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Pala Chief Mine (Chief mine; MS 6452; Salmons mine), Chief Mountain, Pala, Pala District, San Diego Co., California, USAi
Regional Level Types
Pala Chief Mine (Chief mine; MS 6452; Salmons mine)Mine
Chief MountainMountain
Pala- not defined -
Pala DistrictMining District
San Diego Co.County
CaliforniaState
USACountry

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Key
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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84):
33° 23' 15'' North , 117° 3' 5'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal):
Locality type:
Nearest Settlements:
PlacePopulationDistance
Rainbow1,832 (2011)9.3km
Temecula112,011 (2017)14.8km
Aguanga1,128 (2011)18.3km
Fallbrook30,534 (2011)18.6km
Valley Center9,277 (2011)18.9km


Summary:
A gemstone and specimen mine in pegmatite located near the village of Pala, San Diego County, California. The Pala Chief mine has been the source of some of the finest kunzite crystals ever found in southern California. The deposit was first discovered in May of 1903, and developed by several open cuts and minor underground works until mining ceased sometime around 1914. Occasional finds of spodumene and elbaite were made again in the mid 1960's, and notable finds still occur as a result of ongoing surface and underground mining operations.

Regions containing this locality

Pacific OceanOcean
Pacific PlateTectonic Plate

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

19 valid minerals.

Rock Types Recorded

Note: this is a very new system on mindat.org and data is currently VERY limited. Please bear with us while we work towards adding this information!

Rock list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities

Select Rock List Type

Alphabetical List Tree Diagram

Detailed Mineral List:

Albite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Albite var: Cleavelandite
Formula: Na(AlSi3O8)
Reference: Hapeman, Jeffrey R. (2011)
'Albite-Anorthite Series'
Reference: Heimann, A., Yonts, J. A., & Wise, M. A. (2016). Melt evolution in felsic dikes inferred from the composition of gahnite in two new occurrences, Pala Chief and Elizabeth R composite dikes, California. Mineralogy and Petrology, 110(6), 731-746.
Almandine
Formula: Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Reference: Jahns, R. H. and Wright, L. A. 1951. Gem and Lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines special report 7A: p. 14, 72 pp.
Andalusite
Formula: Al2(SiO4)O
Description: Occurs as masses to 3 inches (7.5 cm) diameter in the northern parts of the mine.
Reference: Jahns, Richard Henry & Lauren A. Wright (1951), Gem and lithium bearing pegmatites of the Pala district, San Diego County, California: California Division Mines Special Report 7-A 72 pp.: 42.
Beryl
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: No reference listed
Beryl var: Aquamarine
Formula: Be3Al2Si6O18
Reference: No reference listed
Beryl var: Morganite
Formula: Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Reference: No reference listed
Bismuth
Formula: Bi
Reference: Seaman, 1976. Pegmatite Minerals of the World, p.386
Bismuthinite
Formula: Bi2S3
Cookeite
Formula: (Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Colour: White, buff-colored and very pale pink.
Description: Cookeite is a rather widespread pocket species, and ordinarily forms a coating on crystals and crystal aggregates of quartz, lepidolite, spodumene, albite, and orthoclase. It forms white, buff-colored and very pale pink aggregates of small plates and flakes.
Reference: Jahns, R. H. and Wright, L. A. (1951), Gem and Lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines special report 7A: 31, 40.
Elbaite
Formula: Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: Jesse Fisher (2011) Mines and Minerals of the Southern California Pegmatite Province. Rocks & Minerals 86:14-34.
'Feldspar Group'
Reference: Hapeman, Jeffrey R. (2011)
Foitite ?
Formula: (□,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Habit: Felted masses and transparent crystals.
Colour: Dark blue to purplish blue
Description: Occurs as felted masses on quartz, and small needle-like inclusions within quartz.
Reference: Hapeman, Jeffrey R. (2011)
Gahnite
Formula: ZnAl2O4
Reference: Heimann, A., Yonts, J. A., & Wise, M. A. (2016). Melt evolution in felsic dikes inferred from the composition of gahnite in two new occurrences, Pala Chief and Elizabeth R composite dikes, California. Mineralogy and Petrology, 110(6), 731-746.
'Garnet Group'
Formula: X3Z2(SiO4)3
Reference: Heimann, A., Yonts, J. A., & Wise, M. A. (2016). Melt evolution in felsic dikes inferred from the composition of gahnite in two new occurrences, Pala Chief and Elizabeth R composite dikes, California. Mineralogy and Petrology, 110(6), 731-746.
'Lepidolite'
Reference: No reference listed
Microcline
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Montmorillonite
Formula: (Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Reference: Hapeman, Jeffrey R. (2011)
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Orthoclase
Formula: K(AlSi3O8)
Description: Orthoclase and microcline are widespread constituents of the pocket zones in the pegmatites where they generally form large, equant crystals with well-developed faces. The orthoclase is intimately associated with perthite, and is more abundant than the perthite in the pocket pegmatite of some dikes. In general, however, the orthoclase constitutes only a small fraction of the total potash feldspar within the dikes as a whole.
Reference: Jahns, R. H. and Wright, L. A. (1951), Gem and Lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines special report 7A: 14, 31-32.
Phosphosiderite
Formula: FePO4 · 2H2O
Reference: Field collected by Mark Mauthner, 10-May-2012.
Pucherite
Formula: Bi(VO4)
Reference: Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1051; Seaman, 1976. Pegmatite Minerals of the World, p.386.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Quartz var: Smoky Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Jesse Fisher (2011) Mines and Minerals of the Southern California Pegmatite Province. Rocks & Minerals 86:14-34.
Schorl
Formula: Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: Jahns, R. H. and Wright, L. A. 1951. Gem and Lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines special report 7A: p. 14, 72 pp.
Spodumene
Formula: LiAlSi2O6
Reference: Kunz, G. F. 1905. Gems, jeweler's materials, and ornamental stones of California. California State Mining Bureau bulletin 37: p. 81-93; 126-127.
Spodumene var: Kunzite
Formula: LiAlSi2O6
Reference: Kunz, G. F. 1905. Gems, jeweler's materials, and ornamental stones of California. California State Mining Bureau bulletin 37: p. 81-93; 126-127.; Jesse Fisher (2011) Mines and Minerals of the Southern California Pegmatite Province. Rocks & Minerals 86:14-34.
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'Zinnwaldite'
Habit: Stubby prisms
Colour: Dark-gray to deep reddish brown; bronze-like luster.
Description: Zinnwaldite occurs very sparingly in several pegmatites as dark-gray to deep reddish brown crystals and flakes, and has a bronze-like luster. Most crystals are stubby prisms 1/4 inch in maximum length. They are only in the pocket-bearing parts of the pegmatites, where they are most commonly associated with quartz, cleavelandite, and beryl.
Reference: Jahns, R. A., and Wright, L. A. (1951), Gem and Lithium-Bearing Pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology Special Report 7A: 31, 40.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Bismuth1.CA.05Bi
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Bismuthinite2.DB.05Bi2S3
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Gahnite4.BB.05ZnAl2O4
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Smoky Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Phosphosiderite8.CD.05FePO4 · 2H2O
Pucherite8.AD.40Bi(VO4)
Group 9 - Silicates
Albite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
var: Cleavelandite9.FA.35Na(AlSi3O8)
Almandine9.AD.25Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Andalusite9.AF.10Al2(SiO4)O
Beryl9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
var: Aquamarine9.CJ.05Be3Al2Si6O18
var: Morganite9.CJ.05Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Cookeite9.EC.55(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Elbaite9.CK.05Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Foitite ?9.CK.05(□,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Microcline9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Montmorillonite9.EC.40(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Orthoclase9.FA.30K(AlSi3O8)
Schorl9.CK.05Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Spodumene9.DA.30LiAlSi2O6
var: Kunzite9.DA.30LiAlSi2O6
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
'Feldspar Group'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Lepidolite'-
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'Zinnwaldite'-

