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Berlin geothermal field, Usulután Department, El Salvadori
Regional Level Types
Berlin geothermal field- not defined -
Usulután DepartmentDepartment
El SalvadorCountry

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Name(s) in local language(s):Campo geotérmico de Berlín, Departamento de Usulután, El Salvador
Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 13° 31' 30'' North , 88° 30' 32'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 13.52500,-88.50890
GeoHash:G#: d43hcyjuc
Köppen climate type:Aw : Tropical savanna, wet
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Berlín11,313 (2012)3.8km
Santiago de María15,032 (2012)6.5km
Jucuapa10,601 (2012)13.6km
San Agustín2,149 (2013)14.2km
Ozatlán4,171 (2013)15.8km


The Berlín geothermal field is located 100 km east of San Salvador, on the flanks of the Berlín–Tecapa Quaternary basaltic–andesite stratovolcano, along the southern fault system of the Central American graben.

The Berlín–Tecapa volcanic complex is characterized by basaltic to andesitic lava flows and scoria, and andesitic to dacitic ignimbrites, which were produced during two major eruptions that accompanied the development of the Berlín and Blanca Rosa calderas. The Berlín caldera forms a keyhole-shaped crater that opens toward the north–northwest and encloses the geothermal field. Three distinct aquifers have been identified in the field: a shallow, low-salinity aquifer (1600 ppm NaCl equiv., 200 to 300 m a.s.l.); a moderately saline intermediate aquifer (6600 ppm NaCl equiv., near sea level) with temperatures of 150 to 200°C and a thickness of 500 to 700 m; and a deep (8000 to 12000 ppm NaCl equiv.,800 to 1200 m b.s.l.), saline aquifer with a pH of ~5 and a temperature of ~290°C, that is exploited for geothermal energy and is responsible for scaling in wells and pipelines. The reservoir is hosted by basaltic–andesite and andesite lavas interbedded with minor tuff layers; these rocks have undergone propylitic alteration, characterized by abundant quartz and epidote, moderate chlorite and sericite, and minor calcite and wairakite.

Composite samples, consisting of mixed scale, rock, and corroded pipe fragments, were obtained from solid collectors and drains attached to liquid-vapor and re-injection lines of wells, the water tank, and vapor lines during a maintenance operation in February 2000. The fragments constitute mixtures of material that originated in surface pipelines, at depth in the wells, and/or in the reservoir. The fragments were detached and transported by geothermal fluids to the solid collectors and drains, where they were cemented by amorphous silica.

Composite fragments consist mainly of sulphide- and electrum-bearing aluminium-rich amorphous silica scale, sulphide- and electrum-bearing saponitic/vermiculitic clay from the reservoir, and altered metallic pipe linings containing As–S-bearing iron oxide–oxyhydroxide grains. Siliceous and clay-rich precipitates contain concentrations of gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, and antimony. Copper, lead, and zinc occur mainly as chalcopyrite, galena, and sphalerite, respectively, in amorphous silica and clay; near the surface, chalcopyrite transported from depth alters to bornite. Gold and silver occur mainly as electrum, which deposited with base metal sulphides in the clay precipitates, and amorphous silica at higher levels in the well. Electrum precipitates in the wells due to the rapid drop in temperature and loss of H2S associated with boiling (Raymond et al., 2005).

Regions containing this locality

Caribbean PlateTectonic Plate
Central AmericaRegion

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Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


