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About ParatacamiteHide

Green to greenish-black.
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Member of:
Named for its relationship to atacamite.
Atacamite Group.
A secondary copper mineral. Easily confused with the closely related Clinoatacamite.

Derivatives are paratacamite-(Mg) and paratacamite-(Ni).

Also closely related to Herbertsmithite and Gillardite (both have halved a-axes by comparison to paratacamite).
On heating paratacamite reversibly transforms into herbertsmithite between 353 and 393 K (Welch et al., 2014).

Paratacamite contains essential zinc; therefore it is not a polymorph of atacamite.

"Ni-bearing paratacamite": compare Gillardite.

Classification of ParatacamiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

D : Oxyhalides, hydroxyhalides and related double halides
A : With Cu, etc., without Pb
Dana 7th ed.:

1 : A2(O,OH)3Xq

8 : Halides - Fluorides, Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides; also Fluoborates and Fluosilicates
2 : Halides of Cu

Pronounciation of ParatacamiteHide

PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of ParatacamiteHide

Green to greenish-black.
Good on {10_11}
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
3.74 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.75 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of ParatacamiteHide

Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.843 nε = 1.848
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.005
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High

Chemical Properties of ParatacamiteHide

IMA Formula:
Common Impurities:

Crystallography of ParatacamiteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
Cell Parameters:
a = 13.65 Å, c = 13.95 Å
a:c = 1 : 1.022
Unit Cell V:
2,250.97 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Rhombohedral. Granular massive.
On {10_11} common; polysynthetic at times.

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
Oxidized zones of copper deposits, especially in arid climates.

Type Occurrence of ParatacamiteHide

Synonyms of ParatacamiteHide

Other Language Names for ParatacamiteHide

Relationship of Paratacamite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
AtacamiteCu2(OH)3ClOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
BotallackiteCu2(OH)3ClMon. 2/m : P21/m
ClinoatacamiteCu2(OH)3ClMon. 2/m
GillarditeCu3Ni(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
HaydeeiteCu3Mg(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
HerbertsmithiteCu3Zn(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
IyoiteMnCuCl(OH)3Mon. 2/m : P21/m
KapellasiteCu3Zn(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
KempiteMn2+2(OH)3ClOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
LeverettiteCu3Co(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3 : R3
MisakiiteCu3Mn(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
Paratacamite-(Mg)Cu3(Mg,Cu)(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3 : R3
Paratacamite-(Ni)Cu3(Ni,Cu)(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3 : R3
TondiiteCu3Mg(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
Unnamed (Cu-Zn Chloride Hydroxide)CuZnCl(OH)3Mon. 2/m : P21/m

Common AssociatesHide

EriochalciteCuCl2 · 2H2O
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
21 photos of Paratacamite associated with AtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
15 photos of Paratacamite associated with QuartzSiO2
11 photos of Paratacamite associated with BoleiteKPb26Ag9Cu24(OH)48Cl62
9 photos of Paratacamite associated with BotallackiteCu2(OH)3Cl
9 photos of Paratacamite associated with GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
6 photos of Paratacamite associated with PseudoboleitePb31Cu24Cl62(OH)48
5 photos of Paratacamite associated with CumengeitePb21Cu20Cl42(OH)40 · 6H2O
4 photos of Paratacamite associated with TenoriteCuO
4 photos of Paratacamite associated with ChristeliteCu2Zn3(SO4)2(OH)6 · 4H2O
4 photos of Paratacamite associated with CupriteCu2O

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

3.DA.CentennialiteCaCu3Cl2(OH)6 · nH2O (n ~ 0.7)Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
3.DA.10aAtacamiteCu2(OH)3ClOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.DA.10bBotallackiteCu2(OH)3ClMon. 2/m : P21/m
3.DA.10bClinoatacamiteCu2(OH)3ClMon. 2/m
3.DA.10aKempiteMn2+2(OH)3ClOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.DA.10bBelloiteCu(OH)ClMon. 2/m : P21/b
3.DA.10cHerbertsmithiteCu3Zn(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.DA.10cKapellasiteCu3Zn(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
3.DA.10cGillarditeCu3Ni(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.DA.10cHaydeeiteCu3Mg(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
3.DA.15ClaringbulliteCu4ClF(OH)6Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
3.DA.15BarlowiteCu4BrF(OH)6Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
3.DA.20SimonkolleiteZn5Cl2(OH)8 · H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
3.DA.25ButtgenbachiteCu19(NO3)2(OH)32Cl4 · 2H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
3.DA.25ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2OHex. 6 m2 : P62c
3.DA.40AnthonyiteCu(OH,Cl)2 · 3H2OMon. 2/m
3.DA.45KhaidarkaniteNa0.34Cu4Al3(OH)14F3 · 2H2OMon.
3.DA.50BobkingiteCu5Cl2(OH)8 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
3.DA.55AvdoniniteK2Cu5(OH)4Cl8 · H2OMon. 2/m
3.DA.60DroninoiteNi6Fe2+3(OH)16Cl2 · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide 3m (3 2/m) : R3m 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

