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Kanonaite

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Formula:
Mn3+Al(SiO4)O
Colour:
Greenish black
Lustre:
Sub-Vitreous, Resinous
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
3.395 (Calculated)
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Name:
Named by S. Vrana, M. Rieder, and J. Podlaha in 1978 for the type locality Kanona, Zambia.
Isostructural with:
Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of KanonaiteHide

Approved
Approval Year:
1976
9.AF.10

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
F : Nesosilicates with additional anions; cations in [4], [5] and/or only [6] coordination
52.2.2b.2

52 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
2 : Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination
16.16.1

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
16 : Aluminosilicates of Mn

Physical Properties of KanonaiteHide

Sub-Vitreous, Resinous
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Greenish black
Streak:
Gray green
Hardness:
6½ on Mohs scale
Hardness:
VHN100=906 - 1017 kg/mm2 - Vickers
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Poor/Indistinct
on {110} poor
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
3.395 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of KanonaiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.702 nβ = 1.730 nγ = 1.823
2V:
Measured: 53° to 90°, Calculated: 62°
Birefringence:
0.121
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.121
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
r > v weak
Optical Extinction:
Parallel.
Pleochroism:
Strong
Comments:
X = Yellow green
Y = Bluish green
Z = deep golden yellow

Chemical Properties of KanonaiteHide

Formula:
Mn3+Al(SiO4)O
IMA Formula:
Mn3+AlOSiO4
Common Impurities:
Ti,Fe,Cu,Zn,Pb,Mg,Ca,Ba

Crystallography of KanonaiteHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Pnnm
Setting:
Pnnm
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.959(2) Å, b = 8.047(2) Å, c = 5.616(1) Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.989 : 1 : 0.698
Unit Cell V:
359.68 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Anhedral nodular porphyroblasts to 1.2 cm

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
5.66 (100)
4.59 (60)
3.99 (20)
2.83 (40)
2.52 (40)
2.30 (20)
1.513 (20)
Comments:
ICDD 42-575

Type Occurrence of KanonaiteHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Smithsonian 144523
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Low grade gahnite schist
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of KanonaiteHide

Other Language Names for KanonaiteHide

German:Kanonait
Simplified Chinese:锰红柱石
Spanish:Kanonaita
Traditional Chinese:錳紅柱石

Relationship of Kanonaite to other SpeciesHide

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Muscovite6 photos of Kanonaite associated with Muscovite on mindat.org.
Gahnite2 photos of Kanonaite associated with Gahnite on mindat.org.
Clinochlore2 photos of Kanonaite associated with Clinochlore on mindat.org.
Coronadite2 photos of Kanonaite associated with Coronadite on mindat.org.
Quartz2 photos of Kanonaite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.AF.05SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AF.10AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
9.AF.15KyaniteAl2(SiO4)OTric. 1 : P1
9.AF.20MulliteAl4+2xSi2-2xO10-xOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbam
9.AF.20Krieselite(Al,Ga)2(GeO4)(OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
9.AF.23BoromulliteAl9BSi2O19Orth. mm2 : Cmc21
9.AF.25YoderiteMg(Al,Fe3+)3(SiO4)2O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.AF.30MagnesiostauroliteMg(Mg,Li)3(Al,Mg)18Si8O44(OH)4Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.AF.30StauroliteFe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.AF.30ZincostauroliteZn2Al9Si4O23(OH)Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.AF.35TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AF.40NorbergiteMg3(SiO4)(F,OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AF.45AlleghanyiteMn2+5(SiO4)2(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.45Chondrodite(Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.45ReinhardbraunsiteCa5(SiO4)2(OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.45KumtyubeiteCa5(SiO4)2F2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.45HydroxylchondroditeMg5(SiO4)2(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.50Humite(Mg,Fe2+)7(SiO4)3(F,OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AF.50Manganhumite(Mn2+,Mg)7(SiO4)3(OH)2Orth.
9.AF.50Unnamed (Ca-analogue of Humite)Ca7(SiO4)4F2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AF.55ClinohumiteMg9(SiO4)4F2Mon.
9.AF.55SonoliteMn2+9(SiO4)4(OH)2Mon.
9.AF.55HydroxylclinohumiteMg9(SiO4)4(OH)2Mon. 2/m
9.AF.60LeucophoeniciteMn2+7(SiO4)3(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.65Ribbeite(Mn2+,Mg)5(SiO4)2(OH)2Orth.
9.AF.70JerrygibbsiteMn2+9(SiO4)4(OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
9.AF.75FranciscaniteMn2+6(V5+,☐)2(SiO4)2(O,OH)6Hex.
9.AF.75ÖrebroiteMn2+3(Sb5+,Fe3+)(SiO4)(O,OH)3Hex.
9.AF.75WeliniteMn2+6(W6+,Mg)2(SiO4)2(O,OH)6Trig. 3 : P3
9.AF.80EllenbergeriteMg6(Mg,Ti,Zr,◻)2(Al,Mg)6Si8O28(OH)10Hex.
9.AF.85Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.AF.85MagnesiochloritoidMgAl2(SiO4)O(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.AF.85Ottrélite(Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2Mon.
9.AF.90PoldervaartiteCaCa[SiO3(OH)](OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
9.AF.90OlmiiteCaMn2+[SiO3(OH)](OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

