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Niobec mine, Saint-Honoré carbonatite complex, Saint-Honoré, Le Fjord-du-Saguenay RCM, Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean, Québec, Canada

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 48° 32' 7'' North , 71° 8' 57'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 48.53528,-71.14917
GeoHash:G#: f2tkhgwf2
Locality type:Mine
Köppen climate type:Dfc : Subarctic climate


Formerly: Niobec mine, Saguenay (Chicoutimi), Le Fjord-du-Saguenay Co., Québec, Canada

The mine has been in operation since the late 1970s. Located 15 kilometres northwest of Saguenay city (merged in 2002 with Chicoutimi city, it is notable for large, thick prismatic barite crystals.

The Niobec orebody, which measures 600 metres by 800 metres, is situated in the southern part of the Saint-Honore carbonatite complex, which is mainly comprised of dolomitic carbonates in the centre and calcitic carbonates on the edges. This carbonatite is an oval-shaped pluton covering 12 square kilometres, that intrudes Ordovician-age Trenton limestone. The deposit is open at depth. The Niobec property now covers a total area of approximately 1,735 hectares, comprising two mining leases and also includes 43 claims totaling 1,605.6 hectares.

The two niobium-bearing minerals are pyrochlore and columbite, containing up to 70% niobium pentoxide (Nb205) (www.cambior.com). They occur as microscopic crystals and grains dispersed in the carbonatite and are rarely visible to the naked eye. Barite with associated calcite and fluorite is found in vugs and pockets in Trenton limestone at contacts with the carbonatite.

