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Kukhi-Malik area (Kuhi-malik), Yagnob River, Zeravshan Range, Sughd, Tajikistani
Regional Level Types
Kukhi-Malik area (Kuhi-malik)Area
Yagnob RiverRiver
Zeravshan RangeMountain Range
SughdRegion
TajikistanCountry

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 39° 11' 2'' North , 68° 35' 11'' East
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 39.18389,68.58639
GeoHash:G#: twbybtpnd
Locality type:Area
Köppen climate type:Dsc : Dry-summer subarctic climate


Kukhi-Malik tract located at the area of Fan-Yagnob deposit of black coking coal. It is just across Yagnob River (on its north side) and about 1 km up from former Ravat Kishlak (Village). A number of small (up to 40 cm thick) coal layers hosted by folded into pleats Jurassic age sediments. They were self-igniting and burning long time and could be traced along the slopes by burnt (sometimes melted) host rocks (mostly argyllites). In the place of current burning coal is rather deep but fumarole gases still reach up to 900°C and maybe more.

This place is known for centuries as a source of salammoniac (under the name Tatar salt it was exported even in Europe), sulphur (for powder), alum and other sulphates (for leather workings). The walls of small pits which remain since last works in 1940s are a good substrate for mineral crystallization from fumaroles and also a good place for preserving sublimates from moisture.

This place is nearly identical with another point of burning coal near former Ravat itself. The type of coal and host rocks are the same, mineral species, geochemical environment are practically the same.

In both these sites mineral-forming processes are well developed and by that they differ from a number of coal combustions in close area some of them self-ignited recently (producing mostly liquid and semi-liquid organic products) and some didn't last long and are now extinct.

Regions containing this locality

Eurasian PlateTectonic Plate
Soviet Union (1922-1991)Country (Former)
TurkestanArea (Historical)

