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About AvicenniteHide

Abū ‘Alī al-Ḥusayn ibn ‘Abd Allāh ibn Sīnā'
Greyish black with brownish black tint
1½ - 2½
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
For the medieval Uzbek (Persian) scholar and physician, Abu 'Ali al-Husayn ibn 'Abd Allah ibn Sina (Avicenna) (980-1037), who lived in Bukhara, Tadzhikistan.
This page provides mineralogical data about Avicennite.

Classification of AvicenniteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
C : Metal: Oxygen = 2: 3,3: 5, and similar
B : With medium-sized cations

3 : A2X3

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
7 : Oxides of Group III metals other than Al

Physical Properties of AvicenniteHide

Greyish black with brownish black tint
Greyish black, black with a brownish tint
1½ - 2½ on Mohs scale
VHN25=46 - 80 kg/mm2 - Vickers
Very brittle
Irregular/Uneven, Hackly, Conchoidal
8.9 g/cm3 (Measured)    10.34 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of AvicenniteHide

400 nmR=11.5%
470 nmR=12.5%
500 nmR=13.0%
546 nmR=12.7%
589 nmR=12.3%
650 nmR=10.6%
700 nmR=11.5%

Reflectance graph
Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Top of box is 100%. Peak reflectance is 13.0%.
Colour in reflected light:
Pale grey to medium grey

Chemical Properties of AvicenniteHide

Common Impurities:

Crystallography of AvicenniteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
m3 (2/m 3) - Diploidal
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 10.5468 Å
Unit Cell V:
1,173.17 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Crystals, less than 1 mm, some showing subhedral octahedral faces; porous grains; coatings on carlinite

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
3.044 Å(100)
1.864 Å(38)
2.637 Å(37)
1.590 Å(30)
4.307 Å(17)
2.068 Å(7)
2.486 Å(6)
Recorded on material from Carlin, Nevada, USA.

Type Occurrence of AvicenniteHide

Geological Setting of Type Material:
Weathered zone of a hematite-calcite vein cutting banded marmorized and silicified limestones near a granite-gneiss contact
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Other Language Names for AvicenniteHide

Simplified Chinese:褐铊矿

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
6 photos of Avicennite associated with Chert
3 photos of Avicennite associated with ParapierrotiteTlSb5S8
2 photos of Avicennite associated with QuartzSiO2
2 photos of Avicennite associated with ArseniosideriteCa2Fe3+3(AsO4)3O2 · 3H2O
2 photos of Avicennite associated with TripuhyiteFe3+Sb5+O4
1 photo of Avicennite associated with CuprostibiteCu2(Sb,Tl)
1 photo of Avicennite associated with VrbaiteHg3Tl4As8Sb2S20

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.CB.05BrizziiteNaSb5+O3Trig. 3 : R3
4.CB.05CorundumAl2O3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
4.CB.05Ecandrewsite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
4.CB.05GeikieliteMgTiO3Trig. 3 : R3
4.CB.05HematiteFe2O3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
4.CB.05IlmeniteFe2+TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
4.CB.05PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3Trig. 3 : R3
4.CB.05Unnamed (Auroantimonate)AuSbO3
4.CB.05TistariteTi3+2O3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
4.CB.10BixbyiteMn3+2O3Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Ia3
4.CB.15Armalcolite(Mg,Fe2+)Ti2O5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
4.CB.15PseudobrookiteFe2TiO5Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
4.CB.20Zincohögbomite-2N2S[(Zn,Al,Fe2+)3(Al,Fe3+,Ti)8O15(OH)]2Hex. 6mm : P63mc
4.CB.20Zincohögbomite-2N6S[(Zn,Mg)7(Al,Fe3+,Ti)16O31(OH)]2Hex. 6mm : P63mc
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-6N6S[(Mg,Fe2+)3(Al,Ti,Fe3+)8O15(OH)]6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-2N3S[(Mg,Fe2+,Zn)4(Al,Ti,Fe3+)10O19(OH)]2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1m
4.CB.20Magnesiohögbomite-2N2S[(Mg,Fe2+)3[Al7(Ti,Fe3+)]O15(OH)]2Hex. 6mm : P63mc
4.CB.20Ferrohögbomite-6N12S[(Fe2+,Mg,Zn)5(Al,Ti,Fe3+)12O23(OH)]6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
4.CB.25KleberiteFeTi6O11(OH)5Mon. 2/m : P21/b
4.CB.30OxyvaniteV3+2V4+O5Mon. 2/m : B2/b
4.CB.40RinmaniteZn2Sb2Mg2Fe4O14(OH)2Hex. 6 : P63
4.CB.40IseiteMn2Mo3O8Hex. 6mm : P63mc
4.CB.40MajindeiteMg2Mo3O8Hex. 6mm : P63mc
4.CB.45ClaudetiteAs2O3Mon. 2/m
4.CB.45StibioclaudetiteAsSbO3Mon. 2/m : P21/m
4.CB.50ArsenoliteAs2O3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.CB.50SenarmontiteSb2O3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
4.CB.55ValentiniteSb2O3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pccn
4.CB.60BismiteBi2O3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
4.CB.70SilléniteBi12SiO20Iso. 2 3 : I2 3
4.CB.75KyzylkumiteV3+Ti2O5(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/b