8.2.1NantokiteCuClIso. 4 3m : F4 3m
8.2.3EriochalciteCuCl2 · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
8.2.4AtacamiteCu2(OH)3ClOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
8.2.6BotallackiteCu2(OH)3ClMon. 2/m : P21/m
8.2.9AnthonyiteCu(OH,Cl)2 · 3H2OMon. 2/m
8.2.10ClaringbulliteCu4ClF(OH)6Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
8.2.11MarshiteCuIIso. 4 3m : F4 3m
8.2.12MitscherlichiteK2CuCl4 · 2H2OTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m)

Other InformationHide

Readily soluble in acids.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for ParatacamiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Scacchi (1873) Reale accademia delle scienze fisische e matematiche, Naples: 6, no. 9: 22.
Smith, G.F.H. and Prior, G.T. (1906) Paratacamite, a new oxychloride of copper. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 14, n° 65, 170-177.
Frondel, C. (1950) On paratacamite and some related copper chlorides. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 29, n° 208, 34-45.
Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 74-76.
American Mineralogist (1951): 36: 384.
Sharkey, J.B. & Lewin, S.Z. (1971): Conditions governing the formation of atacamite and paratacamite. American Mineralogist 56, 179-192.
Fleet, M. E. (1975): Crystal structure of paratacamite, Cu2(OH)3Cl. Acta Crystallogr., B31, 183-187.
Pollard, A.M., Thomas, R.G., and Williams, P.A. (1989) Synthesis and stabilities of the basic copper(II) chlorides atacamite, paratacamite and botallackite. Mineralogical Magazine: 53: 557-563.
Braithwaite, R.S.W., Mereiter, K., Paar, W.H. and Clark, A.M. (2004) Herbertsmithite, Cu3Zn(OH)6Cl2, a new species, and the definition of paratacamite. Mineralogical Magazine: 68: 527-539.
Malcherek, T. and Schlüter, J. (2008) The crystal structure of clinoatacamite and the quest for paratacamite. Poster, Annual Meeting of the DMG, Berlin, Germany, September 14-17, 2008; CD with abstracts, Abs. no. 527.
Chu, S. (2011) Magnetic properties of geometrically frustrated polymorphic crystals of Cu4-xMgx(OH)6Cl2. J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 273, 012123.
Welch, M.D., Sciberras, M.J., Williams, P.A., Leverett, P., Schlüter, J., and Malcherek, T. (2014) A temperature-induced reversible transformation between paratacamite and herbertsmithite. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 41: 33-48.