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Mineral List


35 valid minerals. 1 (TL) - type locality of valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Alunogen
Formula: Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Reference: D.I.Belakovskiy data
Boussingaultite
Formula: (NH4)2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
Reference: D.I.Belakovskiy data
Clinoferrosilite
Formula: Fe2+SiO3
Reference: Sharygin, V.V., Sokol, E.V. and Belakovskii, D.I. (2009): Fayalite-sekaninaite paralava from the Ravat coal fire (central Tajikistan). Russian Geology and Geophysics 50, 703-721.
Cordierite
Formula: (Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Reference: Sharygin, V.V., Sokol, E.V. and Belakovskii, D.I. (2009): Fayalite-sekaninaite paralava from the Ravat coal fire (central Tajikistan). Russian Geology and Geophysics 50, 703-721.
Cryptohalite
Formula: (NH4)2[SiF6]
Habit: cryptocrystalline (somewhat botryoidal) masses with sulfur
Colour: light yellow (masses)
Description: Occurs as encrustations on rocks
Reference: PXRD
Efremovite
Formula: (NH4)2Mg2(SO4)3
Reference: D.I.Belakovskiy data
Falgarite (TL)
Formula: K4(VO)3(SO4)5
Type Locality:
Reference: Pautov, L.A., Mirakov, M.A., Siidra, O.I., Nazarchuk, Е.V., Faiziev, A.R. and Karpenko, V.Y. (2018) Falgarite, IMA 2018-069. CNMNC Newsletter No. 45, October 2018, page xxx; Mineralogical Magazine, 82, xxx-xxx
Fayalite
Formula: Fe2+2SiO4
Reference: Sharygin, V.V., Sokol, E.V. and Belakovskii, D.I. (2009): Fayalite-sekaninaite paralava from the Ravat coal fire (central Tajikistan). Russian Geology and Geophysics 50, 703-721.
Galena
Formula: PbS
Description:
Reference: Belakovskiy, D. I. (2003). New Acquisitions Of The Fersman Mineralogical Museum Russian Academy Of Sciences (1997–2001). Mineralogical Museums and Collections, 101. New data on minerals. M.: 2003. Volume 38
Godovikovite
Formula: (NH4)Al(SO4)2
Reference: D.I.Belakovskiy data
Greenalite
Formula: (Fe2+,Fe3+)2-3Si2O5(OH)4
Reference: Sharygin, V.V., Sokol, E.V. and Belakovskii, D.I. (2009): Fayalite-sekaninaite paralava from the Ravat coal fire (central Tajikistan). Russian Geology and Geophysics 50, 703-721.
Greenockite
Formula: CdS
Reference: D.I.Belakovskiy data
Gwihabaite
Formula: (NH4,K)NO3
Reference: D.I.Belakovskiy data
Hedleyite
Formula: Bi7Te3
Reference: D.I.Belakovskiy data
Hematite
Formula: Fe2O3
Reference: Sharygin, V.V., Sokol, E.V. and Belakovskii, D.I. (2009): Fayalite-sekaninaite paralava from the Ravat coal fire (central Tajikistan). Russian Geology and Geophysics 50, 703-721.
Hercynite
Formula: Fe2+Al2O4
Reference: Sharygin, V.V., Sokol, E.V. and Belakovskii, D.I. (2009): Fayalite-sekaninaite paralava from the Ravat coal fire (central Tajikistan). Russian Geology and Geophysics 50, 703-721.
Ilsemannite
Formula: Mo3O8 · nH2O
Reference: D.I.Belakovskiy data
Letovicite
Formula: (NH4)3H(SO4)2
Reference: D.I.Belakovskiy data
Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Reference: D.I.Belakovskiy data
Magnetite var: Titaniferous Magnetite
Formula: Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
Reference: Sharygin, V.V., Sokol, E.V. and Belakovskii, D.I. (2009): Fayalite-sekaninaite paralava from the Ravat coal fire (central Tajikistan). Russian Geology and Geophysics 50, 703-721.
Mascagnite
Formula: (NH4)2SO4
Reference: D.I.Belakovskiy data
Molybdite
Formula: MoO3
Reference: D.I.Belakovskiy data
Mullite
Formula: Al4+2xSi2-2xO10-x
Reference: Sharygin, V.V., Sokol, E.V. and Belakovskii, D.I. (2009): Fayalite-sekaninaite paralava from the Ravat coal fire (central Tajikistan). Russian Geology and Geophysics 50, 703-721.
Pyrrhotite
Formula: Fe7S8
Reference: Sharygin, V.V., Sokol, E.V. and Belakovskii, D.I. (2009): Fayalite-sekaninaite paralava from the Ravat coal fire (central Tajikistan). Russian Geology and Geophysics 50, 703-721.
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Sharygin, V.V., Sokol, E.V. and Belakovskii, D.I. (2009): Fayalite-sekaninaite paralava from the Ravat coal fire (central Tajikistan). Russian Geology and Geophysics 50, 703-721.
Rhomboclase
Formula: (H5O2)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 2H2O
Reference: PXRD (Lukasz Kruszewski)
Rostite
Formula: Al(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
Reference: PXRD (Lukasz Kruszewski)
Salammoniac
Formula: NH4Cl
Reference: Lukasz Kruszewski (visual identification)
Sekaninaite
Formula: (Fe,Mg)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Reference: Sharygin, V.V., Sokol, E.V. and Belakovskii, D.I. (2009): Fayalite-sekaninaite paralava from the Ravat coal fire (central Tajikistan). Russian Geology and Geophysics 50, 703-721.
Selenium
Formula: Se
Reference: D.I.Belakovskiy data
Sphalerite
Formula: ZnS
Reference: D.I.Belakovskiy data
Stranskiite
Formula: Zn2Cu(AsO4)2
Reference: Van King
Sulphur
Formula: S8
Reference: PXRD, visual identification (Lukasz Kruszewski)
Tridymite
Formula: SiO2
Reference: Sharygin, V.V., Sokol, E.V. and Belakovskii, D.I. (2009): Fayalite-sekaninaite paralava from the Ravat coal fire (central Tajikistan). Russian Geology and Geophysics 50, 703-721.
Tschermigite
Formula: (NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Reference: D.I.Belakovskiy data
Voltaite
Formula: K2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Reference: PXRD (Lukasz Kruszewski)