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


32 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Ankerite
Formula: Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Reference: Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139
Baryte
Formula: BaSO4
Habit: Tabular crystals to 40cm (20kg)
Colour: Transparent grey
Reference: Min Rec (1981) 12:355-357
Bastnäsite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(CO3)F
Reference: FOURNIER, A. (1993) Magmat!c and hydrothermal controls of LREE mineralization of the St.-Honoré carbonatite, Québec. M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. 95p.
'Biotite'
Reference: Min Rec (1981) 12:355-357
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Min Rec (1981) 12:355-357
Cancrinite
Formula: (Na,Ca,☐)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
Reference: FOURNIER, A. (1993) Magmat!c and hydrothermal controls of LREE mineralization of the St.-Honoré carbonatite, Québec. M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. 95p.
Celestine
Formula: SrSO4
Reference: FOURNIER, A. (1993) Magmat!c and hydrothermal controls of LREE mineralization of the St.-Honoré carbonatite, Québec. M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. 95p.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: FOURNIER, A. (1993) Magmat!c and hydrothermal controls of LREE mineralization of the St.-Honoré carbonatite, Québec. M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. 95p.
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Min Rec (1981) 12:355-357
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'
Reference: Min Rec (1981) 12:355-357
Dolomite
Formula: CaMg(CO3)2
Reference: Min Rec (1981) 12:355-357
Fluorapatite
Formula: Ca5(PO4)3F
Reference: FOURNIER, A. (1993) Magmat!c and hydrothermal controls of LREE mineralization of the St.-Honoré carbonatite, Québec. M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. 95p.
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: Min Rec (1981) 12:355-357
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Min Rec (1981) 12:355-357
Kalicinite
Formula: KHCO3
Reference: FOURNIER, A. (1993) Magmat!c and hydrothermal controls of LREE mineralization of the St.-Honoré carbonatite, Québec. M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. 95p.
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: FOURNIER, A. (1993) Magmat!c and hydrothermal controls of LREE mineralization of the St.-Honoré carbonatite, Québec. M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. 95p.
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Reference: FOURNIER, A. (1993) Magmat!c and hydrothermal controls of LREE mineralization of the St.-Honoré carbonatite, Québec. M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. 95p.
Molybdenite
Formula: MoS2
Reference: FOURNIER, A. (1993) Magmat!c and hydrothermal controls of LREE mineralization of the St.-Honoré carbonatite, Québec. M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. 95p.
Monazite-(Ce)
Formula: Ce(PO4)
Reference: FOURNIER, A. (1993) Magmat!c and hydrothermal controls of LREE mineralization of the St.-Honoré carbonatite, Québec. M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. 95p.
Monticellite
Formula: CaMgSiO4
Reference: Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139
Nahcolite
Formula: NaHCO3
Reference: FOURNIER, A. (1993) Magmat!c and hydrothermal controls of LREE mineralization of the St.-Honoré carbonatite, Québec. M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. 95p.
Nepheline
Formula: Na3K(Al4Si4O16)
Reference: FOURNIER, A. (1993) Magmat!c and hydrothermal controls of LREE mineralization of the St.-Honoré carbonatite, Québec. M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. 95p.
Parisite-(Ce)
Formula: CaCe2(CO3)3F2
Reference: FOURNIER, A. (1993) Magmat!c and hydrothermal controls of LREE mineralization of the St.-Honoré carbonatite, Québec. M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. 95p.
Phlogopite
Formula: KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Min Rec (1981) 12:355-357
Pyrochlore Group
Formula: A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
Reference: [MinRec 12:355]
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: FOURNIER, A. (1993) Magmat!c and hydrothermal controls of LREE mineralization of the St.-Honoré carbonatite, Québec. M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. 95p.
Schorlomite
Formula: Ca3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
Reference: FOURNIER, A. (1993) Magmat!c and hydrothermal controls of LREE mineralization of the St.-Honoré carbonatite, Québec. M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. 95p.
Siderite
Formula: FeCO3
Reference: FOURNIER, A. (1993) Magmat!c and hydrothermal controls of LREE mineralization of the St.-Honoré carbonatite, Québec. M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. 95p.
Strontianite
Formula: SrCO3
Reference: FOURNIER, A. (1993) Magmat!c and hydrothermal controls of LREE mineralization of the St.-Honoré carbonatite, Québec. M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. 95p.
Synchysite-(Ce)
Formula: CaCe(CO3)2F
Reference: FOURNIER, A. (1993) Magmat!c and hydrothermal controls of LREE mineralization of the St.-Honoré carbonatite, Québec. M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. 95p.
Thorite
Formula: Th(SiO4)
Reference: FOURNIER, A. (1993) Magmat!c and hydrothermal controls of LREE mineralization of the St.-Honoré carbonatite, Québec. M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. 95p.
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139
Tremolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: FOURNIER, A. (1993) Magmat!c and hydrothermal controls of LREE mineralization of the St.-Honoré carbonatite, Québec. M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. 95p.
Vaterite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: FOURNIER, A. (1993) Magmat!c and hydrothermal controls of LREE mineralization of the St.-Honoré carbonatite, Québec. M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. 95p.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
'Chalcopyrite'2.CB.10aCuFeS2
'Molybdenite'2.EA.30MoS2
'Pyrite'2.EB.05aFeS2
'Pyrrhotite'2.CC.10Fe7S8
Group 3 - Halides
'Fluorite'3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
'Hematite'4.CB.05Fe2O3
'Magnetite'4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
'Pyrochlore Group'4.00.A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
'Ankerite'5.AB.10Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
'Bastnäsite-(Ce)'5.BD.20aCe(CO3)F
'Calcite'5.AB.05CaCO3
'Dolomite'5.AB.10CaMg(CO3)2
'Kalicinite'5.AA.20KHCO3
'Nahcolite'5.AA.15NaHCO3
'Parisite-(Ce)'5.BD.20bCaCe2(CO3)3F2
'Siderite'5.AB.05FeCO3
'Strontianite'5.AB.15SrCO3
'Synchysite-(Ce)'5.BD.20cCaCe(CO3)2F
'Vaterite'5.AB.20CaCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
'Baryte'7.AD.35BaSO4
'Celestine'7.AD.35SrSO4
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
