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The Mineralogy of Gadolinium

General Properties
Atomic Number:64
Standard atomic weight (Ar):157.25(3)
Electron configuration:[Xe] 4f7 5d1 6s2
Ultrapure amorphous gadolinium
Atomic Properties
Electronegativity (Pauling scale):1.2
Atomic Radius:233 pm
Ionic Radius:93.8 pm (+3)
1st Ionization energy:593 kJ/mol
1st Electron affinity:-50 kJ/mol
Oxidation States:1,2,3
Physical Properties
Standard State:solid
Bonding Type:metallic
Melting Point:1586 K
Boiling Point:3523 K
Density:7.9 g/cm3
Main isotopes of Gadolinium
Isotope% in NatureHalf LifeDecay typeDecay product
154Gd2.18%-α ?150Sm
155Gd14.80%-α ?151Sm
156Gd20.47%-Spontaneous fission ?
157Gd15.65%-Spontaneous fission ?
158Gd24.84%-Spontaneous fission ?
160Gd21.86%>1.3x1021yβ-β- ?160Dy
Main ions of Gadolinium
NameIonExample minerals
Other Information
Year Discovered:1880
Discovered By:
Jean Charles Galissard de Marignac
Year Isolated:1886
Isolated By:
Lecoq de Boisbaudran
Named For:
Johan Gadolin
CPK color coding:#45FFC7
External Links:WikipediaWebElementsLos Alamos National LaboratoryTheodore Gray's PeriodicTable.com
Simple Compounds
Nitridesgadolinium nitrideGdN+3
Selenidesgadolinium selenideGdSe+2
Telluridesdigadolinium tritellurideGd2Te3+3
Fluoridesgadolinium trifluorideGdF3+3
Chloridesgadolinium trichlorideGdCl3+3
Bromidesgadolinium tribromideGdBr3+3
Iodidesgadolinium diiodideGdI2+2
gadolinium triodideGdI3+3
Oxidesdigadolinium trioxideGd2O3+3
Mineral Diversity of Gadolinium
5. Carbonates 1 valid mineral species
Total:1 valid species containing essential Gadolinium
Geochemistry of Gadolinium
Goldschmidt classification:Lithophile
Gd3+ was one of the ions least depleted from the mantle in the formation of the crust.
Gd3+ is enriched in Ca-Al-rich inclusions in meteorites relative to the composition of the solar system.
Gd3+ is concentrated in residual soils and sediments (less certainty.)
Elemental Abundance for Gadolinium
Crust (CRC Handbook)6.2 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Kaye & Laby)6.3 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Greenwood)6.1 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)3.300 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Crust (Ahrens/Wänke)8.140 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Taylor)3.800 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Upper Crust (Ahrens/Shaw)2.800 x 10-6mass fraction, kg/kg
Sea Water (CRC Handbook)7 x 10-13mass per volume fraction, kg/L
Sea Water (Kaye & Laby)7.0 x 10-13mass per volume fraction, kg/L
The Sun (Kaye & Laby)3.7 x 10-7atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Kaye & Laby)3.3 x 10-7atom mole fraction relative to Si=1
Solar System (Ahrens)3.30 x 10-7 (1.4%)atom mole fraction relative to Si=1 (% uncertainty)
Element association of Gadolinium in the Mineral World
This table compares the known valid mineral species listed listed with Gadolinium and the other elements listed based on the official IMA formula. Note that unlike other sections on this page this includes non-essential elements.

The first data column contains the total number of minerals listed with Gadolinium and the element listed for that row.

The second data column lists this number as a percentage of all minerals listed with Gadolinium.

The final data column compares this percentage against the percentage of all minerals that contain the element listed in each row.

