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The Mineralogy of Yttrium

General Properties
Symbol:Y
Atomic Number:39
Standard atomic weight (Ar):88.90585(2)
Electron configuration:[Kr] 4d1 5s2
Photos
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Yttrium
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Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):1.22
Atomic Radius:212 pm
Ionic Radius:90 pm (+3)
1st Ionization energy:600 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-30 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:1,2,3
Physical Properties
Standard State:solid
Bonding Type:metallic
Melting Point:1799 K
Boiling Point:3618 K
Density:4.47 g/cm3
Metal/Non-Metal:transition metal
Main isotopes of Yttrium
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
87Ysynthetic3.35dε87Sr
88Ysynthetic106.6dε88Sr
89Y100%stable
Main ions of Yttrium
NameIonExample minerals
yttriumY3+Xenotime-(Y)
Other Information
Year Discovered:1794
Discovered By:
Johan Gadolin
Year Isolated:1840
Isolated By:
Carl Gustav Mosander
Named For:
after Ytterby, Sweden
CPK color coding:#94FFFF
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's PeriodicTable.com
Simple Compounds and Mineral Names
Sulfidesdiyttrium trisulphideY2S3+3
Hydridesyttrium dihydrideYH2+2
yttrium trihydrideYH3+3
Fluoridesyttrium trifluorideYF3+3Waimirite-(Y)
Chloridesyttrium trichlorideYCl3+3
Bromidesyttrium tribromideYBr3+3
Iodidesyttrium triiodideYI3+3
Oxidesdiyttrium trioxideY2O3+3Yttriaite-(Y)
Mineral Diversity of Yttrium
3. Halides3 valid mineral species
4. Oxides 18 valid mineral species
5. Carbonates 17 valid mineral species
6. Borates1 valid mineral species
7. Sulfates 5 valid mineral species
8. Phosphates, Arsenates, Vanadates8 valid mineral species
9. Silicates 33 valid mineral species
10. Organic Compounds1 valid mineral species
Total:86 valid species containing essential Yttrium
Geochemistry of Yttrium
Goldschmidt classification:Lithophile
Y3+ is enriched in Ca-Al-rich inclusions in meteorites relative to the composition of the solar system.
Y3+ enters early-forming phases in igneous rocks.
Y3+ is concentrated in deep-sea ferromanganese nodules relative to seawater.
Elemental Abundance for Yttrium
Crust (CRC Handbook)3.3 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Kaye & Laby)3.5 x 10-7mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)3.1 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)2.0 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Weaver)1.4 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)2.2 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Shaw)2.1 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Sea Water (CRC Handbook)1.3 x 10-11mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Sea Water (Kaye & Laby)1.3 x 10-12mass per volume fraction, kg/L
The Sun (Kaye & Laby)4.9 x 10-6atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)4.6 x 10-6atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)4.64 x 10-6 (6.0%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Yttrium in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Yttrium and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Yttrium and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Yttrium.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Yttrium% of Y mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Oxygen138 minerals with Y and O97.87%27.98% higher
Hydrogen78 minerals with Y and H55.32%2.70% higher
Calcium65 minerals with Y and Ca46.10%87.11% higher
Silicon60 minerals with Y and Si42.55%53.09% higher
Fluorine38 minerals with Y and F26.95%223.04% higher
Sodium33 minerals with Y and Na23.40%23.49% higher
Carbon33 minerals with Y and C23.40%215.69% higher
Iron33 minerals with Y and Fe23.40%2.41% higher
Titanium30 minerals with Y and Ti21.28%207.82% higher
Cerium22 minerals with Y and Ce15.60%371.77% higher
Niobium21 minerals with Y and Nb14.89%340.43% higher
Uranium19 minerals with Y and U13.48%181.10% higher
Aluminium18 minerals with Y and Al12.77%35.79% lower
Boron15 minerals with Y and B10.64%108.96% higher
Phosphorus15 minerals with Y and P10.64%3.77% lower
Tantalum13 minerals with Y and Ta9.22%579.74% higher
Manganese12 minerals with Y and Mn8.51%26.48% lower
Neodymium11 minerals with Y and Nd7.80%707.45% higher
Potassium10 minerals with Y and K7.09%26.88% lower
Thorium9 minerals with Y and Th6.38%615.69% higher
Lead9 minerals with Y and Pb6.38%33.42% lower
Beryllium9 minerals with Y and Be6.38%186.28% higher
Zirconium8 minerals with Y and Zr5.67%134.89% higher
Sulfur8 minerals with Y and S5.67%71.00% lower
Barium7 minerals with Y and Ba4.96%6.88% higher
Lanthanum7 minerals with Y and La4.96%190.43% higher
Ytterbium6 minerals with Y and Yb4.26%3,717.02% higher
Strontium6 minerals with Y and Sr4.26%50.67% higher
Arsenic4 minerals with Y and As2.84%75.13% lower
Copper4 minerals with Y and Cu2.84%77.38% lower
Gadolinium4 minerals with Y and Gd2.84%2,444.68% higher
Chlorine4 minerals with Y and Cl2.84%62.39% lower
Lithium4 minerals with Y and Li2.84%26.18% higher
Zinc4 minerals with Y and Zn2.84%46.99% lower
Dysprosium3 minerals with Y and Dy2.13%2,762.77% higher
Chromium3 minerals with Y and Cr2.13%28.66% higher
Tungsten3 minerals with Y and W2.13%179.29% higher
Vanadium3 minerals with Y and V2.13%48.65% lower
Magnesium3 minerals with Y and Mg2.13%84.57% lower
Samarium2 minerals with Y and Sm1.42%1,172.34% higher
Scandium1 mineral with Y and Sc0.71%138.56% higher
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
 