Internet Links for ParatacamiteHide

Localities for ParatacamiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Western Antarctica
Vennum, W.R.; Nishi, J.M. (1981) New Antarctic mineral occurrences. Antarctic Journal of the U.S., 16(5), 14-15.
  • La Rioja Province
de Brodtkorb, M. K.; Gay, H. D.; Sureda, R. J. (1993): Polymetallic selenide-sulfide minerals of the Los Llantenes mining district, La Rioja, Argentina. Maurice, Yvon T. (Ed.), Proc. 8th Quadrenn. IAGOD Symp., 119-125.
  • Río Negro Province
    • Nueve de Julio department
      • Comicó
American Mineralogist (1978) 63, 1175-1181
Atlantic Ocean
  • Mid-Atlantic Ridge complex
Gablina, I.F., Semkova, T.A., Stepanova, T.V., and Gor'kova, N.V. (2006): Lithology and Mineral Resources 41(1), 27-44.
Gablina, I. F., Dobretzova, I. G., Laiba, A. A., Narkevsky, E. V., Maksimov, F. E., & Kuznetsov, V. Y. (2018). Specific Features of Sulfide Ores in the Pobeda Hydrothermal Cluster, Mid-Atlantic Rise 17° 07′–17° 08′ N. Lithology and Mineral Resources, 53(6), 431-454.
Fouquet, Y., Wafik, A., Cambon, P., Mevel, C., Meyer, G., & Gente, P. (1993). Tectonic setting and mineralogical and geochemical zonation in the Snake Pit sulfide deposit (Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 23 degrees N). Economic geology, 88(8), 2018-2036.
Milinovic, J.; Dias, Á.A.; Janeiro, A.I.; Pereira, M.F.; Martins, S.; Petersen, S.; Barriga, F.J. (2020) XRD Identification of Ore Minerals during Cruises: Refinement of Extraction Procedure with Sodium Acetate Buffer. Minerals 10, 160.
Canadian Mineralogist Vol.26, pp. 697-711 (1988)
  • New South Wales
    • Yancowinna Co.
      • Broken Hill district
        • Broken Hill
          • Broken Hill South Mine (BHS Mine; South Mine)
Australian Min. 3:1 (1997)
  • Northern Territory
    • Barkly Region
      • Hatches Creek
Ryan, G.R. (1961), The Geology and Mineral Resources of the Hatches Creek Wolfram Field. Northern Territory, Department of National Development/Bureau of Mineral Resources Geology and Geophysics, Commonwealth of Australia, Bulletin No. 6, 1961
      • Tennant Creek
Teale, G.S. (1995) Report on the Shamrock Prospect, Tennant Creek, (MCC 211) Werrie Gold Ltd.
  • Queensland
    • Cloncurry Shire
      • Cloncurry
      • Selwyn District
  • South Australia
    • Eyre Peninsula
      • Middleback Range
        • Iron Knob
Australian Jour.Min. v.6, no. 1
    • Flinders Ranges
      • North Flinders Ranges
        • Leigh Creek
          • Copley
            • Mount Coffin Mines
Personal Collection of Mark Willoughby
John G G Morton Collection
    • Olary Province
      • Boolcoomatta Reserve (Boolcoomata Station)
Vera Munro-Smith (2006) Cobalt Mineralisation in Selected Australian Deposits. PhD thesis, University of Western Sydney.
      • Wadnaminga goldfield
Pring, A., Elliot, P. (1987) Sideronatrite: first recorded occurrences in Australia. Australian Mineralogist, Vol. 2, No. 2, pg. 3-6.
    • Stuart Shelf
      • Pernatty Lagoon
        • Mount Gunson Copper mines (Pernatty Lagoon - Mount Gunson Cu Deposits)
Noble R.J., Just J. and Johnson J. E., 1983, Catalogue of South Australian Minerals-1983, Government Printer, Adelaide.; Noble R.J., Just J. and Johnson J. E., 1983, Catalogue of South Australian Minerals:1983, Government Printer, Adelaide.
    • Yorke Peninsula
      • Kadina
Wilson, W.E. (2019) Atacamite from the New Cornwall mine, Kadina, South Australia. The Mineralogical Record 50(2), 169-199.
  • Tasmania
    • Central Coast municipality
      • Penguin
Bottrill, R.S., Baker, W.E. (2008) A Catalogue of the Minerals of Tasmania. Geological Survey Tasmania Bulletin 73, 254 pages.
    • Circular Head municipality
      • Balfour-Temma district
        • Temma
Bottrill, R.S., Baker, W.E. (2008) A Catalogue of the Minerals of Tasmania. Geological Survey Tasmania Bulletin 73, 254 pages.
  • Victoria
    • Bass Coast Shire
      • Phillip Island
Birch, W.D. (1988): Zeolites from Phillip Island and Flinders. Mineralogical Record, 19 (6), 451-460.
    • Flinders area
  • Western Australia
    • Ashburton Shire
Nickel, E.H., Gartrell, B.J. (1993) Secondary Minerals of Ashburton Downs Western Australia, Mineralogical Record (May-June 1993) 24:3: 203-218.
Min. Record 24,203-218(1993)
Mineralogical Record 24,203-216,218.
Ashburtonite, a new bicarbonate-silicate mineral from Ashburton Downs; J.D. Grice, E.H. Nickel, R.A. Gault; American Mineralogist, Vol 76, 001701-1707, 1991
Min.Record 24,203-218(1993)
    • Coolgardie Shire
      • Nepean
Calderwood, M.A., Grguric, B.A., Jacobson, M.I. (2007) Guidebook to the Pegmatites of Western Australia. Hesperian Press, Carlisle, Western Australia, 394 pages.
      • Widgiemooltha
Colchester et al., 2007; Nickel E H, Robinson B W, Mumme W G (1993) Widgiemoolthalite: the new Ni analogue of hydromagnesite from Western Australia. American Mineralogist 78, 819-821
