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Connellite

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Formula:
Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
Colour:
Blue, blue-green; blue in transmitted light.
Lustre:
Sub-Vitreous
Hardness:
3
Specific Gravity:
3.36
Crystal System:
Hexagonal
Name:
Named by by James Dwight Dana in 1850 in honor of Arthur Connell [November 30, 1794 Edinburgh, Scotland - October 31, 1863], professor of chemistry at St Andrew's University, Edinburgh, Scotland, who first studied the mineral.
Isostructural with:
Connellite-Buttgenbachite Series.

A relatively uncommon secondary copper mineral.



Classification of Connellite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
3.DA.25

3 : HALIDES
D : Oxyhalides, hydroxyhalides and related double halides
A : With Cu, etc., without Pb
31.1.1.1

31 : HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
1 : (AB)m(XO4)pZq·xH2O, where m:p > 6:1
26.5

26 : Sulphates with Halide

Physical Properties of Connellite

Sub-Vitreous
Transparency:
Transparent
Colour:
Blue, blue-green; blue in transmitted light.
Streak:
Pale green-blue
Hardness:
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
None Observed
Fracture:
Splintery
Density:
3.36 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.46 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Comment:
Am Min 57: 426 (1972) structure

Optical Data of Connellite

Type:
Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.724 - 1.746 nε = 1.738 - 1.758
Birefringence:
0.026
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.014
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of Connellite

Formula:
Cu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
IMA Formula:
Cu36(SO4)(OH)62Cl8 · 6H2O

Crystallography of Connellite

Crystal System:
Hexagonal
Class (H-M):
6 m2 - Ditrigonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
P62c
Setting:
P62c
Cell Parameters:
a = 15.78 Å, c = 9.10 Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 0.577
Unit Cell V:
1,962.39 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Crystals acicular [0001] and striated [0001]; radiating groups of needles; felted aggregates.

X-Ray Powder Diffraction

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
13.7 (80)
7.89 (100)
5.46 (20)
5.17 (30)
3.22 (20)
2.73 (40)
2.49 (30)
2.28 (40)
Comments:
ICDD 35-538

Type Occurrence of Connellite

General Appearance of Type Material:
Blue acicular crystals in divergent clusters, usually < 1 mm.

Synonyms of Connellite

Other Language Names for Connellite

Catalan:Connellita
Italian:Connellite
Simplified Chinese:氯铜矾
Traditional Chinese:氯銅礬

Relationship of Connellite to other Species

Forms a series with:

Common Associates

AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
CupriteCu2O
MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
SpangoliteCu6Al(SO4)(OH)12Cl · 3H2O
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Cuprite105 photos of Connellite associated with Cuprite on mindat.org.
Malachite90 photos of Connellite associated with Malachite on mindat.org.
Copper55 photos of Connellite associated with Copper on mindat.org.
Brochantite31 photos of Connellite associated with Brochantite on mindat.org.
Chrysocolla28 photos of Connellite associated with Chrysocolla on mindat.org.
Spangolite17 photos of Connellite associated with Spangolite on mindat.org.
Langite13 photos of Connellite associated with Langite on mindat.org.
Olivenite8 photos of Connellite associated with Olivenite on mindat.org.
Atacamite6 photos of Connellite associated with Atacamite on mindat.org.
Botallackite5 photos of Connellite associated with Botallackite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping

3.DA.05MelanothalliteCu2Cl2O
3.DA.10aAtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
3.DA.10bBotallackiteCu2(OH)3Cl
3.DA.10bClinoatacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
3.DA.10aHibbingiteFe2+2(OH)3Cl
3.DA.10aKempiteMn2+2(OH)3Cl
3.DA.10cParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
3.DA.10bBelloiteCu(OH)Cl
3.DA.10cHerbertsmithiteCu3Zn(OH)6Cl2
3.DA.10cKapellasiteCu3Zn(OH)6Cl2
3.DA.10cGillarditeCu3Ni(OH)6Cl2
3.DA.10cHaydeeiteCu3Mg(OH)6Cl2
3.DA.15ClaringbulliteCu4ClF(OH)6
3.DA.15BarlowiteCu4BrF(OH)6
3.DA.20SimonkolleiteZn5Cl2(OH)8 · H2O
3.DA.25ButtgenbachiteCu19(NO3)2(OH)32Cl4 · 2H2O
3.DA.30AbhuriteSn21Cl16(OH)14O6
3.DA.35PonomareviteK4Cu4Cl10O
3.DA.40AnthonyiteCu(OH,Cl)2 · 3H2O
3.DA.40CalumetiteCu(OH,Cl)2 · 2H2O
3.DA.45KhaidarkaniteNa0.34Cu4Al3(OH)14F3 · 2H2O
3.DA.50BobkingiteCu5Cl2(OH)8 · 2H2O
3.DA.55AvdoniniteK2Cu5(OH)4Cl8 · H2O
3.DA.60DroninoiteNi6Fe2+3(OH)16Cl2 · 4H2O