34 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Acanthite
Formula: Ag2S
Reference: Raymond, J., Williams-Jones, A. E., & Clark, J. R. (2005). Mineralization associated with scale and altered rock and pipe fragments from the Berlin geothermal field, El Salvador; implications for metal transport in natural systems. Journal of volcanology and geothermal research, 145(1), 81-96.
Actinolite
Formula: ☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Reference: Torio-Henríquez, E. (2007) Petrography and mineral alteration in Berlin geothermal field. Proceedings, Thirty-Second Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering. Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 22-24.
Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Torio-Henríquez, E. (2007) Petrography and mineral alteration in Berlin geothermal field. Proceedings, Thirty-Second Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering. Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 22-24.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'
Reference: Torio-Henríquez, E. (2007) Petrography and mineral alteration in Berlin geothermal field. Proceedings, Thirty-Second Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering. Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 22-24.
Alunite
Formula: KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Torio-Henríquez, E. (2007) Petrography and mineral alteration in Berlin geothermal field. Proceedings, Thirty-Second Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering. Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 22-24.
Anhydrite
Formula: CaSO4
Reference: Torio-Henríquez, E. (2007) Petrography and mineral alteration in Berlin geothermal field. Proceedings, Thirty-Second Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering. Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 22-24.
Bornite
Formula: Cu5FeS4
Reference: Raymond, J., Williams-Jones, A. E., & Clark, J. R. (2005). Mineralization associated with scale and altered rock and pipe fragments from the Berlin geothermal field, El Salvador; implications for metal transport in natural systems. Journal of volcanology and geothermal research, 145(1), 81-96.
Calcite
Formula: CaCO3
Reference: Raymond, J., Williams-Jones, A. E., Clark, J. R. (2005). Mineralization associated with scale and altered rock and pipe fragments from the Berlin geothermal field, El Salvador; implications for metal transport in natural systems. Journal of volcanology and geothermal research, 145 (1), 81-96.
Chalcopyrite
Formula: CuFeS2
Reference: Raymond, J., Williams-Jones, A. E., & Clark, J. R. (2005). Mineralization associated with scale and altered rock and pipe fragments from the Berlin geothermal field, El Salvador; implications for metal transport in natural systems. Journal of volcanology and geothermal research, 145(1), 81-96.
'Chlorite Group'
Reference: Raymond, J., Williams-Jones, A. E., Clark, J. R. (2005). Mineralization associated with scale and altered rock and pipe fragments from the Berlin geothermal field, El Salvador; implications for metal transport in natural systems. Journal of volcanology and geothermal research, 145 (1), 81-96.
Clinochlore
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Torio-Henríquez, E. (2007) Petrography and mineral alteration in Berlin geothermal field. Proceedings, Thirty-Second Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering. Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 22-24.
Clinochlore var: Pennine
Formula: Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Reference: Torio-Henríquez, E. (2007) Petrography and mineral alteration in Berlin geothermal field. Proceedings, Thirty-Second Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering. Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 22-24.
Covellite
Formula: CuS
Reference: Raymond, J., Williams-Jones, A. E., & Clark, J. R. (2005). Mineralization associated with scale and altered rock and pipe fragments from the Berlin geothermal field, El Salvador; implications for metal transport in natural systems. Journal of volcanology and geothermal research, 145(1), 81-96.
Cristobalite
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Torio-Henríquez, E. (2007) Petrography and mineral alteration in Berlin geothermal field. Proceedings, Thirty-Second Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering. Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 22-24.
'Electrum'
Formula: (Au, Ag)
Reference: Raymond, J., Williams-Jones, A. E., & Clark, J. R. (2005). Mineralization associated with scale and altered rock and pipe fragments from the Berlin geothermal field, El Salvador; implications for metal transport in natural systems. Journal of volcanology and geothermal research, 145(1), 81-96.
Epidote
Formula: {Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Reference: Raymond, J., Williams-Jones, A. E., Clark, J. R. (2005). Mineralization associated with scale and altered rock and pipe fragments from the Berlin geothermal field, El Salvador; implications for metal transport in natural systems. Journal of volcanology and geothermal research, 145 (1), 81-96.
'Feldspar Group'
Reference: Torio-Henríquez, E. (2007) Petrography and mineral alteration in Berlin geothermal field. Proceedings, Thirty-Second Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering. Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 22-24.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Reference: Raymond, J., Williams-Jones, A. E., & Clark, J. R. (2005). Mineralization associated with scale and altered rock and pipe fragments from the Berlin geothermal field, El Salvador; implications for metal transport in natural systems. Journal of volcanology and geothermal research, 145(1), 81-96.
Geffroyite ?
Formula: (Cu,Fe,Ag)9(Se,S)8
Reference: Raymond, J., Williams-Jones, A. E., & Clark, J. R. (2005). Mineralization associated with scale and altered rock and pipe fragments from the Berlin geothermal field, El Salvador; implications for metal transport in natural systems. Journal of volcanology and geothermal research, 145(1), 81-96.
Gold
Formula: Au
Reference: Raymond, J., Williams-Jones, A. E., & Clark, J. R. (2005). Mineralization associated with scale and altered rock and pipe fragments from the Berlin geothermal field, El Salvador; implications for metal transport in natural systems. Journal of volcanology and geothermal research, 145(1), 81-96.
'Halloysite'
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Torio-Henríquez, E. (2007) Petrography and mineral alteration in Berlin geothermal field. Proceedings, Thirty-Second Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering. Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 22-24.
