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About RamsdelliteHide

Lewis S. Ramsdell
black, steel-grey
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Named in honor of Lewis Stephen Ramsdell (4 June 1895, Clinton, Michigan, USA - 14 July 1975, Palo Alto, California, USA), Professor of Mineralogy at the University of Michigan, who first described the mineral.
Forms by inversion of pyrolusite or oxidative dehydrogenation of groutite.

Classification of RamsdelliteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
D : Metal: Oxygen = 1:2 and similar
B : With medium-sized cations; chains of edge-sharing octahedra
Dana 7th ed.:

4 : AX2

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
18 : Oxides of Mn

Physical Properties of RamsdelliteHide

black, steel-grey
brownish black, black
4.37 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.79 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Chemical Properties of RamsdelliteHide

IMA Formula:

Crystallography of RamsdelliteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.53 Å, b = 9.27 Å, c = 2.86 Å
a:b:c = 0.489 : 1 : 0.309
Unit Cell V:
120.43 ų

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
4.08 Å(10)
2.53 Å(8)
2.13 Å(5)
1.88 Å(5)
1.64 Å(6)
1.60 Å(7)
1.46 Å(5)

Type Occurrence of RamsdelliteHide

Synonyms of RamsdelliteHide

Other Language Names for RamsdelliteHide

Simplified Chinese:斜方锰矿

Relationship of Ramsdellite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
Akhtenskiteε-Mn4+O2Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
3 photos of Ramsdellite associated with PyrolusiteMn4+O2
2 photos of Ramsdellite associated with GroutiteMn3+O(OH)
2 photos of Ramsdellite associated with Petrified Wood
1 photo of Ramsdellite associated with Heulandite subgroup
1 photo of Ramsdellite associated with Flint
1 photo of Ramsdellite associated with CalciteCaCO3

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.DB.05ArgutiteGeO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.DB.05CassiteriteSnO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.DB.05PlattneritePbO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m)
4.DB.05PyrolusiteMn4+O2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.DB.05RutileTiO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.DB.10ByströmiteMgSb2O6Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
4.DB.10Tapiolite-(Fe)(Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb)2O6Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.DB.10Tapiolite-(Mn)(Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)2O6Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.DB.15bAkhtenskiteε-Mn4+O2Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
4.DB.25Samarskite-(Y)YFe3+Nb2O8Mon. 2/m : P2/b
4.DB.25SrilankiteZrTi2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
4.DB.25Samarskite-(Yb)(Yb,Y,U,Th,Ca,Fe)(Nb,Ta)2O8Mon. 2/m : P2/b
4.DB.30FerberiteFeWO4Mon. 2/m : P2/b
4.DB.30HübneriteMnWO4Mon. 2/m : P2/b
4.DB.30Sanmartinite(Zn,Fe)WO4Mon. 2/m : P21/b
4.DB.30HeftetjerniteScTaO4Mon. 2/m
4.DB.30HuanzalaiteMgWO4Mon. 2/m : P2/b
4.DB.35Columbite-(Fe)Fe2+Nb2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Fe)Fe2+Ta2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
4.DB.35Columbite-(Mn)Mn2+Nb2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Mn)Mn2+Ta2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Mg)(Mg,Fe2+)(Ta,Nb)2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
4.DB.50Carmichaelite(Ti,Cr,Fe)[O2-x(OH)x]Mon. 2/m : P21/b
4.DB.55AlumotantiteAlTaO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.18.1ManganositeMnOIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
7.18.2HausmanniteMn2+Mn3+2O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
7.18.3PyrolusiteMn4+O2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
7.18.5Akhtenskiteε-Mn4+O2Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
7.18.6FeitknechtiteMn3+O(OH)Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
7.18.7ManganiteMn3+O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
7.18.8GroutiteMn3+O(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
7.18.10PyrochroiteMn(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
7.18.11Birnessite(Na,Ca)0.5(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
7.18.12AuroriteMn2+Mn4+3O7 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : R3
7.18.13CianciulliiteMn(Mg,Mn)2Zn2(OH)10 · 2-4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for RamsdelliteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Ramsdell, L.S. (1932) An X-ray study of psilomelane and wad. American Mineralogist: 17: 143-149.
Fleischer, M., Richmond, W.E. (1943) The manganese oxide minerals: a preliminary report. Economic Geology: 38: 269-286.
Fleischer, M. (1943) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 28: 615-615.
Byström, A.M. (1949) The Crystal Structure of Ramsdellite, an Orthorhombic Modification of MnO2. Acta Chemica Scandinavica: 3: 163-173.
Kedesdy, H., Katz, G., Levin, S.B. (1957) Structural relationship between ramsdellite and some synthetic manganese oxides (abs). Acta Crystallographica: l0: 780-781.
Klingsberg, C., Roy, R. (1957) Ramsdellite: newly observed in Minnesota. Economic Geology: 52: 574-577.
Mukherjee, B. (1959) An x-ray study of manganese minerals. Mineralogical Magazine: 32: 332-339.
Bernardova, E. Slanksy, E. (1960) The occurrence of ramsdellite in Czechoslovakia. Vestnik Ustredniho Ustavu Geologickeho: 35: 153-154. (English summary)
Fleischer, M., Richmond, W.E., Evans, H.T. (1962) Studies of the manganese oxides. V. Ramsdellite, MnO2, an orthorhombic dimorph of pyrolusite. American Mineralogist: 47: 47-58.
Majmundar, H.H. (1969) Ramsdellite and groutite from Nova Scotia. The Canadian Mineralogist: 9: 718-720.
Potter, R.M., Rossman, G.R. (1979) The tetravalent manganese oxides: identification, hydration, and structural relationships by infrared spectroscopy. American Mineralogist: 64: 1199-1218.
Miura, H., Kudou, H., Choi, J.H., Hariya, Y. (1990) The Crystal Structure of Ramsdellite from Pirika Mine. Bulletin of Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University: 22(4): 611-617.
Fong, C., Kennedy, B.J., Elcombe, M.M. (1994) A powder neutron diffraction study of λ and γ manganese dioxide and of LiMn2O4. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 209(12): 941-945.
Kohler, T., Armbruster, T., Libowitzky, E. (1997) Hydrogen bonding and Jahn-Teller distortion in groutite, α-MnOOH, and manganite, γ-MnOOH, and their relations to the manganese dioxides ramsdellite and pyrolusite. Journal of Solid State Chemistry: 133: 486-500.
Post, J.E., Heaney, P.J. (2004) Neutron and synchrotron X-ray diffraction study of the structures and dehydration behaviors of ramsdellite and "groutellite". American Mineralogist: 89: 969-975.