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.7.2Cerianite-(Ce)(Ce4+,Th)O2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
Contains thallium - always wash hands after handling. Avoid inhaling dust when handling or breaking. Never lick or ingest.

References for AvicenniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Karpova, K. N., Kon'kova, E. A., Larkin, E. D. and Savel'ev, V. F. (1958): Avicennite, a new mineral. Dokl. Akad. Nauk. Uzbekistan SSR 2, 23-26 (in Russian). - American Mineralogist (1959) 44, 1324-1325 (abstract).
Kon'kova, E. A. and Savel'ev, V. F. (1960): A new thallium mineral - avicennite. Zap. Vses. Mineral. Obshch. 89, 316-320 (in Russian).
Vlasov, K. A., Ed. (1966): Mineralogy of rare elements, Vol. 2, 604-605.
Radtke, A. S., Dickson, F. W. and Slack, J. F. (1978): Occurrence and formation of avicennite, Tl2O3, as a secondary mineral at the Carlin gold deposit, Nevada. J. Res. U.S. Geol. Surv. 6, 241-246.
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 31.

Internet Links for AvicenniteHide

Localities for AvicenniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Anhui
    • Ma'anshan
      • He Co.
Fan, Y., Zhou, T.F., Yuan, F., Wu, M.A., Hou, M.J., Voicu, G., Hu, Q.H., and Zhang, Q.M. (2005), In: Jingwen Mao and Bierlein, F.P. (eds.): Mineral Deposit Research: Meeting the Global Challenge. Springer (Berlin, Heidelberg), 381-383.
  • Tibet
    • Qamdo Prefecture (Changdu Prefecture)
      • Lhorong Co. (Luolong Co.)
Shuihe Mao, Wenquan Lu, Youfu Yang, and Yongming Wu (1989): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 9(3), 253-256
  • Greenland
    • Kujalleq
      • Narsaq
Petersen, O.V. (2001): List of all minerals identified in the Ilímaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland. Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin. 190, 25-33
Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data (1999)
  • Basel-Landschaft
    • Buus
Voegelin, A., Pfenninger, N., Petrikis, J., Majzlan, J., Plötze, M., Senn, A.-C., Mangold, S., Steininger, R. and Göttlicher, J. (2015): Thallium speciation and extractability in a thallium- and arsenic-rich soil developed from mineralized carbonate rock. Environ. Sci. Technol., 49, 5390-5398; Majzlan, J., Petrikis, J., Voegelin, A.. (2016): Arsen- und Thallium-Minerale bei Buus, Baselland. Schweizer Strahler 50 (1), 20-23; Herrmann, J., Voegelin, A., Palatinus, L., Mangold, S., Majzlan, J. (2018): Secondary Fe–As–Tl mineralization in soils near Buus in the Swiss Jura Mountains. European Journal of Mineralogy 30, 887-898.
  • Nevada
    • Eureka Co.
      • Lynn Mining District
        • Elko
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • Utah
    • Tooele Co.
      • Sheeprock Mts
        • Little Valley
Handbook of Mineralogy; King, N. R. (2014, October). THE MINERAL ASSEMBLAGE FROM LOOKOUT PASS AREA, SHEEPROCK MOUNTAINS, TOOELE CO., UTAH. In 2014 GSA Annual Meeting in Vancouver, British Columbia.
Uzbekistan (TL)
  • Samarqand
    • Zirabulak Mountain (Zirabulakskie Mountain)
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 30; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
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