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals Grouping

26.1KogarkoiteNa3(SO4)F
26.2SulphohaliteNa6(SO4)2FCl
26.3SchaireriteNa21(SO4)7ClF6
26.4GaleiteNa15(SO4)5F4Cl
26.6ChlorothioniteK2Cu(SO4)Cl2
26.7KamchatkiteKCu3(SO4)2OCl
26.8SpangoliteCu6Al(SO4)(OH)12Cl · 3H2O
26.9AubertiteCuAl(SO4)2Cl · 14H2O
26.10Magnesioaubertite(Mg,Cu)Al(SO4)2Cl · 14H2O
26.11Svyazhinite(Mg,Mn2+,Ca)(Al,Fe3+)(SO4)2F · 14H2O
26.12D'AnsiteNa21Mg(SO4)10Cl3
26.13AnhydrokainiteKMg(SO4)Cl
26.14KainiteKMg(SO4)Cl · 3H2O
26.15Mosesite(Hg2N)(Cl,SO4,MoO4) · H2O
26.16Kleinite(Hg2N)(Cl,SO4) · nH2O
26.17WilcoxiteMgAl(SO4)2F · 17H2O
26.18CreediteCa3SO4Al2F8(OH)2 · 2H2O
26.19LannoniteMg2Ca4Al4(SO4)8F8 · 24H2O
26.20Chukhrovite-(Y)Ca3(Y,Ce)[F|SO4|(AlF6)2] · 10H2O
26.21Chukhrovite-(Ce)Ca3(Ce,Y)[F|SO4|(AlF6)2] · 10H2O
26.22GrandreefitePb2(SO4)F2
26.23PseudograndreefitePb6(SO4)F10
26.24SundiusitePb10(SO4)O8Cl2
26.25CaracoliteNa3Pb2(SO4)3Cl
26.26MammothitePb6Cu4AlSb5+O2(OH)16Cl4(SO4)2
26.27AtlasoviteK(BiO)Cu6Fe3+(SO4)5O3Cl
26.28XitieshaniteFe3+(SO4)Cl · 6H2O
26.29NabokoiteKCu7(SO4)5(Te4+O3)OCl

Fluorescence of Connellite

Not fluorescent

Other Information

Notes:
Soluble in acids and in ammonium hydroxide. Insoluble in water.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Connellite

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Rashleigh (1802) Brit. Min.: 2: 13, Pl. 12, figs. 1, 6 (as Copper ore of an azure-blue color, composed of needle crystals).
Connell (1847) Report of the British Association (as Sulphato-chloride of Copper).
Dana, J.D. (1850) System of Mineralogy, 3rd. Edition, New York.
Maskelyne (1863) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 25: 39.
Penfield (1890) American Journal of Science: 40: 82.
Koenig (1891) Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia: 291 (as Footeite).
Koenig (1891) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 19: 601 (as Footeite).
Palache, C. and Merwin (1909) American Journal of Science: 28: 537.
Pelloux (1912) Ann. mus. civico stor. nat. Genova: 5: 205.
Ford and Bradley (1915) American Journal of Science: 39: 670.
Buttgenbach (1926) Société géologique de Belgique, Liége, Annales: 50: B35.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 572-573.
McLean, W.J. & J.W. Anthony (1972), The disordered ‘zeolite-like’ structure of connellite, American Mineralogist: 57: 426-438.

Internet Links for Connellite

mindat.org URL:
https://www.mindat.org/min-1120.html
Please feel free to link to this page.
Specimens:
The following Connellite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Connellite

Mineral and/or Locality  
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