Click on a heading to sort.
ElementValid Minerals listed with element and Gadolinium% of Gd mineralsRelative to % in all minerals
Oxygen8 minerals with Gd and O100.00%25.42% higher
Carbon7 minerals with Gd and C87.50%1,030.88% higher
Hydrogen6 minerals with Gd and H75.00%34.88% higher
Dysprosium5 minerals with Gd and Dy62.50%170,743.75% higher
Calcium5 minerals with Gd and Ca62.50%156.91% higher
Yttrium4 minerals with Gd and Y50.00%2,002.69% higher
Uranium3 minerals with Gd and U37.50%624.43% higher
Silicon3 minerals with Gd and Si37.50%33.30% higher
Neodymium3 minerals with Gd and Nd37.50%6,306.64% higher
Samarium2 minerals with Gd and Sm25.00%68,237.50% higher
Fluorine2 minerals with Gd and F25.00%222.35% higher
Sulfur1 mineral with Gd and S12.50%39.95% lower
Chlorine1 mineral with Gd and Cl12.50%69.57% higher
Phosphorus1 mineral with Gd and P12.50%7.11% higher
Copper1 mineral with Gd and Cu12.50%4.29% lower
Barium1 mineral with Gd and Ba12.50%174.45% higher
Cerium1 mineral with Gd and Ce12.50%327.11% higher
Sodium1 mineral with Gd and Na12.50%34.42% lower
Lead1 mineral with Gd and Pb12.50%22.91% higher
Thorium1 mineral with Gd and Th12.50%1,652.24% higher
Periodic Table
1H 2He
3Li 4Be 5B 6C 7N 8O 9F 10Ne
11Na 12Mg 13Al 14Si 15P 16S 17Cl 18Ar
19K 20Ca 21Sc 22Ti 23V 24Cr 25Mn 26Fe 27Co 28Ni 29Cu 30Zn 31Ga 32Ge 33As 34Se 35Br 36Kr
37Rb 38Sr 39Y 40Zr 41Nb 42Mo 43Tc 44Ru 45Rh 46Pd 47Ag 48Cd 49In 50Sn 51Sb 52Te 53I 54Xe
55Cs 56Ba 57La 72Hf 73Ta 74W 75Re 76Os 77Ir 78Pt 79Au 80Hg 81Tl 82Pb 83Bi 84Po 85At 86Rn
87Fr 88Ra 89Ac 104Rd 105Db 106Sg 107Bh 108Hs 109Mt 110Ds 111Rg 112Cn 113Nh 114Fl 115Mc 116Lv 117Ts 118Og
58Ce 59Pr 60Nd 61Pm 62Sm 63Eu 64Gd 65Tb 66Dy 67Ho 68Er 69Tm 70Yb 71Lu
90Th 91Pa 92U 93Np 94Pu 95Am 96Cm 97Bk 98Cf 99Es 100Fm 101Md 102No 103Lr
Default Categories CPK Electronegativity Atomic Radius Lowest Oxidation Highest Oxidation Crustal Abundance Goldschmidt Mineral Species Minerals with Gd Relative Frequency
Europium << Gadolinium >> Terbium

Most widespread minerals containing Gadolinium
This list of minerals containing Gadolinium is built from the mindat.org locality database. This is based on the number of localities entered for mineral species and is therefore slanted towards minerals interesting to collectors with less coverage of common rock-forming-minerals so it does not give an undistorted distribution of Gadolinium mineral species. It is more useful when comparing rare species rather than common species.
NameFormulaCrystal SystemMindat Localities
Lepersonnite-(Gd)Ca(Gd,Dy)2(UO2)24(SiO4)4(CO3)8(OH)24 · 48H2O1

Localities with greatest number of different Gadolinium mineral species
map should go here
2Shinkolobwe Mine (Kasolo Mine), Shinkolobwe, Kambove District, Haut-Katanga, DR Congo1 Gd minerals

Spotted a mistake/omission? - These pages are a work in progress, so please send all comments/corrections to jolyon@mindat.org. Thank you.

Constants and physical property data from:

David R. Lide (ed.), CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 85th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida (2005).
Kaye and Laby Tables of Physical & Chemical Constants (2005). Section 3.1.3, Abundances of the elements
A. Earnshaw, N. Greenwood, Chemistry of the Elements, 2nd edition, Butterworth-Heinemann, (1997)
Thomas J. Ahrens (ed.), Global Earth Physics : A Handbook of Physical Constants, American Geophysical Union (1995)
L.B. Railsback, An Earth Scientist's Periodic Table of the Elements and Their Ions : Geology 31:9 p737-740 (2003)
Emsley, J. Nature's Building Blocks: An A-Z Guide to the Elements. New York: Oxford University Press (2001)
Mineral and/or Locality  
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