Eardleyite as a Product of the Supergene Alteration of Nickel Sulphides; E Nickel, C Davis, M Bussell, P Bridge, J Dunn, R Macdonald; American MIneralogist, Vol 62, pp449-457, 1977
    • Leonora Shire
      • Eulaminna (Murrin Murrin mining centre)
Sue Koepke collection via Jiri Just
    • Menzies Shire
      • Menangina Station
Mineralogical Magazine 1974 39 : 737-743; Mineralogical Magazine 1977 41 : 37-41; Min Mag (1979) 43, 97-98
  • Lower Austria
    • Waidhofen an der Thaya District
      • Raabs an der Thaya
        • Eibenstein an der Thaya
Niedermayr, G. (1997): 1085. Cuprit, Paratakamit und Skapolith von Eibenstein, Niederösterreich. In: Niedermayr et al. (1997): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich XLVI. – Carinthia II, 187./107. 169-214.
  • Nova Scotia
    • Cumberland Co.
      • Parrsboro
Sabina, A.P. (2015) Rocks and minerals for the collector: Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia; South Shore, Nova Scotia. Geological Survey of Canada, Popular Geoscience 97: 456 pages.
    • Hants Co.
R.W. Boyle, "The Geology, Geochemistry, and Origin of the Barite, Manganese, and Lead-Zinc-Copper-Silver Deposits of the Walton-Cheverie Area, Nova Scotia", Geological Survey of Canada, Bulletin 166, 1972.
    • Pictou Co.
A.P. Sabina, "Rocks and Minerals for the Collector - Northeastern Nova Scotia, Cape Breton, and Prince Edward Island", GSC Paper 65-10, 1965.
  • Ontario
    • Timiskaming District
      • Cobalt-Gowganda region
        • Cobalt area
          • Coleman Township
Sabina, Ann P., 2000. Rocks and Minerals for the Collector: Cobalt-Belleterre-Timmins, Ontario and Quebec, Miscellaneous Report 57, 266 p.
  • Prince Edward Island
SABINA, A.P. (1965): Rocks & minerals for the collector: Northeastern Nova Scotia, Cape Breton and Prince Edward Island. Geological Survey of Canada Paper 65-10, 58-63.
  • Québec
    • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
      • Abitibi RCM
        • Launay
Crook III, W.W. & Jambor, J.L. (1979) Nickelbischofite, a new nickel chloride hydrate. Canadian Mineralogist 17, 107-109.
    • Estrie
      • Les Sources RCM
        • Asbestos
GRICE, J.D. (1989) The Jeffrey Mine, Asbestos, Quebec: The Western World's Largest Asbestos Deposit. In: Famous Mineral Localities of Canada. Published by Fitzhenry & Whiteside Limited & the National Museum of Natural Sciences, 190 pages: 115-123; 179-181.; HORVÁTH, L., PFENNINGER-HORVÁTH, E., SPERTINI, F. (2013) The Jeffrey mine, Asbestos, Québec, Canada: A mineralogical review. Mineralogical Record, 44, 375-417.
    • Montréal
TARASSOFF, P., HORVÁTH, L. and PFENNINGER-HORVÁTH, E. (2006) Famous mineral localities: the Francon quarry, Montréal, Québec. Mineralogical Record, 37, 5-60.
  • Antofagasta
    • Antofagasta Province
      • Baquedano
Samples analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter (Hamburg University), Germany.
      • Cuevitas
        • San Cristóbal
Smith, G.F.H. and Prior, G.T. (1906) Paratacamite, a new oxychloride of copper. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 14, n° 65, 170-177.; Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 75.
Econ Geol (1991) 86:1222-1237
Cameron, E.M., Leybourne, M.I., and Palacios, C. (2007): Mineralium Deposita 42, 205-218.
      • Mejillones
        • Mejillones peninsula
SEM-EDS and Raman Spectroscopy by Joy Desor
Pieczonka, J., Piestrzyński, A., & Zygo, W. (2017). Złoże Cu-Mo Sierra Gorda, północne Chile. Biuletyn Państwowego Instytutu Geologicznego.
        • Caracoles
Smith, G.F.H. and Prior, G.T. (1906) Paratacamite, a new oxychloride of copper. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 14, n° 65, 170-177.; Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 75.
Smith, G.F.H. and Prior, G.T. (1906) Paratacamite, a new oxychloride of copper. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 14, n° 65, 170-177.; Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 75.
Neues Jahrbuch Min. Mon.: 1996:188-192. (much of it here is zincian)
        • Caracoles mining district
          • Quebrada Honda
Knut Eldjarn specimen
M.Dini & A.Molina collections-analysed material
    • El Loa Province
      • Calama
        • Chuquicamata District
R.B. Cook: "Famous mineal locality; Chuquicamata, Chile": Mineralogical Record, sept.-oct. 1973
          • Toki Cu deposit (Toki Cluster)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 45, 75, 374.
    • Tocopilla Province
Samples analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter (Hamburg University), Germany.
      • Sierra Gorda district
        • Caracoles
Maurizio Dini, Dr. Jochen Schluter.
      • Tocopilla District
SEM-EDS and Raman Spectroscopy by Joy Desor and Gerhard Möhn
  • Arica and Parinacota
    • Arica Province
      • Caleta Vítor district
Maurizio Dini (sample analysed by Tony Kampf, senior curator of NHM of LAC, California)
  • Atacama
    • Chañaral Province
      • El Salado
