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Gadolinite-(Y)

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Johan Gadolin
Formula:
Fe2+Be2Y2(SiO4)2O2
Often slightly radioactive due to minor U and/or Th contents; therefore often metamict.
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Black, greenish-black, ...
Lustre:
Vitreous, Greasy
Hardness:
6½ - 7
Name:
Named in honor of Johan Gadolin (5 June 1760, Turku, Finland - 15 August 1852, Mynämäki, Finland), chemist, physicist, and mineralogist. He discovered what would be the element yttrium, the first rare earth discovered. The "-(Y)" suffix is for to the dominance of yttrium in the composition.
Gadolinite-Datolite Group. The yttrium analogue of gadolinite-(Ce) and Gadolinite-(Nd).
Difficult to distinguish from hingganite-(Y).


Classification of Gadolinite-(Y)

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
9.AJ.20

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
J : Nesosilicates with BO3 triangles and/or B[4], Be[4] tetrahedra, cornersharing with SiO4
54.2.1b.3

54 : NESOSILICATES Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates
2 : Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates with B in [4] coordination
14.3.23

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
3 : Silicates of Be

Occurrences of Gadolinite-(Y)

Type Occurrence of Gadolinite-(Y)

Physical Properties of Gadolinite-(Y)

Vitreous, Greasy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Opaque
Colour:
Black, greenish-black, brown
Streak:
Grayish green
Hardness (Mohs):
6½ - 7
Tenacity:
Brittle
Fracture:
Splintery, Conchoidal
Density:
4.36 - 4.77 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.41 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Gadolinite-(Y)

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P21/b
Cell Parameters:
a = 10Å, b = 7.565(2) Å, c = 4.768(1) Å
β = 90.31(2)°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.322 : 1 : 0.63
Unit Cell Volume:
V 360.69 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Prismatic, massive

Optical Data of Gadolinite-(Y)

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.770 nβ = 1.790 nγ = 1.820
2V:
Measured: 85°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.050
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
r > v distinct

Chemical Properties of Gadolinite-(Y)

Formula:
Fe2+Be2Y2(SiO4)2O2

Often slightly radioactive due to minor U and/or Th contents; therefore often metamict.
Elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Gadolinite-(Y) to other Species