Internet Links for RamsdelliteHide

Localities for RamsdelliteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • New South Wales
    • Yancowinna Co.
      • Broken Hill district
Worner, H. K. and Mitchell, R. W., eds. Birch, W. D. (et al) (1982) Minerals of Broken Hill, published by Australian Mining & Smelting Limited ISBN 0-909221-18-9
  • South Australia
    • Eyre Peninsula
      • Middleback Range
        • Iron Knob
No reference listed
  • Göygöl District (Hanlar)
Pavel M. Kartashov data
  • Haskovo Province
    • Madzharovo Municipality
I. Kostov, V. Breskovska, J. Mincheva-Stefanova, G. Kirov (1964): Minerals of Bulgaria. Sofia, Bulgaria, 540 pp. (in Bulgarian).
Burkina Faso
  • Sahel Region
    • Oudalan Province
Hénocque, O., Ruffet, G., Colin, F., & Féraud, G. (1998). < sup> 40 Ar/< sup> 39 Ar dating of West African lateritic cryptomelanes. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 62(16), 2739-2756.
  • Nova Scotia
    • Hants Co.
      • Walton
R.W. Boyle, "The Geology, Geochemistry, and Origin of the Barite, Manganese, and Lead-Zinc-Copper-Silver Deposits of the Walton-Cheverie Area, Nova Scotia", Geological Survey of Canada, Bulletin 166, 1972.
    • Kings Co.
Majmundar, H.H. (1969) Ramsdellite and Groutite from Nova Scotia. Canadian Mineralogist: 9: 718-720.
    • Pictou Co.
Fleischer, M., Richmond, W.E, and Evans H.T. Jr., "Studies of the Manganese Oxides. V. Ramsdellite, MnO2, an Orthorhombic Dimorph of Pyrolusite", The American Mineralogist, vol. 47, pg. 47, Jan-Feb 1962.
  • Atacama
    • Chañaral Province
      • Caballo Muerto district
Maurizio Dini - analysed material by Bob Jenkins
Czech Republic
  • Karlovy Vary Region
    • Karlovy Vary District
      • Horní Blatná
        • Horní Blatná (Platten; Bergstadt Platten)
Bufka, A., Velebil, D.: Manganová mineralizace žíly Marie Terezie u Horní Blatné v Krušných horách. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 2003, roč. 11, s. 100-114.
  • Tavastia Proper
    • Forssa
Ilkka Mikkola collection EDS+XRD identification.
  • Bourgogne-Franche-Comté
    • Haute-Saône
      • Faucogney-et-la-Mer
        • Esmoulières
          • Saphoz
Wittern, Journée: "Mineralien finden in den Vogesen", von Loga (Cologne), 1997
Perseil, E. A. (1975) - Nature and mineralogical studies of manganese oxides and carbonates in Faucogney (Haute-Saone). Comptes Rendus des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, D, 280, 1931-1934
Perseil, E. A. (1975) - Nature and mineralogical studies of manganese oxides and carbonates in Faucogney (Haute-Saone). Comptes Rendus des Séances de l'Académie des Sciences, D, 280, 1931-1934
  • Grand Est
    • Haut-Rhin
      • Colmar-Ribeauvillé
Wittern, Journée: "Mineralien finden in den Vogesen", von Loga (Cologne), 1997
  • New Caledonia
    • Northern Province
      • Houaïlou Commune
Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., Bliss, J.D., and Moring, B.C., 2011, Ni-Co laterite deposits of the world; database and grade and tonnage models: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2011-1058.
  • Nouvelle-Aquitaine
    • Creuse
      • Soumans
        • Montebras
Patureau, J., Chiappero, P-J. & Lebocey, J. (2011): Mines et minéraux de Montebras, Soumans, Creuse. Le Règne Minéral. 99, 5-33
  • Occitanie
    • Ariège