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 1 - Elements
Selenium1.CC.10Se
Sulphur1.CC.05S8
Group 2 - Sulphides and Sulfosalts
Galena2.CD.10PbS
Greenockite2.CB.45CdS
Hedleyite2.DC.05Bi7Te3
Pyrrhotite2.CC.10Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.CB.05aZnS
Group 3 - Halides
Cryptohalite3.CH.15(NH4)2[SiF6]
Salammoniac3.AA.25NH4Cl
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Hematite4.CB.05Fe2O3
Hercynite4.BB.05Fe2+Al2O4
Ilsemannite4.FJ.15Mo3O8 · nH2O
Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+Fe3+2O4
var: Titaniferous Magnetite4.BB.05Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
Molybdite4.E0.10MoO3
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Tridymite4.DA.10SiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Gwihabaite5.NA.15(NH4,K)NO3
Group 7 - Sulphates, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
Alunogen7.CB.45Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Boussingaultite7.CC.60(NH4)2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
Efremovite7.AC.10(NH4)2Mg2(SO4)3
Godovikovite7.AC.20(NH4)Al(SO4)2
Letovicite7.AD.20(NH4)3H(SO4)2
Mascagnite7.AD.05(NH4)2SO4
Rhomboclase7.CB.55(H5O2)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 2H2O
Rostite7.DB.10Al(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
Tschermigite7.CC.20(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Voltaite7.CC.25K2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Stranskiite8.AB.35Zn2Cu(AsO4)2
Group 9 - Silicates
Clinoferrosilite9.DA.10Fe2+SiO3
Cordierite9.CJ.10(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Fayalite9.AC.05Fe2+2SiO4
Greenalite9.ED.15(Fe2+,Fe3+)2-3Si2O5(OH)4
Mullite9.AF.20Al4+2xSi2-2xO10-x
Sekaninaite9.CJ.10(Fe,Mg)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Falgarite (TL)-K4(VO)3(SO4)5