Other Members of Group:
Calcybeborosilite-(Y)(Y,Ca)2(□,Fe2+)(B,Be)2[SiO4]2(OH,O)2
Gadolinite-(Ce)(Ce,La,Nd,Y)2Fe2+Be2Si2O10
Gadolinite-(Nd)Nd2Fe2+Be2O2(SiO4)2
Hingganite-(Ce)(Ce,REE)2(□,Fe2+)Be2[SiO4]2(OH)2
Hingganite-(Y)(Y,REE,Ca)2(□,Fe2+)Be2[SiO4]2(OH)2
Hingganite-(Yb)(Yb,Y,REE)2□Be2[SiO4]2(OH)2
Minasgeraisite-(Y)CaBe2Y2Si2O10
9.AJ.05GrandidieriteMgAl3O2(BO3)SiO4
9.AJ.05OmineliteFe2+Al3O2(BO3)SiO4
9.AJ.10DumortieriteAlAl6BSi3O18
9.AJ.10Holtite(Ta0.60.4)Al6BSi3O18
9.AJ.10MagnesiodumortieriteMgAl6BSi3O17(OH)
9.AJ.15GarrelsiteNaBa3B7Si2O16(OH)4
9.AJ.20BakeriteCa4(H5B5Si3O20)
9.AJ.20DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
9.AJ.20Gadolinite-(Ce)Fe2+Be2Ce2(SiO4)2O2
9.AJ.20Hingganite-(Ce)BeCe(SiO4)(OH)
9.AJ.20Hingganite-(Y)(Y,REE,Ca)2(□,Fe2+)Be2[SiO4]2(OH)2
9.AJ.20Hingganite-(Yb)BeYb(SiO4)(OH)
9.AJ.20HomiliteCa2Fe2+B2(SiO4)2O2
9.AJ.20Melanocerite-(Ce)Ce5(SiO4,BO4)3(OH,O)
9.AJ.20Minasgeraisite-(Y)CaBe2Y2(SiO4)2O2
9.AJ.20Calcybeborosilite-(Y)(Y,Ca)2(□,Fe2+)(B,Be)2[SiO4]2(OH,O)2
9.AJ.25Stillwellite-(Ce)CeBSiO5
9.AJ.30Cappelenite-(Y)BaY6B6Si3O24F2
9.AJ.35Okanoganite-(Y)(Y,REE,Ca,Na,Th)16(Fe3+,Ti)(Si,B,P)10(O,OH)38F10
9.AJ.35Vicanite-(Ce)(Ca,Ce,La,Th)15As5+(As3+,Na)0.5Fe3+0.7Si6B4(O,F)47
9.AJ.35Hundholmenite-(Y)(Y,REE,Ca,Na)15(Al,Fe3+)Cax(As3+)1-x(Si,As5+)Si6B3(O,F)48
9.AJ.35Proshchenkoite-(Y)(Y,REE,Ca,Na,Mn)15CaFe2+(P,Si)Si6B3O34F14
9.AJ.40JadariteLiNaB3SiO7(OH)
14.3.1PhenakiteBe2SiO4
14.3.2BertranditeBe4Si2O7(OH)2
14.3.3BerylliteBe3SiO4(OH)2 · H2O
14.3.4LiberiteLi2BeSiO4
14.3.5ChkaloviteNa2BeSi2O6
14.3.6EudidymiteNa2Be2Si6O15 · H2O
14.3.7EpididymiteNa2Be2Si6O15 · H2O
14.3.8GugiaiteCa2BeSi2O7
14.3.9Jeffreyite(Ca,Na)2(Be,Al)Si2(O,OH)7
14.3.10Semenovite-(Ce)(Na,Ca)9Fe2+Ce2(Si,Be)20(O,OH,F)48
14.3.11BaryliteBaBe2Si2O7
14.3.12Hingganite-(Ce)BeCe(SiO4)(OH)
14.3.13Hingganite-(Yb)BeYb(SiO4)(OH)
14.3.14Hingganite-(Y)(Y,REE,Ca)2(□,Fe2+)Be2[SiO4]2(OH)2
14.3.15Minasgeraisite-(Y)CaBe2Y2(SiO4)2O2
14.3.16SørenseniteNa4Be2Sn(Si3O9)2 · 2H2O
14.3.17TrimeriteCaBe3Mn22+(SiO4)3
14.3.18ChiavenniteCaMn2+(BeOH)2Si5O13 · 2H2O
14.3.19TvedaliteCa4Be3Si6O17(OH)4 · 3H2O
14.3.20HarstigiteCa6Be4Mn2+(SiO4)2(Si2O7)2(OH)2
14.3.21SverigeiteNaBe2Mn22+SnSi3O12(OH)
14.3.22JoesmithitePbCa2Mg3Fe23+(Si6Be2)O22(OH)2
14.3.24Gadolinite-(Ce)Fe2+Be2Ce2(SiO4)2O2
14.3.25Calciogadolinite-(Y)(YCa)2Fe3+Be2[SiO4]2O2

Other Names for Gadolinite-(Y)

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Gadolinite-(Y)

Reference List:
Geijer (1788) Vom Hrn Berm Geijer in Stochkholm. Chemische Annalen [Crell's Annalen] für die Freunde der Naturlehre, Arzneygelahrtheit, Haushaltungskunst und Manufacturen. Erster Band 1788 [First Volume], p. 229-230. [First description]

Klaproth, M.H. (1802) Chemische Untersuchung des Gadolinits, Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntniss der Mineralkörper, Dritter Band, Rottmann Berlin: 3: 52-79.

Jameson, R. (1805) Gadolinite. System of Mineralogy II, Bell and Bradfute (Edinburgh, U.K.): 570-572.

Petersson, W. (1890) Studier öfver gadolinit. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar: 12: 275-347.

Pavlov, P.V., Belov, N.V. (1959) The structures of herderite, datolite, and gadolinite determined by direct methods. Soviet Physics - Crystallography: 4: 300-314.

Levinson, A.A. (1966) A system of nomenclature for rare-earth minerals. American Mineralogist: 51: 152-158.

Miyawaki, R., Nakai, I., Nagashima, K. (1984) A refinement of the crystal structure of gadolinite. American Mineralogist: 69: 948-953. [gadolinite-(Y)]

Nickel, E.H., Mandarino, J.A. (1987) Procedures involving the IMA Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names and guidelines on mineral nomenclature. American Mineralogist: 72: 1031-1042.

DeMartin, F., Pilati, T., Diella, V., Gentile, P., Gramaccioli, C.M. (1993) A crystal-chemical investigation of Alpine gadolinite. Canadian Mineralogist: 31: 127-136. [gadolinite-(Y)]

Holtstam, D., Andersson, U.B. (2007) The REE minerals of the Bastnäs-type deposits, south-central Sweden. The Canadian Mineralogist: 45: 1073-1114.

Camara, F., Oberti, R., Ottolini, L., Ventura, G.D., Bellatreccia, F. (2008) The crystal chemistry of Li in gadolinite. American Mineralogist: 93: 996-1004.

Internet Links for Gadolinite-(Y)

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Localities for Gadolinite-(Y)

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