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Centennial Mine, Centennial, Houghton Co., Michigan, USA

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Key
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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 47° 15' 29'' North , 88° 25' 42'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 47.25833,-88.42861
GeoHash:G#: f03hgg078
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Dfb : Warm-summer humid continental climate


An underground copper mine consisting of 7 incline shafts near the community of Centennial, just north of Calumet. The Schoolcraft Mining Co. was organized in 1863 and worked the Calumet Conglomerate in a small scale operation until it went bankrupt in 1873. In 1876, the Centennial Mining Co. organized on the previously owned Schoolcraft property and worked the Osceola Amygdaloid until 1896, at which time the company re-organized as the Centennial Copper Co. Work was discontinued on the Calumet Conglomerate and the Osceola Amygdaloid and two new incline shafts were driven on the Kearsarge Amygdaloid. In 1923, Calumet and Hecla took control of the mine and operated it until 1931 when it closed. In 1944, shaft #2 was reopened and operated until 1966 when the mine closed for good. Before C&H took control, the Centennial Mine produced approximately 37 million lbs. of refined copper. The mine today offers the collector a wide range of minerals. A visit to #3 or #6 can produce copper "skulls" and an occasional greenstone (Chlorastrolite). Shafts #1 and #2 can yield copper crystals, silver, datolite, and incredible quartz/epidote crystals. A note about #1 and #2, the county owns these piles and uses them for their activities; at last check these piles were almost gone!

Regions containing this locality

Keweenaw Peninsula, Michigan, USA

Peninsula - 238 mineral species & varietal names listed

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded from this region.


Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

24 valid minerals. 3 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Analcime
Formula: Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Reference: Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
Anthonyite (TL)
Formula: Cu(OH,Cl)2 · 3H2O
Reference: Williams, S.A. (1963): Anthonyite and calumetite, two new minerals from the Michigan Copper District. American Mineralogist. 48, 614-619; Rocks & Min.:58:109.
Atacamite
Formula: Cu2(OH)3Cl
Reference: Rocks & Min.:58:109.
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Reference: Rocks & Min.:58:109.
Buttgenbachite
Formula: Cu19(NO3)2(OH)32Cl4 · 2H2O
Reference: Rocks & Min.:58:109.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Rocks & Min.:58:109.
Calumetite (TL)
Formula: Cu(OH,Cl)2 · 2H2O
Reference: Williams, S.A. (1963): Anthonyite and calumetite, two new minerals from the Michigan Copper District. American Mineralogist. 48, 614-619; Rocks & Min.:58:109.
Centennialite (TL)
Formula: CaCu3Cl2(OH)6 · nH2O (n ~ 0.7)
Reference: Crichton, W.A. and Müller, H. (2014) Centennialite, IMA 2013-110. CNMNC Newsletter No. 19, February 2014, page 168; Mineralogical Magazine, 78, 165-170; Crichton, W. & Müller, H. (2017): Centennialite, CaCu3(OH)6Cl2.nH2O, n = 0.7, a new kapellasite-like species, and a reassessment of calumetite. Mineralogical Magazine:, 81: 1105-1124.
Chalcocite
Formula: Cu2S
Reference: Rocks & Min.:58:109.
Chalconatronite
Formula: Na2Cu(CO3)2 · 3H2O
Reference: Mineralogy of Michigan (E. W. Heinrich & G. W. Robinson)
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 21:664.
Copper
Formula: Cu
Copper
Formula: Cu
Reference: Rocks & Min.:58:109.
'commodity:Copper'
Formula: Cu
Reference:  
Cuprite
Formula: Cu2O
Reference: Rocks & Min.:58:109.
Datolite
Formula: CaB(SiO4)(OH)
Reference: Rocks & Min.:58:109.
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 21:664; 58:109.
Hoganite
Formula: Cu(CH3COO)2 · H2O
Reference: In the collection of Brent Thorne. Collected by David Schuder. PXRD by Tony Kampf. Jason Smith label.
'K Feldspar'
'K Feldspar var: Adularia'
Formula: KAlSi3O8
Kinoite
Formula: Ca2Cu2(H2O)2[Si3O10]
Reference: Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
Laumontite
Formula: CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Reference: Rocks & Min.: 21:664; 58:109.
Malachite
Formula: Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Reference: Rocks & Min.:58:109.
'Monazite'
Reference: Rocks & Min.:58:109.
Monazite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(PO4)
Reference: Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
Paratacamite
Formula: Cu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
Reference: Rocks & Min.:58:109. 80:163
Powellite
Formula: Ca(MoO4)
Prehnite
Formula: Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
'Pumpellyite'
Reference: Rocks & Min.:58:109.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Rocks & Min.:58:109.
Tremolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Rocks & Min.:58:109.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
'Copper'1.AA.05Cu
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Chalcocite'2.BA.05Cu2S
Group 3 - Halides
'Anthonyite' (TL)3.DA.40Cu(OH,Cl)2 · 3H2O
'Atacamite'3.DA.10aCu2(OH)3Cl
'Buttgenbachite'3.DA.25Cu19(NO3)2(OH)32Cl4 · 2H2O
'Calumetite' (TL)3.DA.40Cu(OH,Cl)2 · 2H2O
'Centennialite' (TL)3.DA.CaCu3Cl2(OH)6 · nH2O (n ~ 0.7)
'Paratacamite'3.DA.10cCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Cuprite'4.AA.10Cu2O
'Quartz'4.DA.05SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Calcite'5.AB.05CaCO3
'Chalconatronite'5.CB.40Na2Cu(CO3)2 · 3H2O
'Malachite'5.BA.10Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
'Baryte'7.AD.35BaSO4
'Powellite'7.GA.05Ca(MoO4)
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
'Monazite-(Ce)'8.AD.50Ce(PO4)
Group 9 - Silicates
'Analcime'9.GB.05Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
'Datolite'9.AJ.20CaB(SiO4)(OH)
'Epidote'9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
'Kinoite'9.BH.10Ca2Cu2(H2O)2[Si3O10]
'Laumontite'9.GB.10CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
'Prehnite'9.DP.20Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
'Tremolite'9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 10 - Organic Compounds
'Hoganite'10.AA.35Cu(CH3COO)2 · H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Chlorite Group'-
'K Feldspar'-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
'Monazite'-
'Pumpellyite'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Copper1.1.1.3Cu
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Chalcocite2.4.7.1Cu2S
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X
Cuprite4.1.1.1Cu2O
Group 6 - HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
X(OH)2
Anthonyite (TL)6.2.6.1Cu(OH,Cl)2 · 3H2O
Calumetite (TL)6.2.5.1Cu(OH,Cl)2 · 2H2O
Group 10 - OXYHALIDES AND HYDROXYHALIDES
A2(O,OH)3Xq
Atacamite10.1.1.1Cu2(OH)3Cl
Paratacamite10.1.2.1Cu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Group 15 - HYDRATED NORMAL CARBONATES
AmBn(XO3)p·xH2O, with (m+n):p > 1:1
Chalconatronite15.2.3.1Na2Cu(CO3)2 · 3H2O
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Malachite16a.3.1.1Cu2(CO3)(OH)2
Group 19 - NITRATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Anhydrous Nitrates Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Buttgenbachite19.1.2.1Cu19(NO3)2(OH)32Cl4 · 2H2O
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Group 38 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, AND VANADATES
AXO4
Monazite-(Ce)38.4.3.1Ce(PO4)
Group 48 - ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
AXO4
Powellite48.1.2.2Ca(MoO4)
Group 54 - NESOSILICATES Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates
Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates with B in [4] coordination
Datolite54.2.1a.1CaB(SiO4)(OH)
Group 57 - SOROSILICATES Si3O10 Groups and Larger Noncyclic Groups
Insular Si3O10 and Larger Noncyclic Groups with [Si3O10] groups
Kinoite57.1.2.1Ca2Cu2(H2O)2[Si3O10]
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Tremolite66.1.3a.1☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 72 - PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 4-membered rings
Prehnite72.1.3.1Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Analcime77.1.1.1Na(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Laumontite77.1.1.4CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Centennialite (TL)-CaCu3Cl2(OH)6 · nH2O (n ~ 0.7)
'Chlorite Group'-
Hoganite-Cu(CH3COO)2 · H2O
'K Feldspar'-
'var: Adularia'-KAlSi3O8
'Monazite'-
'Pumpellyite'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
H AnthonyiteCu(OH,Cl)2 · 3H2O
H AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
H ButtgenbachiteCu19(NO3)2(OH)32Cl4 · 2H2O
H CalumetiteCu(OH,Cl)2 · 2H2O
H CentennialiteCaCu3Cl2(OH)6 · nH2O (n ~ 0.7)
H ChalconatroniteNa2Cu(CO3)2 · 3H2O
H DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H HoganiteCu(CH3COO)2 · H2O
H KinoiteCa2Cu2(H2O)2[Si3O10]
H LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
H MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
H ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
H PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
H Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
BBoron
B DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
C ChalconatroniteNa2Cu(CO3)2 · 3H2O
C HoganiteCu(CH3COO)2 · H2O
C MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
NNitrogen
N ButtgenbachiteCu19(NO3)2(OH)32Cl4 · 2H2O
OOxygen
O K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
O AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
O AnthonyiteCu(OH,Cl)2 · 3H2O
O AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
O BaryteBaSO4
O ButtgenbachiteCu19(NO3)2(OH)32Cl4 · 2H2O
O CalciteCaCO3
O CalumetiteCu(OH,Cl)2 · 2H2O
O CentennialiteCaCu3Cl2(OH)6 · nH2O (n ~ 0.7)
O ChalconatroniteNa2Cu(CO3)2 · 3H2O
O CupriteCu2O
O DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O HoganiteCu(CH3COO)2 · H2O
O KinoiteCa2Cu2(H2O)2[Si3O10]
O LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
O MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
O Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
O ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
O PowelliteCa(MoO4)
O PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
O QuartzSiO2
O Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
NaSodium
Na AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Na ChalconatroniteNa2Cu(CO3)2 · 3H2O
MgMagnesium
Mg Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Al AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Al PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
Si AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2O
Si DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si KinoiteCa2Cu2(H2O)2[Si3O10]
Si LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Si PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
PPhosphorus
P Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
SSulfur
S BaryteBaSO4
S ChalcociteCu2S
ClChlorine
Cl AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
Cl ButtgenbachiteCu19(NO3)2(OH)32Cl4 · 2H2O
Cl CentennialiteCaCu3Cl2(OH)6 · nH2O (n ~ 0.7)
Cl ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
KPotassium
K K Feldspar (var: Adularia)KAlSi3O8
CaCalcium
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca CentennialiteCaCu3Cl2(OH)6 · nH2O (n ~ 0.7)
Ca DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca KinoiteCa2Cu2(H2O)2[Si3O10]
Ca LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Ca PowelliteCa(MoO4)
Ca PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Ca Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
FeIron
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
CuCopper
Cu AnthonyiteCu(OH,Cl)2 · 3H2O
Cu AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
Cu ButtgenbachiteCu19(NO3)2(OH)32Cl4 · 2H2O
Cu CalumetiteCu(OH,Cl)2 · 2H2O
Cu CentennialiteCaCu3Cl2(OH)6 · nH2O (n ~ 0.7)
Cu ChalcociteCu2S
Cu ChalconatroniteNa2Cu(CO3)2 · 3H2O
Cu CopperCu
Cu CupriteCu2O
Cu HoganiteCu(CH3COO)2 · H2O
Cu KinoiteCa2Cu2(H2O)2[Si3O10]
Cu MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
Cu ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
ZnZinc
Zn ParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
MoMolybdenum
Mo PowelliteCa(MoO4)
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
CeCerium
Ce Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Stenian
1000 - 1200 Ma