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 1 - NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
Semi-metals and non-metals
Selenium1.3.4.1Se
Sulphur1.3.5.1S8
Group 2 - SULFIDES
AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 4:3
Hedleyite2.6.3.3Bi7Te3
AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Galena2.8.1.1PbS
Greenockite2.8.7.2CdS
Pyrrhotite2.8.10.1Fe7S8
Sphalerite2.8.2.1ZnS
Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
A2X3
Hematite4.3.1.2Fe2O3
AX3
Molybdite4.5.1.1MoO3
Miscellaneous
Ilsemannite4.6.3.1Mo3O8 · nH2O
Group 7 - MULTIPLE OXIDES
AB2X4
Hercynite7.2.1.3Fe2+Al2O4
Magnetite7.2.2.3Fe2+Fe3+2O4
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX
Salammoniac9.1.3.1NH4Cl
Group 11 - HALIDE COMPLEXES
AmBX6
Cryptohalite11.5.1.2(NH4)2[SiF6]
Group 28 - ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
Anhydrous Acid Sulfates
Letovicite28.1.3.1(NH4)3H(SO4)2
A2XO4
Mascagnite28.2.1.1(NH4)2SO4
AXO4
Godovikovite28.3.5.2(NH4)Al(SO4)2
Miscellaneous
Efremovite28.4.4.3(NH4)2Mg2(SO4)3
Group 29 - HYDRATED ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
Hydrated Acid Sulfates
Rhomboclase29.1.1.1(H5O2)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 2H2O
A2B(XO4)2·xH2O
Boussingaultite29.3.7.2(NH4)2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
AB(XO4)2·xH2O
Tschermigite29.5.5.3(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
A2(XO4)3·H2O
Alunogen29.8.6.1Al2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Miscellaneous
Voltaite29.9.1.1K2Fe2+5Fe3+3Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Group 31 - HYDRATED SULFATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)(XO4)Zq·xH2O
Rostite31.9.11.2Al(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
Group 38 - ANHYDROUS NORMAL PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, AND VANADATES
(AB)3(XO4)2
Stranskiite38.3.7.1Zn2Cu(AsO4)2
Group 51 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups Only
Insular SiO4 Groups Only with all cations in octahedral [6] coordination
Fayalite51.3.1.1Fe2+2SiO4
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [4] and >[4] coordination
Mullite52.2.3.1Al4+2xSi2-2xO10-x
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with Al substituted rings
Cordierite61.2.1.1(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Sekaninaite61.2.1.2(Fe,Mg)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Group 65 - INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=2
Clinoferrosilite65.1.1.2Fe2+SiO3
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 1:1 layers
Greenalite71.1.2b.4(Fe2+,Fe3+)2-3Si2O5(OH)4
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Tridymite75.1.2.1SiO2
Unclassified Minerals, Mixtures, etc.
Falgarite (TL)-K4(VO)3(SO4)5
Gwihabaite-(NH4,K)NO3
Magnetite
var: Titaniferous Magnetite
-Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H Rhomboclase(H5O2)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 2H2O
H RostiteAl(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
H VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
H SalammoniacNH4Cl
H IlsemanniteMo3O8 · nH2O
H AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
H Letovicite(NH4)3H(SO4)2
H Mascagnite(NH4)2SO4
H Gwihabaite(NH4,K)NO3
H Efremovite(NH4)2Mg2(SO4)3
H Godovikovite(NH4)Al(SO4)2
H Tschermigite(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
H Boussingaultite(NH4)2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
H Greenalite(Fe2+,Fe3+)2-3Si2O5(OH)4
H Cryptohalite(NH4)2[SiF6]
NNitrogen
N SalammoniacNH4Cl
N Letovicite(NH4)3H(SO4)2
N Mascagnite(NH4)2SO4
N Gwihabaite(NH4,K)NO3
N Efremovite(NH4)2Mg2(SO4)3
N Godovikovite(NH4)Al(SO4)2
N Tschermigite(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
N Boussingaultite(NH4)2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
N Cryptohalite(NH4)2[SiF6]
OOxygen
O FalgariteK4(VO)3(SO4)5
O Rhomboclase(H5O2)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 2H2O
O RostiteAl(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
O VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
O MolybditeMoO3
O HematiteFe2O3
O IlsemanniteMo3O8 · nH2O
O AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
O Letovicite(NH4)3H(SO4)2
O Mascagnite(NH4)2SO4
O Gwihabaite(NH4,K)NO3
O MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
O Efremovite(NH4)2Mg2(SO4)3
O Godovikovite(NH4)Al(SO4)2
O Tschermigite(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
O Boussingaultite(NH4)2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
O StranskiiteZn2Cu(AsO4)2
O FayaliteFe22+SiO4
O Sekaninaite(Fe,Mg)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
O HercyniteFe2+Al2O4
O TridymiteSiO2
O ClinoferrosiliteFe2+SiO3
O Greenalite(Fe2+,Fe3+)2-3Si2O5(OH)4
O QuartzSiO2
O MulliteAl4+2xSi2-2xO10-x
O Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
O Magnetite (var: Titaniferous Magnetite)Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
FFluorine
F Cryptohalite(NH4)2[SiF6]
MgMagnesium
Mg Efremovite(NH4)2Mg2(SO4)3
Mg Boussingaultite(NH4)2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
Mg Sekaninaite(Fe,Mg)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Mg Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
AlAluminium
Al RostiteAl(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
Al VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Al AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
Al Godovikovite(NH4)Al(SO4)2
Al Tschermigite(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
Al Sekaninaite(Fe,Mg)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Al HercyniteFe2+Al2O4
Al MulliteAl4+2xSi2-2xO10-x
Al Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
SiSilicon
Si FayaliteFe22+SiO4
Si Sekaninaite(Fe,Mg)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Si TridymiteSiO2
Si ClinoferrosiliteFe2+SiO3
Si Greenalite(Fe2+,Fe3+)2-3Si2O5(OH)4
Si QuartzSiO2
Si MulliteAl4+2xSi2-2xO10-x
Si Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Si Cryptohalite(NH4)2[SiF6]
SSulfur
S FalgariteK4(VO)3(SO4)5
S Rhomboclase(H5O2)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 2H2O
S RostiteAl(SO4)(OH) · 5H2O
S SulphurS8
S VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
S GalenaPbS
S SphaleriteZnS
S PyrrhotiteFe7S8
S AlunogenAl2(SO4)3 · 17H2O
S Letovicite(NH4)3H(SO4)2
S Mascagnite(NH4)2SO4
S Efremovite(NH4)2Mg2(SO4)3
S Godovikovite(NH4)Al(SO4)2
S Tschermigite(NH4)Al(SO4)2 · 12H2O
S Boussingaultite(NH4)2Mg(SO4)2 · 6H2O
S GreenockiteCdS
ClChlorine
Cl SalammoniacNH4Cl
KPotassium
K FalgariteK4(VO)3(SO4)5
K VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
K Gwihabaite(NH4,K)NO3
TiTitanium
Ti Magnetite (var: Titaniferous Magnetite)Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
VVanadium
V FalgariteK4(VO)3(SO4)5
FeIron
Fe Rhomboclase(H5O2)Fe3+(SO4)2 · 2H2O
Fe VoltaiteK2Fe52+Fe33+Al(SO4)12 · 18H2O
Fe HematiteFe2O3
Fe PyrrhotiteFe7S8
Fe MagnetiteFe2+Fe23+O4
Fe FayaliteFe22+SiO4
Fe Sekaninaite(Fe,Mg)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Fe HercyniteFe2+Al2O4
Fe ClinoferrosiliteFe2+SiO3
Fe Greenalite(Fe2+,Fe3+)2-3Si2O5(OH)4
Fe Cordierite(Mg,Fe)2Al3(AlSi5O18)
Fe Magnetite (var: Titaniferous Magnetite)Fe2+(Fe3+,Ti)2O4
CuCopper
Cu StranskiiteZn2Cu(AsO4)2
ZnZinc
Zn SphaleriteZnS
Zn StranskiiteZn2Cu(AsO4)2
AsArsenic
As StranskiiteZn2Cu(AsO4)2
SeSelenium
Se SeleniumSe
MoMolybdenum
Mo MolybditeMoO3
Mo IlsemanniteMo3O8 · nH2O
CdCadmium
Cd GreenockiteCdS
TeTellurium
Te HedleyiteBi7Te3
PbLead
Pb GalenaPbS
BiBismuth
Bi HedleyiteBi7Te3