52.2.2b.1AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
52.2.2b.3YoderiteMg(Al,Fe3+)3(SiO4)2O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

16.16.2SpessartineMn2+3Al2(SiO4)3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
16.16.3DavreuxiteMnAl6Si4O17(OH)2Mon.
16.16.4SursassiteMn2+2Al3(SiO4)(Si2O7)(OH)3Mon. 2/m : P21/m
16.16.5CarpholiteMn2+Al2(Si2O6)(OH)4Orth.
16.16.6KellyiteMn2+2Al(AlSiO5)(OH)4Hex.
16.16.7PennantiteMn2+5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Tric.
16.16.8AkatoreiteMn2+9Al2Si8O24(OH)8Tric.
16.16.9Ganophyllite(K,Na,Ca)2Mn8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)32 · 8H2OMon.
16.16.10Mangano-ferri-eckermannite[Na][Na2][Mn2+4(Fe3+)]Si8O22(OH)2Mon.
16.16.11Masutomilite(K,Rb)(Li,Mn3+,Al)3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2Mon.
16.16.13HowieiteNa(Fe,Mn)10(Fe,Al)2Si12O31(OH)13Tric.
16.16.14Eggletonite(Na,K,Ca)2(Mn,Fe)8(Si,Al)12O29(OH)7 · 11H2OMon.
16.16.15Bannisterite(Ca,K,Na)(Mn2+,Fe2+)10(Si,Al)16O38(OH)8 · nH2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
16.16.16Taneyamalite(Na,Ca)(Mn,Mg,Fe)12Si12(O,OH)44Tric.
16.16.17ZussmaniteK(Fe,Mg,Mn)13(Si,Al)18O42(OH)14Trig. 3 : R3
16.16.18CoombsiteK(Mn,Fe,Mg)13(Si,Al)18O42(OH)14Trig.
16.16.19HenritermieriteCa3(Mn3+,Al)2(SiO4)2(OH)4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
16.16.20MacfalliteCa2Mn3+3(SiO4)(Si2O7)(OH)3Mon.
16.16.21Ottrélite(Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2Mon.
16.16.22Piemontite{Ca2}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
16.16.23OkhotskiteCa2(Mn,Mg)(Mn3+,Al,Fe3+)2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2OMon.
16.16.24Pumpellyite-(Mn2+)Ca2Mn2+Al2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · H2OMon.
16.16.25Piemontite-(Sr){CaSr}{Al2Mn3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon.

Fluorescence of KanonaiteHide

Not fluorescent.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for KanonaiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Vrana, S., M. Rieder and J. Podlaha (1978) Kanonaite, a new mineral isotype with andalusite. Cont. Miner. Petrol. 66, 325-332.
Kramm, U. (1979) Kanonaite-rich viridines from the Venn-Stavelot Massif, Belgian Ardennes, Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 69: 387-395.
American Mineralogist (1979): 64: 655
Abswurmbach, L., Langer, K., Seifert, F., and Tillmanns,E. (1981) The crystal-chemistry of (Mn 3+,Fe 3+)substituted andalusites (viridines and kanonaite), (Al 1-x-y Mn x 3+Fe y 3+)2-(O-SiO4): Crystal-structure refinements, Mössbauer, and polarized optical-absorption spectra. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 155: 81-113.
American Mineralogist (1981): 66: 325-332, structure.

Internet Links for KanonaiteHide

Localities for KanonaiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Belgium
 
  • Luxembourg Province
    • Stavelot Massif
Michel Bloindieau
        • Cahai (Cahay)
Hatert, F., Deliens, M., Fransolet, A.-M. & van der Meersche, E. (2002): Les minéraux de Belgique. 2ème édition, Muséum des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles, Ed., 304 p.
Hatert, F., Deliens, M., Fransolet, A.-M. & van der Meersche, E. (2002): Les minéraux de Belgique. 2ème édition, Muséum des Sciences Naturelles, Bruxelles, Ed., 304 p.
        • Salmchâteau
Schreyer W., Bernhardt H.-J., Fransolet A.-M., Armbruster Th. (2004)
Brazil
 
  • Minas Gerais
    • Carrancas
ex-collection P.A. Matioli (method of identification unknown)
Czech Republic
 
  • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
    • Vysočina Region
      • Třebíč
Novák, M. & Škoda, R. (2007): Mn3+-rich andalusite to kanonaite and their breakdown products from metamanganolite at Kojetice near Třebíč, the Moldanubian Zone, Czech Republic. Journal of Geosciences, 52(1-2), 161-167.
Greece
 
  • Aegean Islands Department (Aiyaíon)
    • Kykládes Prefecture
      • Cyclade Islands (Cyclades; Kikladhes; Nomos Kikladhon)
        • Andros Island
Tony Nikischer
United Arab Emirates
http://pubs.nrc-cnrc.gc.ca/mineral/tcm-14342-1.html
  • Fujayrah Emirate (Fujairah)
    • Semail Ophiolite
      • Khawr Fakkan Massif (Khor Fakkan)
        • Bani Hamid area
E. Gnos et al., Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, pp. 251-261.
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Maricopa Co.
      • Phoenix
        • Phoenix Mts
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 110, 265.
Zambia (TL)
 
  • Central Province
    • Serenje District
      • Serenje
Handbook of Mineralogy Vol II p399
Mineral and/or Locality  
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