Collected by Skip Szenics. In the collection of Brent Thorne.
        • Cerro Negro district
maurizio dini collection
Bob Jenkins & M. Dini collections
    • Copiapó Province
      • Cabeza de Vaca district
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 75.
      • Copiapó
        • Nantoco (Nantoko)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 76.
      • Tierra Amarilla
        • Las Pintadas mining district
          • Cerro Pintado
No reference listed
        • Pampa Larga mining district
          • Alacrán
samples analysed by Gerhard Moehn and Joy Desor
samples analysed by Gerhard Mohn and Joy Desor
    • Huasco Province
      • Vallenar
Frondel C. (1950); "On Paratacamite and some related copper chlorides; Min. Magazine, Vol. 29
  • Tarapacá
    • Iquique Province
      • Salar Grande
samples analysed by Anthony Kampf, Curator Emeritus of Mineral Sciences at NHM of LAC, California
      • Santa Rosa-Huantajaya District
SEM-EDS and Raman Spectroscopy by Joy Desor
    • Tamarugal Province
      • Challacollo
maurizio dini collection - analysed material
      • Huara
Samples analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter, Curator of Hamburg Mineralogical Museum, Germany
      • Pozo Almonte
M.Dini & A.Molina collection
      • Quebrada Maní
Samples analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter (Hamburg University), Germany.
  • Xinjiang
    • Tulufan Prefecture (Turfan Prefecture; Turpan Prefecture)
      • Shanshan Co. (Piqan Co.; Pichan Co.)
        • Kanggur-Xifengshan gold belt
Kaiyin Bai and Zhaoxin Han (2007): Northwestern Geology 40(2), 114-117
  • Brittany
    • Finistère
      • Crozon
R.PIERROT, L. CHAURIS, C. LAFORET (1973) : "Inventaire minéralogique de la France : 29- Finistère.", B.R.G.M. Paris.
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Var
      • Le Pradet
Ream, L. (1993) New Minerals. Mineral News 9(1):10
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Freiburg
      • Ortenaukreis
        • Lahr
          • Reichenbach
            • Weiler
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
        • Oberwolfach
Walenta, K. (1992): Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes. Chr. Weise Verlag, München, 336 pp. (in German)
  • Hesse
    • Kassel Region
      • Hersfeld-Rotenburg
        • Nentershausen
          • Süß
            • Richelsdorf Smelter
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Lower Saxony
    • Goslar
      • Goslar
        • Astfeld
No reference listed
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Arnsberg
      • Siegen-Wittgenstein
        • Siegen
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
    • Cologne
      • Euskirchen
        • Mechernich
          • Kall
Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
    • The Ruhr
      • Essen
Weiss, S. (1990) Mineralfundstellen Atlas, Deutschland West. Weise Verlag, München, 320 pages.
  • Attica
    • East Attica
      • Lavreotiki
        • Lavrion Mining District
          • Agios Konstantinos (Kamariza)
            • Kamariza Mines (Kamareza Mines)
              • Hilarion Mine
J. Gröbner und U. Kolitsch (2002): Neufunde von Laurion aus den Jahren 2001 und 2002. Aufschluss 53 (5-6), 363-371.
          • Sounion
            • Cato Sounio mines
Hanke, H. (1998): Laurion - ein Rückblick auf die Funde der letzten drei Jahre. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (2), 37-45.
Lapis, 24, 7/8 (1999); W. Krause, H.-J. Bernhardt, R. S. W. Braithwaite, U. Kolitsch and R. Pritchard (2006): Kapellasite, Cu3Zn(OH)6Cl2, a new mineral from Lavrion, Greece. Mineralogical Magazine 70, 331-342; Kolitsch, U., Rieck, B., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fabritz, K. H., Blaß, G. & Gröbner, J. (2014): Neufunde aus dem altem Bergbau und den Schlacken von Lavrion (I). Mineralien-Welt 25 (1), 60-75 (in German).
Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Standfuss, K. & Standfuss, L. (1982a): Connellit, Botallackit, Paratacamit und Leadhillit in den antiken Bleischlacken Laurions. Der Aufschluss 33, 3-6. ; Grolig, H. & Grolig, E. (1978): Lavrion in Attika. Lapis, 3 (5), 16-25; 40 (in German).
          • Passa Limani area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals of the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Sounion area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian, (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Thorikos area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; ko Jansen.
          • Vrissaki area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
  • South Aegean
    • Milos
      • Milos Island
Alfieris, D., & Voudouris, P. (2005). Ore mineralogy of transitional submarine to subaerial magmatic-hydrothermal deposits in W. Milos, Greece. Au-Ag-Te–Se deposits, Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Petrology, 43Sofia, 1-6
  • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County