Perseil, E. A. (1967): Manganese mineralization of the Upper Devonian in Las Cabesses (Ariege). Comptes Rendus du Congres National des Societes Savantes, Section des Sciences 91 (Part 2), 313-321.
    • Hautes-Pyrénées
Le Règne Minéral 47: 5-21
        • Vielle-Aure
DE ASCENCAO GUEDES R., TIXADOR Y., CASTERET A. & GOUJOU JC. (2002) La mine de Coustou, Vielle-Aure, Hautes-Pyrénées. Le Règne Minéral, 47, 23-31. (in french)
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Freiburg
      • Ortenaukreis
        • Oberwolfach
Walenta, K. (1992): Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes. Chr. Weise Verlag, München, 336 pp. (in German)
    • Gengenbach
      • Haigerach valley
Wittern,A. (1995) Mineralien finden im Schwarzwald
    • Odenwald
      • Heidelberg
        • Mauer
S. Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Lower Saxony
    • Göttingen
      • Bad Grund
        • Iberg
Schnorrer, G. & Klänhardt, K. (2002): Die Minerale des Iberg-Winterberg-Massives bei Bad Grund/Harz. Aufschluss, 53 (4), 181-199; Jahn, S., K. Stedingk & K. Klänhardt (2012): Das Iberg-Winterberg-Massiv bei Bad Grund. Mineralien-Welt, 23 (4), 30-67.
    • Peine
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Thuringia
    • Saale-Orla-Kreis
      • Wurzbach
        • Weitisberga
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
  • Western Region
    • Tarkwa
Mücke, A., Dzigbodi-Adjimah, K., and Annor, A. (1999): Mineralium Deposita 34, 297-311.
  • Attica
    • East Attica
      • Lavreotiki
        • Lavrion District Mines
          • Agios Konstantinos [St Constantine] (Kamariza)
No reference listed
          • Daskalio area
Hanke, H. (1996): Neues aus Lavrion (II). Mineralien-Welt, 7 (1), 54-56.
  • South Aegean
    • Milos
      • Milos Island
Hein, J. R.; Stamatakis, M. G.; Dowling, J. S. (2000): Trace metal-rich Quaternary hydrothermal manganese oxide and barite deposit, Milos Island, Greece. Transactions of the Institution of Mining and Metallurgy, 109, B67-B76.
KILIAS, S. P. (2012). MICROBIAL MAT–RELATED STRUCTURES IN THE QUATERNARY CAPE VANI MANGANESE-OXIDE (-BARITE) DEPOSIT, NW MILOS ISLAND, GREECE. Microbial Mats in Siliciclastic Depositional Systems Through Time, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology) Special Publication, 101, 97-100.
  • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County
    • Miskolc District
      • Bükkszentkereszt
Koch: Minerals of Hungary, 1985
    • Sárospatak District
      • Erdőhorváti
GEODA, 1999
  • Veszprém County
    • Ajka district
      • Úrkút
        • Csárda Hill
Szakáll & Jánosi (1996) The Minerals of Hungary
    • Veszprém district
      • Eplény
Szakáll & Gatter, 1993
  • Andhra Pradesh
    • Vizianagaram District
Econ Geol (1980) 75:1083-1104
Econ Geol (1980) 75:1083-1104
  • Karnataka
    • Ballari District
      • Bellary-Hospet iron belt
        • Sandur
Rao, J. S. R. K., Naidu, B. V. & Rao, K. V. (1979): Ore microscopic, x-ray and trace elemental data on manganese ores from Sandur, Karnataka, India. Acta Mineralogica-Petrographica 24, 91-97.
  • Odisha
    • Anugul District
Mallick, B., Rautray, T. R., Nayak, P. K., Vijayan, V., Singh, P., Behera, R. C., ... & Choudhury, R. K. (2005, March). Characterisation of hot material erupted from Mahanadi riverbank using EDXRF and XRD techniques. In INDIAN JOURNAL OF PHYSICS AND PROCEEDINGS OF THE INDIAN ASSOCIATION FOR THE CULTIVATION OF SCIENCE-NEW SERIES- (Vol. 79, No. 3, p. 293). NOT KNOWN.