'Fluorapatite'8.BN.05Ca5(PO4)3F
'Monazite-(Ce)'8.AD.50Ce(PO4)
Group 9 - Silicates
'Cancrinite'9.FB.05(Na,Ca,☐)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
'Microcline'9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
'Monticellite'9.AC.10CaMgSiO4
'Nepheline'9.FA.05Na3K(Al4Si4O16)
'Phlogopite'9.EC.20KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
'Schorlomite'9.AD.25Ca3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
'Thorite'9.AD.30Th(SiO4)
'Titanite'9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
'Tremolite'9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Biotite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Molybdenite2.12.10.1MoS2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 8 - MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
A2B2O6(O,OH,F)
Pyrochlore Group8.2.1.1A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 13 - ACID CARBONATES
Miscellaneous
Kalicinite13.1.2.1KHCO3
Nahcolite13.1.1.1NaHCO3
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Siderite14.1.1.3FeCO3
Strontianite14.1.3.3SrCO3
Vaterite14.1.2.1CaCO3
AB(XO3)2
Ankerite14.2.1.2Ca(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Dolomite14.2.1.1CaMg(CO3)2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Bastnäsite-(Ce)16a.1.1.1Ce(CO3)F
Parisite-(Ce)16a.1.5.1CaCe2(CO3)3F2
Synchysite-(Ce)16a.1.3.1CaCe(CO3)2F
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Baryte28.3.1.1BaSO4
Celestine28.3.1.2SrSO4
Group 38 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, AND VANADATES
AXO4
Monazite-(Ce)38.4.3.1Ce(PO4)
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
A5(XO4)3Zq
Fluorapatite41.8.1.1Ca5(PO4)3F
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with all cations in octahedral [6] coordination
Monticellite51.3.2.1CaMgSiO4
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Schorlomite51.4.3c.1Ca3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in >[6] coordination
Thorite51.5.2.3Th(SiO4)
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 66 - INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup
Tremolite66.1.3a.1☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Phlogopite71.2.2b.1KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Microcline76.1.1.5K(AlSi3O8)
Al-Si Framework Feldspathoids and related species
Cancrinite76.2.5.3(Na,Ca,☐)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
Nepheline76.2.1.2Na3K(Al4Si4O16)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Biotite'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'Columbite-(Fe)-Columbite-(Mn) Series'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Cancrinite(Na,Ca,☐)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
H KaliciniteKHCO3
H NahcoliteNaHCO3
H PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Pyrochlore GroupA2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
H Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
CCarbon
C AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
C Bastnäsite-(Ce)Ce(CO3)F
C CalciteCaCO3
C Cancrinite(Na,Ca,☐)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
C DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
C KaliciniteKHCO3
C NahcoliteNaHCO3
C Parisite-(Ce)CaCe2(CO3)3F2
C SideriteFeCO3
C StrontianiteSrCO3
C Synchysite-(Ce)CaCe(CO3)2F
C VateriteCaCO3
OOxygen
O AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
O BaryteBaSO4
O Bastnäsite-(Ce)Ce(CO3)F
O CalciteCaCO3
O Cancrinite(Na,Ca,☐)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
O CelestineSrSO4
O DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
O FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
O HematiteFe2O3
O KaliciniteKHCO3
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
O Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
O MonticelliteCaMgSiO4
O NahcoliteNaHCO3
O NephelineNa3K(Al4Si4O16)
O Parisite-(Ce)CaCe2(CO3)3F2
O PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Pyrochlore GroupA2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
O SchorlomiteCa3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
O SideriteFeCO3
O StrontianiteSrCO3
O Synchysite-(Ce)CaCe(CO3)2F
O ThoriteTh(SiO4)
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O VateriteCaCO3
FFluorine
F Bastnäsite-(Ce)Ce(CO3)F
F FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
F FluoriteCaF2
F Parisite-(Ce)CaCe2(CO3)3F2
F Synchysite-(Ce)CaCe(CO3)2F
NaSodium
Na Cancrinite(Na,Ca,☐)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
Na NahcoliteNaHCO3
Na NephelineNa3K(Al4Si4O16)
MgMagnesium
Mg AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Mg DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Mg MonticelliteCaMgSiO4
Mg PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Mg Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
AlAluminium
Al Cancrinite(Na,Ca,☐)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Al NephelineNa3K(Al4Si4O16)
Al PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
SiSilicon
Si Cancrinite(Na,Ca,☐)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Si MonticelliteCaMgSiO4
Si NephelineNa3K(Al4Si4O16)
Si PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si SchorlomiteCa3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
Si ThoriteTh(SiO4)
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
PPhosphorus
P FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
P Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
SSulfur
S BaryteBaSO4
S Cancrinite(Na,Ca,☐)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
S CelestineSrSO4
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S MolybdeniteMoS2
S PyriteFeS2
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
KPotassium
K KaliciniteKHCO3
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
K NephelineNa3K(Al4Si4O16)
K PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca Cancrinite(Na,Ca,☐)8(Al6Si6O24)(CO3,SO4)2 · 2H2O
Ca DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2
Ca FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3F
Ca FluoriteCaF2
Ca MonticelliteCaMgSiO4
Ca Parisite-(Ce)CaCe2(CO3)3F2
Ca SchorlomiteCa3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
Ca Synchysite-(Ce)CaCe(CO3)2F
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ca Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca VateriteCaCO3
TiTitanium
Ti SchorlomiteCa3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
FeIron
Fe AnkeriteCa(Fe2+,Mg)(CO3)2
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe SchorlomiteCa3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
Fe SideriteFeCO3
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
SrStrontium
Sr CelestineSrSO4
Sr StrontianiteSrCO3
NbNiobium
Nb Pyrochlore GroupA2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
MoMolybdenum
Mo MolybdeniteMoS2
BaBarium
Ba BaryteBaSO4
CeCerium
Ce Bastnäsite-(Ce)Ce(CO3)F
Ce Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)
Ce Parisite-(Ce)CaCe2(CO3)3F2
Ce Synchysite-(Ce)CaCe(CO3)2F
ThThorium
Th ThoriteTh(SiO4)