    • Kazincbarcika District
      • Rudabánya
Szakáll: Minerals of Rudabánya, 2001
Szakáll: Minerals of Rudabánya, 2001
  • Hormozgan Province
    • Qeshm County
      • Qeshm Island
Michal Filippi, et al (2002) Mineralien Welt, 13, 1, 60-72.
  • Isfahan Province
    • Nain County
      • Anarak District
S. Weiß: Lapis 29(12):38-39 (2004)
  • Southern District (HaDarom District)
    • Eilat
http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/1489/; Shlomovitch, N., Bar-Matthews, M., & Matthews, A. (1999). Sedimentary and epigenetic copper mineral assemblages in the Cambrian Timna Formation, southern Israel. Israel Journal of Earth Sciences, 48(140), 195-208.
Bartura, Y., & Würzburger, U. (1974). The Timna copper deposit. Annales de la Société géologique de Belgique. p277-285
  • Campania
    • Naples
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 75.; Balassone, G.; Petti, C.; Mondillo, N.; Panikorovskii, T.L.; de Gennaro, R.; Cappelletti, P.; Altomare, A.; Corriero, N.; Cangiano, M.; D’Orazio, L. (2019) Copper Minerals at Vesuvius Volcano (Southern Italy): A Mineralogical Review. Minerals 9, 730.
  • Liguria
    • Genoa
      • Genoa
        • Varenna Valley
Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 2 (Avril/Juin), 175-188.
    • Savona Province
      • Magliolo
analysed by Dr. Anthony Kampf, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, USA
  • Sardinia
    • Carbonia-Iglesias Province
      • Domusnovas
Stara, P., Rizzo, R., Tanca, G.A. (1996): Iglesiente e Arburese. Miniere e Minerali. Edito a cura dell'EMSA e "varie associazioni mineralogiche", Volume 1, 238 pp.
    • Sassari Province
      • Sassari
Orlandi, P., & Gelosa, M. (2007). Argentiera della Nurra. I minerali di alterazione della miniera di sfalerite e galena argentifera. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 31 (1), 22-31. ; Ara D., Sanna L., Rossi A., Galli E., De Waele J. (2013): Minerali secondari in ambiente sotterraneo: la miniera dell’Argentiera (Sardegna nord-occidentale). In: Cucchi F., Gudi P. (eds.), Atti del XXI Congresso Nazionale di Speleologia “Diffusione delle conoscenze”, Sessione Attività di esplorazione e ricerca. Trieste 2-5 giugno 2011. Edizioni Università di Trieste, Trieste, 290-295.
    • South Sardinia Province
      • Furtei
Da Pelo, S. & Frau, F (2000):, Magnesian aubertite, (Cu,Mg)Al(SO4)2Cl·14H4O, from the gold mine of Furtei in Sardinia, Italy. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte, 2000(6), 279-288.
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Campigliese (Campiglia Mountains; Campiglia Ridge)
        • Campiglia Marittima
Marco Bonifazi Collection
      • Elba Island
        • Capoliveri
C.L. Garavelli (1955) – Sulla presenza di paratacamite e di gesso cuprifero fra i minerali secondari del giacimento di Capo Calamita (Isola d'Elba) – Rend. Soc. Min. It., 11: 147-175.
        • Rio Marina
AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
      • Piombino
Franzini, M., Perchiazzi, N. (1992): I minerali delle scorie ferrifere etrusche di Baratti (Livorno). Atti della Società Toscana di Scienze Naturali, Memorie, Serie A, 99, 43-77; Franzini, M., Perchiazzi, N., Bartoli, M.L., Chiappino, L. (1992): Baratti (LI): una nuova località mineralogica italiana analoga al Laurion. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 15, 2 (2-1992), 67-75 [2a parte]; Cerutti, G., Preite, D. (1995): Mineralien der etruskischen Schlacken von Baratti, Toskana. Lapis, 20, 4, 13-18 and 50.
  • Ehime Prefecture
    • Nishiuwa District
      • Ikata (Sadamisaki Peninsula)
  • Kagoshima Prefecture
    • Satsumasendai City
      • Koshiki Archipelago
        • Sato-mura
Masutomi Museum specimen (Kyoto); Kato et al (1980) Chigaku Kenkyu, 31, 455-459
  • Baja California Sur
    • Mulegé Municipality
      • Santa Rosalía
[MinRec 29:43]
          • Arroyo de la Soledad
Bariand, P. et al. (1998). Famous mineral localities: Boléo, Baja California, Mexico. Mineralogical Record. 29: 4-49
  • ǁKaras Region
    • Oranjemund
      • Rosh Pinah
Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2007): Namibia. Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag, Haltern, 396 pp. (in English)
New Zealand
  • Waikato Region
    • Taupo District
      • Orakeikorako Thermal Area (Orakei Korako; The Hidden Valley)
Rod Martin, Minerals of Ruatapu Cave, Orakei Korako, Taupo Volcanic Zone. Essence of Microscope (NZ)
  • León Department
    • Cerro Negro Volcano
  • Vestfold
    • Horten
      • Borre
        • Løvøya
Larsen, K.E. (2016): Kobberforekomsten i Kirkebukta, Løvøya, Horten, Vestfold. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2016: 81-91
  • Ica
    • Nazca Province
Yuming Chen and Kaitian Wang (2008): Geophysical & Geochemical Exploration 32(2), 126-130
    • Pisco Umay
Hyrsl & Rosales (2003) Mineralogical Record, 34, 241-254.; Hyrsl & Rosales (2003) Mineralogical Record, 34, 241-254.
