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The Mineralogy of Thallium

General Properties
Atomic Number:81
Standard atomic weight (Ar):204.3833(2)
Electron configuration:[Xe] 4f14 5d10 6s2 6p1
8 grams pure thallium under argon
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):2.04
Atomic Radius:156 pm
Ionic Radius:150 pm (+1)
Van der Waals Radius:196 pm
1st Ionization energy:589 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-19 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:1,3
Physical Properties
Standard State:solid
Bonding Type:metallic
Melting Point:577 K
Boiling Point:1746 K
Density:11.85 g/cm3
Main isotopes of Thallium
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
203Tl29.524%-α ?199Au
205Tl70.476%-α ?201Au
Main ions of Thallium
NameIonExample minerals
Other Information
Year Discovered:1861
Discovered By:
William Crookes
Year Isolated:1862
Isolated By:
Claude-Auguste Lamy
Named For:From Greek: thallos - "a green shoot (twig)"
CPK color coding:#A6544D
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's PeriodicTable.com
Simple Compounds and Mineral Names
Sulfidesdithallium sulphideTl2S+1Carlinite
Selenidesdithallium selenideTl2Se+1
Fluoridesthallium fluorideTlF+1
thallium trifluorideTlF3+3
Chloridesthallium chlorideTlCl+1Lafossaite
thallium dichlorideTlCl2+2
thallium trichlorideTlCl3+3
Bromidesdithallium tetrabromideTl2Br4
Iodidesthallium iodideTlI+1Nataliyamalikite
thallium triiodideTlI3+3
Oxidesdithallium oxideTl2O+1
dithallium trioxideTl2O3+3Avicennite
Mineral Diversity of Thallium
2. Sulfides And Sulfosalts 39 valid mineral species
3. Halides3 valid mineral species
4. Oxides 1 valid mineral species
7. Sulfates 2 valid mineral species
Total:45 valid species containing essential Thallium
Geochemistry of Thallium
Goldschmidt classification:Chalcophile
Tl+ is concentrated in residual soils and sediments (less certainty.)
Tl+ enters later phases in igneous rocks due to its large size.
Elemental Abundance for Thallium
Crust (CRC Handbook)8.5 x 10-7mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Kaye & Laby)4.7 x 10-7mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)7 x 10-7mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)3.60 x 10-7mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)7.50 x 10-7mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Shaw)5.20 x 10-7mass fraction, kg/kg
Sea Water (CRC Handbook)1.9 x 10-11mass per volume fraction, kg/L
The Sun (Kaye & Laby)2.0 x 10-7atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)1.9 x 10-7atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)1.84 x 10-7 (9.4%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Thallium in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Thallium and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Thallium and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Thallium.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Thallium% of Tl mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Sulfur169 minerals with Tl and S82.44%295.32% higher
Arsenic122 minerals with Tl and As59.51%387.62% higher
Antimony68 minerals with Tl and Sb33.17%575.42% higher
Lead54 minerals with Tl and Pb26.34%158.53% higher
Copper48 minerals with Tl and Cu23.41%78.95% higher
Silver37 minerals with Tl and Ag18.05%426.70% higher
Iron30 minerals with Tl and Fe14.63%33.06% lower
Oxygen26 minerals with Tl and O12.68%84.12% lower
Mercury24 minerals with Tl and Hg11.71%545.32% higher
Hydrogen20 minerals with Tl and H9.76%82.49% lower
Chlorine17 minerals with Tl and Cl8.29%12.29% higher
Potassium10 minerals with Tl and K4.88%47.91% lower
Selenium9 minerals with Tl and Se4.39%87.17% higher
Zinc8 minerals with Tl and Zn3.90%25.02% lower
Bismuth6 minerals with Tl and Bi2.93%31.16% lower
Vanadium6 minerals with Tl and V2.93%34.54% lower
Gold5 minerals with Tl and Au2.44%303.33% higher
Tin3 minerals with Tl and Sn1.46%17.67% lower
Bromine3 minerals with Tl and Br1.46%432.39% higher
Nickel3 minerals with Tl and Ni1.46%52.47% lower
Aluminium3 minerals with Tl and Al1.46%92.70% lower
Tellurium2 minerals with Tl and Te0.98%68.87% lower
Iodine2 minerals with Tl and I0.98%77.46% higher
Caesium1 mineral with Tl and Cs0.49%6.48% higher
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with Tl Relative Frequency
Mercury << Thallium >> Lead

Most widespread minerals containing Thallium
This list of minerals containing Thallium is built from the mindat.org locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Thallium mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities
Twinnite Pb0.8Tl0.1Sb1.3As0.8S4Monoclinic14
CrookesiteCu7(Tl, Ag)Se4Tetragonal13

Localities with greatest number of different Thallium mineral species
map should go here
2Lengenbach Quarry, Fäld (Imfeld; Im Feld; Feld), Binn Valley, Wallis (Valais), Switzerland24 Tl minerals
4Allchar (Alšar; Alsar; Alshar), Rožden (Rozhden; Roszdan), Kavadarci, North Macedonia13 Tl minerals
6Crven Dol, Allchar (Alšar; Alsar; Alshar), Rožden (Rozhden; Roszdan), Kavadarci, North Macedonia9 Tl minerals
8Jas Roux, La Chapelle-en-Valgaudemar (La Chapelle-en-Valgaudémar), Hautes-Alpes, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France7 Tl minerals

Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to jolyon@mindat.org. Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
Mineral and/or Locality  
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