ID: 3184728
Mesoproterozoic volcanic rocks

Age: Stenian (1000 - 1200 Ma)

Comments: Mid-Continent Rift

Lithology: Bimodal volcanic rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Stenian
1000 - 1200 Ma



ID: 2928161
Portage Lake Volcanics

Age: Stenian (1000 - 1200 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Portage Lake Volcanics

Description: Lava flows, mostly basalt, andesite and felsite flows and subordinate interflow sedimentary rocks.

Comments: This unit is the same as unit Yp on paper map of Sims (1992). Description is taken from that unit description. Original map source: Cannon, W.F., Kress, T.H., Sutphin, D.M., Morey, G.B., Meints, Joyce, and Barber-Delach, Robert, 1997, Digital Geologic Map and mineral deposits of the Lake Superior Region, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan: USGS Open-File Report 97-455 (version 3, Nov. 19

Lithology: Major:{basalt}, Minor:{basaltic andesite}, Incidental:{rhyolite, sandstone mudstone}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Rocks & Minerals (1946) 21: 664.
Williams, S.A. (1963) Anthonyite and calumetite, two new minerals from the Michigan Copper District. American Mineralogist: 48: 614-619.
Rocks & Minerals (1983) 58: 109.
Butler, B.S. and Burbank, W.S. (1929) The Copper Deposits of Michigan. U.S. Geological Survey. Professional Paper 144. 238 pp.
Kilpela, T. (1995) The Hard Rock Mining Era in the Copper Country. 89 pp.
Crichton, W. and Müller, H. (2017) Centennialite, CaCu3(OH)6Cl2.nH2O, n = 0.7, a new kapellasite-like species, and a reassessment of calumetite. Mineralogical Magazine: 81: 1105-1124.

Localities in this Region
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