  • Lower Silesian Voivodeship
    • Polkowice Co.
      • Gmina Polkowice
Łukasz Kruszewski PXRD & EPMA data (2018) (coll. Mateusz Świerk)
  • Castelo Branco
    • Vila Velha de Ródão
      • Vila Velha de Ródão
  • Hunedoara
    • Hunedoara
      • Boșorod
Onac, B.P., Breban, R., Kearns, J., and Tamas, T. (2002) Unusual minerals related to phosphate deposits in Cioclovina Cave, Şureanu Mts. (Romania). Theoretical and Applied Karstology: 15: 27-34.
  • Chelyabinsk Oblast
Cesnokov, B., Kotrly, M. and Nisanbajev, T. (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
  • Crimea
    • Sivash Gulf area
      • Armyansk area
Geologiya SSSR. Poleznye iskopaemye (The geology of USSR. Commercial mineral)- Nedra (Moscou), 1974, vol. VIII, 205 p.
  • Kamchatka Krai
    • Tolbachik volcano
      • Great Fissure eruption (Main Fracture)
        • Northern Breakthrough (North Breach)
          • Second scoria cone
N. V. Chukanov, M. N. Murashko, A. E. Zadov & A. F. Bushmakin (2006): Avdoninite, K2Cu5Cl8(OH)4• H2O, a new mineral from volcanic exhalations and from the zone of technogenesis at massive sulphide ore deposits. Proceedings of the Russian Mineralogical Society 135(3), 38–42; Chukanov, N. V., Murashko, M. N., Zadov, A. E., & Bushmakin, A. F. (2007). Avdoninite, K 2 Cu 5 Cl 8 (OH) 4· H 2 O, a new mineral species from volcanic exhalations and the technogenic zone at volcanic-hosted massive sulfide deposits. Geology of Ore Deposits, 49(7), 505-508.
Saudi Arabia
  • Mecca Region
Surour, A. A. (2015). Cu–Mn–Fe alloys and Mn-rich amphiboles in ancient copper slags from the Jabal Samran area, Saudi Arabia: With synopsis on chemistry of Fe–Mn (III) oxyhydroxides in alteration zones. Journal of African Earth Sciences, 101, 70-83.
South Africa
  • Northern Cape
    • Namakwa
      • Aggeneys
T. Q. Meyer, W. A. van der Westhuizen, G. J. Beukes, H. de Bruiyn and A. E. Schoch (1986) An Occurrence of the Hydrous Lead-Copper-Iron Silicate Creaseyite in South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine 50:346-348
  • Western Cape
    • Central Karoo District
Minerals of South Africa
  • Andalusia
    • Almería
      • Huércal-Overa
        • Cuesta Alta
          • Cerro Minado Mines
VIÑALS, J., CALVO, M., and MARTÍ, J. (2004): Parnauita, paratacamita y otros minerales secundarios de Cerro Minado, Almería. Revista de Minerales, 2, 5, 47-49.(in Spanish). Versions simultaneously published in Catalan (Mineralogistes de Catalunya) and in English version (Mineral Up)
      • Níjar
        • Rodalquilar
          • Cerro de los Guardias
Christiane & Jean-Robert EYTIER collection
        • San José
      • Pechina
        • Baños de Alhamilla
Rewitzer, C., Hochleitner, R. y Fehr, T. Mina Casualidad, Baños de Alhamilla, Almería, Spain (part2). Mineral Up, 5, (5), 8-36
    • Córdoba
      • El Guijo
A. Carmona & I. Ramos Collection.
  • Murcia
    • Cartagena
      • Cabo de Palos Range
Rewitzer, C., Calvo, M. Hochleitner, R., and Utrera, C. (2018). Cotunnite, caracolite, sideronatrite and other rare secondary minerals in the "Ferruginosa" mine, Cabo de palos, Cartagena, Murcia, Spain. Mineral Up, 5 (1), 66-79.
  • Valencian Community
    • Castellón
      • Villahermosa del Rio
        • San Rafael claim
Casanova Honrubia, Juan Miguel & Canseco Caballé, Manuel, 2002, Minerales de la Comunidad Valenciana : 237 p. Ed. Caja de Ahorros del Mediterráneo. Alicante; - Cócera, H., Menor-Salván, C. and Muñoz-Alvarado, R. (2010): Mineralogía de la concesión San Rafael, Villahermosa del Río, Castellón, España. Acopios, 1, 1-51. [http://mti-acopios.blogspot.com/ ; http://issuu.com/malacate/docs/acopios-1-1?mode=a_p]
  • Vaud
    • Aigle
      • Bex
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Verlag Wepf & Co. (Basel), p. 55-56
  • Balkan
    • Cheleken Peninsula
Lebedev, L.M., Nikitina, J.B. (1983): The Cheleken ore forming system. Russ. Acad. Sci., Moscow (in Russian.)
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • Crantock
BMS Newsletter 79, March 2010 (http://britishmicromountsociety.homestead.com/Gannell-Smelter.html)
      • Padstow
        • Gunver Head
No reference listed
      • Perranzabuloe
        • Perranporth
          • Cligga Head
[Golley & Williams, 1995, 46 - "Cornish Mineral Reference Manual"]
      • St Hilary
Golley, P., Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications, Truro, Cornwall.
Bannister, F.A., Hey, M.H., and Claringbull, G.F. (1950) Connellite, Buttgenbachite, and Tallingite. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 29, n° 211, 280-285.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) Atacamite from Cumberland and Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 31, n° 235, 349-350.
        • Botallack
Bannister, F.A., Hey, M.H., and Claringbull, G.F. (1950) Connellite, buttgenbachite, and tallingite. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 29, n° 211, 280-286. Golley, P. and Williams, R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