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with Y Relative Frequency
Strontium << Yttrium >> Zirconium


Most widespread minerals containing Yttrium
This list of minerals containing Yttrium is built from the mindat.org locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Yttrium mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities
Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)Tetragonal915
Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6Orthorhombic392
Samarskite-(Y)(Y,Fe3+,Fe2+,U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8Orthorhombic354
Fergusonite-(Y)YNbO4Tetragonal171
Gadolinite-(Y)Y2Fe2+Be2Si2O10Monoclinic144
Aeschynite-(Y)(Y,Ln,Ca,Th)(Ti,Nb)2(O,OH)6Orthorhombic126
Polycrase-(Y)Y(Ti,Nb)2(O,OH)6Orthorhombic117
Kainosite-(Y)Ca2(Y,Ce)2(Si4O12)(CO3) · H2OOrthorhombic92
Agardite-(Y)YCu6(AsO4)3(OH)6 · 3H2OHexagonal83
Churchite-(Y)Y(PO4) · 2H2OMonoclinic70
Photos

Localities with greatest number of different Yttrium mineral species
map should go here
1Poudrette quarry (Demix quarry; Uni-Mix quarry; Carrière Mont Saint-Hilaire; MSH), Mont Saint-Hilaire, La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM, Montérégie, Québec, Canada18 Y minerals
2Stetind pegmatite, Tysfjord, Nordland, Norway15 Y minerals
Pyörönmaa pegmatite, Valkeakoski, Western and Inner Finland Region, Finland14 Y minerals
4Hundholmen, Tysfjord, Nordland, Norway13 Y minerals
5Evans-Lou Mine, Lac Saint-Pierre (Wakefield Lake), Val-des-Monts, Les Collines-de-l'Outaouais RCM, Outaouais, Québec, Canada13 Y minerals
6Ploskaya Mt, Western Keivy Massif, Keivy Mountains, Murmanskaya Oblast', Northern Region, Russia12 Y minerals
7Ritter pass - Ritterchumme area, Chummibort, Binn Valley, Wallis (Valais), Switzerland11 Y minerals
8Suishoyama pegmatite (Suishouyama; Suisyoyama; Suishyoyama), Iizaka Village (Iisaka), Kawamata, Fukushima Prefecture, Tohoku Region, Honshu Island, Japan11 Y minerals


Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to jolyon@mindat.org. Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
Mineral and/or Locality  
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