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Stenian
1000 - 1200 Ma



ID: 3184739
Mesoproterozoic intrusive rocks

Age: Stenian (1000 - 1200 Ma)

Lithology: Intrusive igneous rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
DENOMMÉ, E., THIVIERGE, S., ROY, D.W., CHOWN, E. AND GAUTHIER, A.(1982) The St-Honoré carbonatite and associated niobium deposits, ClM 84th annual meeting, April 1982, paper 55, 9 pages.
FORTIN-BÉLANGER, M. (1977) Le complexe annulaire à carbonatite de St-Honoré P.Q./Canada) et sa minéralisation à niobium: étude pétrographique et géochimique, Doctoral thesis, Université Claude Bernard, Lyon, France, 308p.
FOURNIER, A. (1993) Magmat!c and hydrothermal controls of LREE mineralization of the St-Honoré carbonatite, Québec. M.Sc. thesis, McGill University, Montreal, Canada. 95p.
GAUTHIER, A. (1979) Étude minéralogique, pétrographique et géochimique de la zone à terres-rares de la carbonatite de St.-Honoré, M.Sc. thesis, Université du Québec à Chicoutimi, Québec, Canada, 181 p.
KENNEDY, I. & GAGNON, G. (1981): Barite from the Niobec Mine Chicoutimi, Quebec. Mineralogical Record 12:355-357.
THIVIERGE, S, ROY O.-W., CHOWN E.H. AND GAUTHIER A. (1983) Évolution du complexe alcalin de St.-Honoré (Québec) après sa mise en place. Mineralium Deposita, 18, 267-283.
VALLÉE, M. AND DUBUC, F. (1970) The St-Honoré Carbonatite Complex, Québec. ClM Transactions, 73, 346-356.
Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): Carbonatites of the World. Explored Deposits of Nb and REE - Database and Grade and Tonnage Models. USGS Open-File Report 09-1139.

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