Golley, P. & Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
Golley, P. & Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
P Haas, collected May 2005
          • Cliff outcrops
Golley, P. & Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
Golley, P. & Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
        • Kenidjack Valley
          • Boswedden Mine (incl. Wheal Praze; Wheal Williams; Yankee Boy Mine)
P Haas, collected 2009
        • Pendeen
[Golley & Williams, 1995, 46 - "Cornish Mineral Reference Manual"]
        • Trewellard
Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
      • Tintagel
        • Trebarwith
No reference listed
  • Alabama
    • Clay Co.
      • Alabama Copper Belt
        • Coleta
Rocks & Min 70:5 pp 320-333
  • Alaska
    • Aleutians West Census Area
      • Aleutian Islands Mining District
        • Gareloi Island
U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
  • Arizona
    • Cochise County
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 143.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 321.
        • Queen Hill
          • Copper Queen Mine (Halero Mine)
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 320.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 175, 321, 351; Graeme, R. (1993), Bisbee revisited, Min.Rec.: 24: 421-436.
Rolf Luetcke
Robert Bowell and Rolf Luetcke
    • Maricopa Co.
      • Osborn Mining District
        • Tonopah
          • Belmont Mountain
Am.Min.: 81: 244-248.
    • Pima Co.
      • Tohono O'odom (Papago) Indian Reservation
        • Comobabi Mountains
          • Cababi Mining District (Comobabi Mining District)
            • Ko Vaya
              • Mildren Mine group
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 278, 321; Williams, S.A, (1963), Oxidation of sulfide ores in the Mildren and Steppe mining districts, Pima Co., AZ, Econ.Geol.: 58: 1119-1125.
    • Pinal Co.
      • Mammoth Mining District
        • Tiger
          • St. Anthony deposit
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 321; Bideaux, R.A. (1980), Tiger, AZ, Min.Rec.: 11: 155-181.
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
      • Nopah Range
        • Upper Noonday Camp
          • Shoshone Mines (Shoshone Mines group; Shoshone Mine group; Grant Mine; Mabel Mine; Black Prince Mine)
Robert M. Housley (2005) Noonday and War Eagle mines, Tecopa Pass, Inyo Co. CA. Abstracts from the 2005 Desert Symposium. California State University, Desert Studies Consortium and LSA Associates, Inc.
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Silver Lake Mining District
        • Soda Mountains
          • Baker
            • Otto Mountain
Collected by and in the collection of Brent Thorne. PXRD analyzed by Tony Kampf.
XRD analyzed by Tony Kampf.
  • Colorado
    • Boulder Co.
      • Jamestown Mining District
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
  • Connecticut
    • Fairfield County
      • Stamford
Henderson, William, A., Jr. (1967), A Copper Analog of Laurium, Greece. Rocks & Minerals: 42(5): 273-276.
  • Kentucky
    • Lincoln Co.
Rocks & Minerals Vol. 70, No. 4, p.256
Mineralogical Record, v. 28, n. 6, 1997 ; Rocks & Minerals 81:420-440
  • Michigan
    • Houghton Co.
      • Centennial
Rocks & Min.:58:109. 80:163
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
Mineralogy of Michigan (E. W. Heinrich & G. W. Robinson)
      • Hancock
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
      • Osceola
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
    • Keweenaw Co.
      • Mohawk
        • Mohawk Mine
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
    • Ontonagon Co.
      • Mass City
Rocks & Min.:58:112.
      • White Pine
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
  • Nevada
    • Clark Co.
      • Spring Mountains
        • Goodsprings Mining District
Rocks & Minerals 83:1 pp 65-69
    • Esmeralda Co.
      • Weepah Mining District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Humboldt Co.
      • Iron Point Mining District
        • Valmy
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Lyon Co.
      • Churchill Mining District
Rocks & Minerals, Nov. 1999
      • Singatse Range
        • Yerington Mining District
          • Ludwig
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
          • Yerington
Pullman, Steven, and Thomssen, Richard, "Nevada Mineral Locality Index" Rocks & Minerals, Vol. 74 No. 6. pg. 375
  • New York
    • St. Lawrence Co.
      • Balmat-Edwards Zinc Mining District
No reference listed
  • U.S. Virgin Islands
    • St. John
Alminas, H.V., Foord, E.E., Tucker, R.E. (1994) Geochemistry, mineralogy, and geochronology of the U.S. Virgin Islands. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 2057, 36 pages.
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