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Torio-Henríquez, E. (2007) Petrography and mineral alteration in Berlin geothermal field. Proceedings, Thirty-Second Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering. Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 22-24.
'Heulandite subgroup'
Reference: Torio-Henríquez, E. (2007) Petrography and mineral alteration in Berlin geothermal field. Proceedings, Thirty-Second Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering. Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 22-24.
'Iddingsite'
Formula: MgO · Fe2O3 · 3SiO2·4H2O
Reference: Torio-Henríquez, E. (2007) Petrography and mineral alteration in Berlin geothermal field. Proceedings, Thirty-Second Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering. Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 22-24.
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Torio-Henríquez, E. (2007) Petrography and mineral alteration in Berlin geothermal field. Proceedings, Thirty-Second Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering. Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 22-24.
Laumontite
Formula: CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Reference: Torio-Henríquez, E. (2007) Petrography and mineral alteration in Berlin geothermal field. Proceedings, Thirty-Second Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering. Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 22-24.
Leucoxene
Reference: Torio-Henríquez, E. (2007) Petrography and mineral alteration in Berlin geothermal field. Proceedings, Thirty-Second Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering. Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 22-24.
Montmorillonite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Reference: Torio-Henríquez, E. (2007) Petrography and mineral alteration in Berlin geothermal field. Proceedings, Thirty-Second Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering. Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 22-24.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Raymond, J., Williams-Jones, A. E., Clark, J. R. (2005). Mineralization associated with scale and altered rock and pipe fragments from the Berlin geothermal field, El Salvador; implications for metal transport in natural systems. Journal of volcanology and geothermal research, 145 (1), 81-96.
Muscovite var: Illite
Formula: K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Reference: Torio-Henríquez, E. (2007) Petrography and mineral alteration in Berlin geothermal field. Proceedings, Thirty-Second Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering. Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 22-24.
Muscovite var: Sericite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: Raymond, J., Williams-Jones, A. E., Clark, J. R. (2005). Mineralization associated with scale and altered rock and pipe fragments from the Berlin geothermal field, El Salvador; implications for metal transport in natural systems. Journal of volcanology and geothermal research, 145 (1), 81-96.
Natroalunite
Formula: NaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Reference: Torio-Henríquez, E. (2007) Petrography and mineral alteration in Berlin geothermal field. Proceedings, Thirty-Second Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering. Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 22-24.
Nontronite
Formula: Na0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Reference: Torio-Henríquez, E. (2007) Petrography and mineral alteration in Berlin geothermal field. Proceedings, Thirty-Second Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering. Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 22-24.
Prehnite
Formula: Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Reference: Torio-Henríquez, E. (2007) Petrography and mineral alteration in Berlin geothermal field. Proceedings, Thirty-Second Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering. Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 22-24.
Pyrite
Formula: FeS2
Reference: Raymond, J., Williams-Jones, A. E., & Clark, J. R. (2005). Mineralization associated with scale and altered rock and pipe fragments from the Berlin geothermal field, El Salvador; implications for metal transport in natural systems. Journal of volcanology and geothermal research, 145(1), 81-96.
'Pyroxene Group'
Reference: Torio-Henríquez, E. (2007) Petrography and mineral alteration in Berlin geothermal field. Proceedings, Thirty-Second Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering. Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 22-24.
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: Raymond, J., Williams-Jones, A. E., & Clark, J. R. (2005). Mineralization associated with scale and altered rock and pipe fragments from the Berlin geothermal field, El Salvador; implications for metal transport in natural systems. Journal of volcanology and geothermal research, 145(1), 81-96.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Raymond, J., Williams-Jones, A. E., Clark, J. R. (2005). Mineralization associated with scale and altered rock and pipe fragments from the Berlin geothermal field, El Salvador; implications for metal transport in natural systems. Journal of volcanology and geothermal research, 145 (1), 81-96.
Quartz var: Chalcedony
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Torio-Henríquez, E. (2007) Petrography and mineral alteration in Berlin geothermal field. Proceedings, Thirty-Second Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering. Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 22-24.
Saponite
Formula: Ca0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Reference: Raymond, J., Williams-Jones, A. E., & Clark, J. R. (2005). Mineralization associated with scale and altered rock and pipe fragments from the Berlin geothermal field, El Salvador; implications for metal transport in natural systems. Journal of volcanology and geothermal research, 145(1), 81-96.
'Smectite Group'
Formula: A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
Reference: Torio-Henríquez, E. (2007) Petrography and mineral alteration in Berlin geothermal field. Proceedings, Thirty-Second Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering. Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 22-24.
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: Raymond, J., Williams-Jones, A. E., & Clark, J. R. (2005). Mineralization associated with scale and altered rock and pipe fragments from the Berlin geothermal field, El Salvador; implications for metal transport in natural systems. Journal of volcanology and geothermal research, 145(1), 81-96.
Tetrahedrite
