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The mineralogy of Yttrium

General Properties
Atomic Number:39
Standard atomic weight (Ar):88.90585(2)
Electron configuration:[Kr] 4d1 5s2
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):1.22
Atomic Radius:212 pm
Ionic Radius:90 pm (+3)
1st Ionization energy:600 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-30 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:1,2,3
Physical Properties
Standard State:solid
Bonding Type:metallic
Melting Point:1799 K
Boiling Point:3618 K
Density:4.47 g/cm3
Metal/Non-Metal:transition metal
Main isotopes of Yttrium
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
Main ions of Yttrium
NameIonExample minerals
Other Information
Year Discovered:1794
Discovered By:
Johan Gadolin
Year Isolated:1840
Isolated By:
Carl Gustav Mosander
Named For:
after Ytterby, Sweden
CPK color coding:#94FFFF
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's
Simple Compounds and Mineral Names
Sulfidesdiyttrium trisulphideY2S3+3
Hydridesyttrium dihydrideYH2+2
yttrium trihydrideYH3+3
Fluoridesyttrium trifluorideYF3+3Waimirite-(Y)
Chloridesyttrium trichlorideYCl3+3
Bromidesyttrium tribromideYBr3+3
Iodidesyttrium triiodideYI3+3
Oxidesdiyttrium trioxideY2O3+3Yttriaite-(Y)
Mineral Diversity of Yttrium
3. Halides4 valid mineral species
4. Oxides 18 valid mineral species
5. Carbonates 19 valid mineral species
6. Borates1 valid mineral species
7. Sulfates 6 valid mineral species
8. Phosphates, Arsenates, Vanadates9 valid mineral species
9. Silicates 39 valid mineral species
10. Organic Compounds1 valid mineral species
Total:97 valid species containing essential Yttrium
Geochemistry of Yttrium
Goldschmidt classification:Lithophile
Y3+ is enriched in Ca-Al-rich inclusions in meteorites relative to the composition of the solar system.
Y3+ enters early-forming phases in igneous rocks.
Y3+ is concentrated in deep-sea ferromanganese nodules relative to seawater.
Elemental Abundance for Yttrium
Crust (CRC Handbook)3.3 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Kaye & Laby)3.5 x 10-7mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)3.1 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)2.0 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Weaver)1.4 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)2.2 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Shaw)2.1 x 10-5mass fraction, kg/kg
Sea Water (CRC Handbook)1.3 x 10-11mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Sea Water (Kaye & Laby)1.3 x 10-12mass per volume fraction, kg/L
The Sun (Kaye & Laby)4.9 x 10-6atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)4.6 x 10-6atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)4.64 x 10-6 (6.0%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Yttrium in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Yttrium and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Yttrium and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Yttrium.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Yttrium% of Y mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Oxygen390 minerals with Y and O97.26%26.66% higher
Hydrogen222 minerals with Y and H55.36%3.38% higher
Silicon176 minerals with Y and Si43.89%62.01% higher
Calcium171 minerals with Y and Ca42.64%82.02% higher
Fluorine114 minerals with Y and F28.43%280.64% higher
Sodium107 minerals with Y and Na26.68%45.38% higher
Titanium96 minerals with Y and Ti23.94%264.37% higher
Carbon93 minerals with Y and C23.19%211.26% higher
Iron89 minerals with Y and Fe22.19%5.61% higher
Niobium57 minerals with Y and Nb14.21%401.21% higher
Uranium53 minerals with Y and U13.22%165.13% higher
Aluminium46 minerals with Y and Al11.47%40.47% lower
Boron45 minerals with Y and B11.22%125.11% higher
Phosphorus41 minerals with Y and P10.22%9.02% lower
Cerium38 minerals with Y and Ce9.48%236.23% higher
Tantalum37 minerals with Y and Ta9.23%705.87% higher
Manganese32 minerals with Y and Mn7.98%24.75% lower
Potassium26 minerals with Y and K6.48%27.97% lower
Lead25 minerals with Y and Pb6.23%36.34% lower
Beryllium25 minerals with Y and Be6.23%192.50% higher
Sulfur22 minerals with Y and S5.49%72.63% lower
Barium21 minerals with Y and Ba5.24%19.40% higher
Thorium19 minerals with Y and Th4.74%589.71% higher
Strontium18 minerals with Y and Sr4.49%83.33% higher
Zirconium18 minerals with Y and Zr4.49%103.86% higher
Neodymium15 minerals with Y and Nd3.74%563.61% higher
Vanadium13 minerals with Y and V3.24%24.57% lower
Chromium13 minerals with Y and Cr3.24%89.73% higher
Zinc12 minerals with Y and Zn2.99%40.18% lower
Arsenic12 minerals with Y and As2.99%74.49% lower
Lanthanum11 minerals with Y and La2.74%151.17% higher
Copper10 minerals with Y and Cu2.49%80.17% lower
Chlorine10 minerals with Y and Cl2.49%64.87% lower
Tungsten9 minerals with Y and W2.24%183.14% higher
Magnesium9 minerals with Y and Mg2.24%82.25% lower
Lithium8 minerals with Y and Li2.00%0.23% higher
Ytterbium8 minerals with Y and Yb2.00%2,731.42% higher
Dysprosium5 minerals with Y and Dy1.25%3,439.28% higher
Gadolinium4 minerals with Y and Gd1.00%5,562.84% higher
Samarium2 minerals with Y and Sm0.50%1,315.71% higher
Scandium1 mineral with Y and Sc0.25%25.49% lower
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with Y Relative Frequency
Strontium << Yttrium >> Zirconium

Most widespread minerals containing Yttrium
This list of minerals containing Yttrium is built from the locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Yttrium mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities

Localities with greatest number of different Yttrium mineral species
map should go here
2Poudrette quarry (De-Mix quarry; Demix quarry; Uni-Mix quarry; Carrière Mont Saint-Hilaire; MSH), Mont Saint-Hilaire, La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM, Montérégie, Québec, Canada18 Y minerals
3Ploskaya Mt, Western Keivy Massif, Keivy Mountains, Lovozersky District, Murmansk Oblast, Russia16 Y minerals
7Pyörönmaa pegmatite, Valkeakoski, Pirkanmaa, Finland14 Y minerals
6Stetind pegmatite, Narvik, Nordland, Norway15 Y minerals
8Hundholmen, Narvik, Nordland, Norway13 Y minerals

Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
Mineral and/or Locality  
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