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Semi-metals and non-metals
Bismuth1.3.1.4Bi
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 2:3
Bismuthinite2.11.2.3Bi2S3
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Gahnite7.2.1.4ZnAl2O4
Group 38 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, AND VANADATES
AXO4
Pucherite38.4.6.1Bi(VO4)
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
(AB)5(XO4)2·xH2O
Phosphosiderite40.4.3.2FePO4 · 2H2O
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with cations in [6] and >[6] coordination
Almandine51.4.3a.2Fe2+3Al2(SiO4)3
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination
Andalusite52.2.2b.1Al2(SiO4)O
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with [Si6O18] rings; possible (OH) and Al substitution
Beryl61.1.1.1Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Six-Membered Rings with borate groups
Elbaite61.3.1.8Na(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Foitite ?61.3.1.1(□,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Schorl61.3.1.10Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Spodumene65.1.4.1LiAlSi2O6
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
Montmorillonite71.3.1a.2(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra
Cookeite71.4.1.2(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Group 76 - TECTOSILICATES Al-Si Framework
Al-Si Framework with Al-Si frameworks
Albite76.1.3.1Na(AlSi3O8)
Microcline76.1.1.5K(AlSi3O8)
Orthoclase76.1.1.1K(AlSi3O8)
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Albite
var: Cleavelandite
-Na(AlSi3O8)
'Albite-Anorthite Series'-
Beryl
var: Aquamarine
-Be3Al2Si6O18
var: Morganite-Be3Al2(Si6O18)
'Feldspar Group'-
'Garnet Group'-X3Z2(SiO4)3
'Lepidolite'-
Quartz
var: Smoky Quartz
-SiO2
Spodumene
var: Kunzite
-LiAlSi2O6
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
'Zinnwaldite'-