Formula: Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Reference: Raymond, J., Williams-Jones, A. E., & Clark, J. R. (2005). Mineralization associated with scale and altered rock and pipe fragments from the Berlin geothermal field, El Salvador; implications for metal transport in natural systems. Journal of volcanology and geothermal research, 145(1), 81-96.
Titanite
Formula: CaTi(SiO4)O
Reference: Torio-Henríquez, E. (2007) Petrography and mineral alteration in Berlin geothermal field. Proceedings, Thirty-Second Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering. Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 22-24.
Tridymite
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Torio-Henríquez, E. (2007) Petrography and mineral alteration in Berlin geothermal field. Proceedings, Thirty-Second Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering. Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 22-24.
Vermiculite
Formula: Mg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
Reference: Raymond, J., Williams-Jones, A. E., & Clark, J. R. (2005). Mineralization associated with scale and altered rock and pipe fragments from the Berlin geothermal field, El Salvador; implications for metal transport in natural systems. Journal of volcanology and geothermal research, 145(1), 81-96.
Wairakite
Formula: Ca(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Reference: Raymond, J., Williams-Jones, A. E., Clark, J. R. (2005). Mineralization associated with scale and altered rock and pipe fragments from the Berlin geothermal field, El Salvador; implications for metal transport in natural systems. Journal of volcanology and geothermal research, 145 (1), 81-96.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
'Electrum'1.AA.05(Au, Ag)
Gold1.AA.05Au
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Acanthite2.BA.35Ag2S
Bornite2.BA.15Cu5FeS4
Chalcopyrite2.CB.10aCuFeS2
Covellite2.CA.05aCuS
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Geffroyite ?2.BB.15(Cu,Fe,Ag)9(Se,S)8
Pyrite2.EB.05aFeS2
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Tetrahedrite2.GB.05Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Cristobalite4.DA.15SiO2
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Chalcedony4.DA.05SiO2
Tridymite4.DA.10SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Calcite5.AB.05CaCO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Alunite7.BC.10KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Anhydrite7.AD.30CaSO4
Natroalunite7.BC.10NaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 9 - Silicates
Actinolite9.DE.10☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Clinochlore9.EC.55Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
var: Pennine9.EC.55Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Epidote9.BG.05a{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
'Halloysite'9.ED.10Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Laumontite9.GB.10CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Montmorillonite9.EC.40(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite9.EC.15K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
var: Sericite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Nontronite9.EC.40Na0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Prehnite9.DP.20Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Saponite9.EC.45Ca0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Titanite9.AG.15CaTi(SiO4)O
Vermiculite9.EC.50Mg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
Wairakite9.GB.05Ca(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Chlorite Group'-
'Feldspar Group'-
'Heulandite subgroup'-
'Iddingsite'-MgO · Fe2O3 · 3SiO2·4H2O
Leucoxene-
'Pyroxene Group'-
'Smectite Group'-A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Gold1.1.1.1Au
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:1
Acanthite2.4.1.1Ag2S
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 3:2
Bornite2.5.2.1Cu5FeS4
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 9:8
Geffroyite ?2.7.1.6(Cu,Fe,Ag)9(Se,S)8
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Covellite2.8.12.1CuS
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
Chalcopyrite2.9.1.1CuFeS2
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Pyrite2.12.1.1FeS2
Group 3 - SULFOSALTS
3 <ø < 4
Tetrahedrite3.3.6.1Cu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
Group 14 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL CARBONATES
A(XO3)
Calcite14.1.1.1CaCO3
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
AXO4
Anhydrite28.3.2.1CaSO4
Group 30 - ANHYDROUS SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Alunite30.2.4.1KAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Titanite52.4.3.1CaTi(SiO4)O
Group 58 - SOROSILICATES Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups
Insular, Mixed, Single, and Larger Tetrahedral Groups with cations in [6] and higher coordination; single and double groups (n = 1, 2)
Epidote58.2.1a.7{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
'Halloysite'71.1.1.4Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Illite71.2.2d.2K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Vermiculite71.2.2d.3Mg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
Montmorillonite71.3.1a.2(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Nontronite71.3.1a.3Na0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Saponite71.3.1b.2Ca0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Clinochlore71.4.1.4Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Group 72 - PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 4-membered rings
Prehnite72.1.3.1Ca2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Cristobalite75.1.1.1SiO2
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Tridymite75.1.2.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Group 77 - TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
Zeolite group - True zeolites
Laumontite77.1.1.4CaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Wairakite77.1.1.3Ca(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Actinolite-☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Chlorite Group'-
Clinochlore
var: Pennine
-Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
'Electrum'-(Au, Ag)
'Feldspar Group'-
'Heulandite subgroup'-
'Iddingsite'-MgO · Fe2O3 · 3SiO2·4H2O
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Leucoxene-
Muscovite
var: Sericite
-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Natroalunite-NaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
'Pyroxene Group'-
Quartz
var: Chalcedony
-SiO2
'Smectite Group'-A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
H VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
H Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
H Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H WairakiteCa(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
H PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
H Clinochlore (var: Pennine)Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
H Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
H Smectite GroupA0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
H NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
H LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
H IddingsiteMgO · Fe2O3 · 3SiO2·4H2O
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
H NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
CCarbon
C CalciteCaCO3
OOxygen
O SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
O VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
O Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
O QuartzSiO2
O Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O CalciteCaCO3
O WairakiteCa(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
O PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
O Quartz (var: Chalcedony)SiO2
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O Clinochlore (var: Pennine)Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
O Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
O Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
O AnhydriteCaSO4
O Smectite GroupA0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2 · nH2O
O NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
O CristobaliteSiO2
O TridymiteSiO2
O LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
O IddingsiteMgO · Fe2O3 · 3SiO2·4H2O
O HematiteFe2O3
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
O NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
NaSodium
Na SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Na NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Na NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
MgMagnesium
Mg SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Mg VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
Mg Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Mg Clinochlore (var: Pennine)Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Mg ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Mg Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Mg IddingsiteMgO · Fe2O3 · 3SiO2·4H2O
AlAluminium
Al SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Al VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
Al Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Al Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al WairakiteCa(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al Clinochlore (var: Pennine)Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Al Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Al NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Al LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
Al NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
SiSilicon
Si SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Si VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
Si Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Si QuartzSiO2
Si Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si WairakiteCa(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Si PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Si Quartz (var: Chalcedony)SiO2
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si Clinochlore (var: Pennine)Mg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Si Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
Si Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Si NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Si CristobaliteSiO2
Si TridymiteSiO2
Si LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
Si IddingsiteMgO · Fe2O3 · 3SiO2·4H2O
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si HalloysiteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
SSulfur
S ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
S TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
S SphaleriteZnS
S AcanthiteAg2S
S BorniteCu5FeS4
S GalenaPbS
S CovelliteCuS
S PyriteFeS2
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S AnhydriteCaSO4
S AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
S NatroaluniteNaAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
KPotassium
K Muscovite (var: Sericite)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K Muscovite (var: Illite)K0.65Al2.0[Al0.65Si3.35O10](OH)2
K AluniteKAl3(SO4)2(OH)6
CaCalcium
Ca SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Ca Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Ca CalciteCaCO3
Ca WairakiteCa(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2O
Ca Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Ca PrehniteCa2Al2Si3O10(OH)2
Ca TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
Ca Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Ca AnhydriteCaSO4
Ca LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2O
TiTitanium
Ti TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)O
FeIron
Fe ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Fe TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Fe BorniteCu5FeS4
Fe SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Fe VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2O
Fe PyriteFeS2
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
Fe Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2
Fe NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Fe IddingsiteMgO · Fe2O3 · 3SiO2·4H2O
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe Geffroyite(Cu,Fe,Ag)9(Se,S)8
CuCopper
Cu ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
Cu TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Cu BorniteCu5FeS4
Cu CovelliteCuS
Cu Geffroyite(Cu,Fe,Ag)9(Se,S)8
ZnZinc
Zn TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
Zn SphaleriteZnS
SeSelenium
Se Geffroyite(Cu,Fe,Ag)9(Se,S)8
AgSilver
Ag AcanthiteAg2S
Ag Electrum(Au, Ag)
Ag Geffroyite(Cu,Fe,Ag)9(Se,S)8
SbAntimony
Sb TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13
AuGold
Au Electrum(Au, Ag)
Au GoldAu
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Miocene
5.333 - 23.03 Ma



ID: 3188297
Cenozoic volcanic rocks

Age: Miocene (5.333 - 23.03 Ma)

Lithology: Intermediate-felsic volcanic rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Raymond, J., Williams-Jones, A. E., and Clark, J. R. (2005) Mineralization associated with scale and altered rock and pipe fragments from the Berlin geothermal field, El Salvador; implications for metal transport in natural systems. Journal of volcanology and geothermal research, 145(1), 81-96.
Torio-Henríquez, E. (2007) Petrography and mineral alteration in Berlin geothermal field. Proceedings, Thirty-Second Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering. Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 22-24.

External Links



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