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Novikov V.P., Suprychev V.V.(1986) Parameters of modern mineral-forming processes associated with underground coal combustion at Fan-Yagnob deposit. Mineralogy of Tajikistan, 7, 91-104 (in Russian).
Belakovskiy D.I., Moskalev I.V.(1988) Natural ammonium nitrate from the products of self-ignited coal layers in Kukhi-Malik valley (Central Tajikistan). Novye dannye o mineralakh (new data on minerals), 1988, v.35, p.191-194. (Russian)
Belakovskiy D.I., Novikov V.P., Pautov L.A., Suprychev V.V. (1988): First occurrence of letovicite in the USSR (Central Tajikistan) Doklady Akademii Nauk Tadzhikskoy SSR, 1988, v.ХХХI, N 9., 603-606. (Russian)
Belakovski D. (1990): Die Mineralien der brennenden Kohleflöze von Ravat in Tadshikistan. Lapis, 15 (12), 21-26. (in German)
Belakovskiy D.I., Galuskin E. (1990) Hopper crystals of natural salammoniac. Mineralogitceskiy Zhurnal, 12, xx-xx. (in Russian).
Nasdala L., Pekov I.V. (1993) Ravatite, C14H10, a new organic mineral species from Ravat, Tajikistan. European Journal of Mineralogy, 5, 699-705.
Sharygin, V.V., Sokol, E.V. and Belakovskii, D.I. (2009): Fayalite-sekaninaite paralava from the Ravat coal fire (central Tajikistan). Russian Geology and Geophysics 50, 703-721.


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