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
H Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
H PhosphosideriteFePO4 · 2H2O
H Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
LiLithium
Li ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Li Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
Li SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Li Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
BeBeryllium
Be Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
Be Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Be BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
BBoron
B ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
B Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
OOxygen
O Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
O ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
O Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
O SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
O PucheriteBi(VO4)
O QuartzSiO2
O OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
O AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
O MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
O SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)O
O Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
O Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
O Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
O Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
O BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
O PhosphosideriteFePO4 · 2H2O
O GahniteZnAl2O4
O Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
O Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
NaSodium
Na ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Na SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Na Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
MgMagnesium
Mg Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
AlAluminium
Al Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
Al ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
Al Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Al SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Al OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Al AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Al MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Al SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)O
Al Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Al Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Al Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Al BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Al GahniteZnAl2O4
Al Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
SiSilicon
Si Beryl (var: Aquamarine)Be3Al2Si6O18
Si ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si Spodumene (var: Kunzite)LiAlSi2O6
Si Beryl (var: Morganite)Be3Al2(Si6O18)
Si SpodumeneLiAlSi2O6
Si QuartzSiO2
Si OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
Si AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
Si MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
Si SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si TourmalineA(D3)G6(Si6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Si AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)O
Si Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
Si Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
Si Albite (var: Cleavelandite)Na(AlSi3O8)
Si Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
Si BerylBe3Al2(Si6O18)
Si Garnet GroupX3Z2(SiO4)3
Si Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
PPhosphorus
P PhosphosideriteFePO4 · 2H2O
SSulfur
S BismuthiniteBi2S3
KPotassium
K OrthoclaseK(AlSi3O8)
K MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2O
VVanadium
V PucheriteBi(VO4)
FeIron
Fe SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Fe AlmandineFe32+Al2(SiO4)3
Fe PhosphosideriteFePO4 · 2H2O
Fe Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
ZnZinc
Zn GahniteZnAl2O4
BiBismuth
Bi BismuthBi
Bi PucheriteBi(VO4)
Bi BismuthiniteBi2S3

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Cretaceous - Triassic
66 - 251.902 Ma



ID: 2776321
Mesozoic gabbroic rocks, unit 2 (undivided)

Age: Mesozoic (66 - 251.902 Ma)

Stratigraphic Name: Cuyamaca Gabbro; Elk Creek Gabbro; Gold Park Gabbro-Diorite; San Marcos Gabbro; Summit Gabbro

Description: Gabbro and dark dioritic rocks; chiefly Mesozoic

Comments: Mostly small exposures of gabbro and diorite scattered in western Klamath Mts., Sierra Nevada, Coast Ranges, Mojave Desert, and Peninsular Ranges Original map source: Saucedo, G.J., Bedford, D.R., Raines, G.L., Miller, R.J., and Wentworth, C.M., 2000, GIS Data for the Geologic Map of California, California Department of Conservation, Division of Mines and Geology, CD-ROM 2000-07, scale 1:750,000.

Lithology: Major:{diorite,gabbro}

Reference: Horton, J.D., C.A. San Juan, and D.B. Stoeser. The State Geologic Map Compilation (SGMC) geodatabase of the conterminous United States. doi: 10.3133/ds1052. U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1052. [133]

Cretaceous
66 - 145 Ma



ID: 2707301
Granite pegmatite dike

Age: Cretaceous (66 - 145 Ma)

Description: Tabular, pegmatitic-textured granitic dikes. Most dikes range in thickness from a few centimeters to over a meter. Larger dikes are typically zoned compositionally and texturally.

Reference: Kennedy, M.P., and S.S. Tan. digital prep. by Bovard et al. Geologic Map of the Oceanside 30’ x 60’ Quadrangle, California. California Department of Conservation California Geological Survey. [131]

Cretaceous
66 - 145 Ma



ID: 3186295
Mesozoic intrusive rocks

Age: Cretaceous (66 - 145 Ma)

Lithology: Intrusive igneous rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Kunz, G. F. (1905), Gems, jeweler's materials, and ornamental stones of California. California State Mining Bureau bulletin 37: p. 81-93; 126-127.
Jahns, Richard Henry & Wright, Lauren A. (1951), Gem and lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala district, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines Special Report 7-A: p. 42.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1051.
Murdoch, Joseph & Webb, Robert W. (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 74.
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 452.
Sinkankas, J. (1988), Beryl: A Summary. Rocks & Minerals 63(01): p. 21.
Fisher, J. (2002), Gem and rare-element pegmatites of southern California. Mineralogical Record 33(5): 363-407.
Fisher, Jesse (2011), Mines and Minerals of the Southern California Pegmatite Province. Rocks & Minerals: 86: 14-34.
Mauthner, M. H. F. (2011), The History of Kunzite and the California Connection. Rocks & Minerals 86(2): 112-131.

Localities in this Region
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