH)3Cl
Paratacamite10.1.2.1Cu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Group 15 - HYDRATED NORMAL CARBONATES
AmBn(XO3)p·xH2O, with (m+n):p > 1:1
Chalconatronite15.2.3.1Na2Cu(CO3)2 · 3H2O
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 19 - NITRATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Anhydrous Nitrates Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Buttgenbachite19.1.2.1Cu19(NO3)2(OH)32Cl4 · 2H2O
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 38 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, AND VANADATES
AXO4
Monazite-(Ce)38.4.3.1Ce(PO4)
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Powellite48.1.2.2Ca(MoO4)
Group 54 - NESOSILICATES Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates
Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates with B in [4] coordination
Datolite54.2.1a.1CaB(SiO4)(OH)
Group 57 - SOROSILICATES Si3O10 Groups and Larger Noncyclic Groups
Insular Si3O10 and Larger Noncyclic Groups with [Si3O10] groups
Kinoite57.1.2.1Ca2Cu2(H2O)2[Si3O10]
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Tremolite66.1.3a.1☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
Saponite ?71.3.1b.2Ca0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Group 72 - PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 4-membered rings
Prehnite72.1.3.1Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Analcime77.1.1.1Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Laumontite77.1.1.4CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Centennialite (TL)-CaCu3Cl2(OH)6 · nH2O (n ~ 0.7)
'Chlorite Group'-
Hoganite-Cu(CH3COO)2 · H2O
'K Feldspar'-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
'Monazite'-
'Pumpellyite'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H AnthonyiteCu(OH,Cl)2 · 3H2O
H CalumetiteCu(OH,Cl)2 · 2H2O
H CentennialiteCaCu3Cl2(OH)6 · nH2O (n ~ 0.7)
H DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
H ButtgenbachiteCu19(NO3)2(OH)32Cl4 · 2H2O
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
H ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
H Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H ChalconatroniteNa2Cu(CO3)2 · 3H2O
H AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
H KinoiteCa2Cu2(H2O)2[Si3O10]
H PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
H HoganiteCu(CH3COO)2 · H2O
H SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
BBoron
B DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
CCarbon
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
C CalciteCaCO3
C ChalconatroniteNa2Cu(CO3)2 · 3H2O
C HoganiteCu(CH3COO)2 · H2O
NNitrogen
N ButtgenbachiteCu19(NO3)2(OH)32Cl4 · 2H2O
OOxygen
O AnthonyiteCu(OH,Cl)2 · 3H2O
O CalumetiteCu(OH,Cl)2 · 2H2O
O CentennialiteCaCu3Cl2(OH)6 · nH2O (n ~ 0.7)
O DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O CalciteCaCO3
O AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
O BaryteBaSO4
O ButtgenbachiteCu19(NO3)2(OH)32Cl4 · 2H2O
O CupriteCu2O
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
O ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
O QuartzSiO2
O Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O PowelliteCa(MoO4)
O ChalconatroniteNa2Cu(CO3)2 · 3H2O
O AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
O KinoiteCa2Cu2(H2O)2[Si3O10]
O Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
O PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
O K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
O HoganiteCu(CH3COO)2 · H2O
O SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
NaSodium
Na ChalconatroniteNa2Cu(CO3)2 · 3H2O
Na AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Na SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
MgMagnesium
Mg Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
AlAluminium
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Al AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Al PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Al K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Al SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
SiSilicon
Si DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Si KinoiteCa2Cu2(H2O)2[Si3O10]
Si PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Si K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Si SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
PPhosphorus
P Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
SSulfur
S BaryteBaSO4
S ChalcociteCu2S
ClChlorine
Cl CentennialiteCaCu3Cl2(OH)6 · nH2O (n ~ 0.7)
Cl AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
Cl ButtgenbachiteCu19(NO3)2(OH)32Cl4 · 2H2O
Cl ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
KPotassium
K K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
CaCalcium
Ca CentennialiteCaCu3Cl2(OH)6 · nH2O (n ~ 0.7)
Ca DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Ca Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca PowelliteCa(MoO4)
Ca KinoiteCa2Cu2(H2O)2[Si3O10]
Ca PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Ca SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
FeIron
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
CuCopper
Cu AnthonyiteCu(OH,Cl)2 · 3H2O
Cu CalumetiteCu(OH,Cl)2 · 2H2O
Cu CentennialiteCaCu3Cl2(OH)6 · nH2O (n ~ 0.7)
Cu CopperCu
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
Cu ButtgenbachiteCu19(NO3)2(OH)32Cl4 · 2H2O
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
Cu ChalconatroniteNa2Cu(CO3)2 · 3H2O
Cu KinoiteCa2Cu2(H2O)2[Si3O10]
Cu HoganiteCu(CH3COO)2 · H2O
ZnZinc
Zn ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
MoMolybdenum
Mo PowelliteCa(MoO4)
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
CeCerium
Ce Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Stenian
1000 - 1200 Ma



ID: 3184728
Mesoproterozoic volcanic rocks

Age: Stenian (1000 - 1200 Ma)

Comments: Mid-Continent Rift

Lithology: Bimodal volcanic rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Stenian
1000 - 1200 Ma



ID: 2928161
Portage Lake Volcanics

Age: Stenian (1000 - 1200 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Portage Lake Volcanics

Description: Lava flows, mostly basalt, andesite and felsite flows and subordinate interflow sedimentary rocks.

Comments: This unit is the same as unit Yp on paper map of Sims (1992). Description is taken from that unit description. Original map source: Cannon, W.F., Kress, T.H., Sutphin, D.M., Morey, G.B., Meints, Joyce, and Barber-Delach, Robert, 1997, Digital Geologic Map and mineral deposits of the Lake Superior Region, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan: USGS Open-File Report 97-455 (version 3, Nov. 19

Lithology: Major:{basalt}, Minor:{basaltic andesite}, Incidental:{rhyolite, sandstone mudstone}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Rocks & Minerals (1946) 21: 664.
Williams, S.A. (1963) Anthonyite and calumetite, two new minerals from the Michigan Copper District. American Mineralogist: 48: 614-619.
Rocks & Minerals (1983) 58: 109.
Butler, B.S. and Burbank, W.S. (1929) The Copper Deposits of Michigan. U.S. Geological Survey. Professional Paper 144. 238 pp.
Kilpela, T. (1995) The Hard Rock Mining Era in the Copper Country. 89 pp.
Crichton, W. and Müller, H. (2017) Centennialite, CaCu3(OH)6Cl2.nH2O, n = 0.7, a new kapellasite-like species, and a reassessment of calumetite. Mineralogical Magazine: 81: 1105-1124.

Localities in this Region
Show map


This page contains all mineral locality references listed on mindat.org. This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in mindat.org without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.
Mineral and/or Locality  
Mindat.org is an outreach project of the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy, a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization. Public Relations by Blytheweigh.
Copyright © mindat.org and the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy 1993-2019, except where stated. Most political location boundaries are © OpenStreetMap contributors. Mindat.org relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters.
Privacy Policy - Terms & Conditions - Contact Us Current server date and time: May 21, 2019 03:43:27
Go to top of page