  • Telangana
    • Adilabad District
Rao, J. S. R. Krishna; Kasipathi, C. (1985): Occurrence of todorokite from Adilabad Manganese Mines, Andhra Pradesh. Current Science 54, 862.
  • Liguria
    • La Spezia Province
      • Borghetto di Vara
Castellaro, F. (2008) 160 volte Cerchiara. Prie, 4, 115-130.
  • Veneto
    • Verona Province
      • Negrar di Valpolicella (Negrar)
        • Montecchio
          • Vajo Siresol
Probed by Prof. Giuseppetti; Boscardin, M. (2014): Provincia di Verona. In: Zorzi, F., Boscardin, M. (eds.), Minerali del Veneto. Alla scoperta sei tesori della nostra regione. Museo di Storia Naturale e Archeologia di Montebelluna - Treviso, Cierre Edizioni, Sommacampagna, 153-171.
    • Vicenza Province
      • Lusiana
Boscardin M., Daleffe A., Rocchetti I., Zordan A. “I minerali nel Vicentino”, Museo “G. Zannato”, Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), 2011.
  • Akita
    • Kitaakita City
      • Ani-machi
Dr. Matsuo Nambu ore collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
  • Hokkaidō
    • Hiyama Subprefecture
      • Imakane (Imagane; Hanaishi)
Miura, Hiroyuki;Kudou, Haruhiko;Choi, Jai Ho;Hariya, Yu (1990) The Crystal Structure of Ramsdellite from Pirika Mine. Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University. Series 4, Geology and mineralogy; Vol.XXII, No.4
  • Iwate
    • Kuji City
      • Yamagata
Nambu, M. & Tanida, K. (1961): On the progressive alteration of manganese dioxide minerals in the Toyoguchi Mine, Iwate Prefecture. Ganseki Kobutsu Kosho Gakkaishi 45, 39-48. (in Japanese)
    • Kunohe-gun
      • Noda-mura
Watanabe, T. (1959) Mineralogical Journal, 2, 6, 408-421
  • Niigata
    • Niigata City
University of Tokyo collection
  • Shizuoka
    • Shimoda City
Alfredo Petrov specimens
  • Baja California
    • Ensenada Municipality
Panzcer (1987), pp. 103, 143, 150, 165, 174, 1777, 180, 186, 192, 226, 290, 319, 327, 334
Panzcer, 1987, p. 327
    • Tecate Municipality
      • Los Gavilanes
[MinRec 14:110, 14:112]
  • Baja California Sur
    • Mulegé Municipality
      • Lucifer (San Lucifer)
Panczner (1987): 327.
  • Chihuahua
    • Ahumada Municipality
Finkleman et al. (1974) Min. Magazine v. 39 pp. 549-558
    • Aldama Municipality
Cross, B. & Culp Zeitner J. (2006), Geodes Natures Treasures, P.21
    • Aquiles Serdán Municipality
      • Santa Eulalia Mining District
        • East Camp
Megaw, P.K.M., 1990b, Geology and geochemistry of the Santa Eulalia mining district, Chihuahua, Mexico.: Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Arizona, 549 p
  • Durango
    • Mapimí Municipality
      • Mapimí
Rocks & Min.: 56:247.
Panczner (1987): 327.
  • Telemark
    • Notodden
Selbekk R.S. (2010): Norges mineraler. En revidert utgave av Norges mineraler (Neumann 1985). Tapir-NGU-NHM. 552p (p.151)
  • Vest-Agder
    • Farsund
Breivik, H. (2018) Heskestad (Elle) baryttforekomst, Farsund. Stein 45 (2): 10-14
    • Kristiansand
Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p. 74; Breivik, H. ; Myre, K. & Larsen, A. O. (2007): Manganforekomster på Sørlandet: Kvivikdalen (Kostøl, Ålefjær): Norsk Bergverksmuseums Skrift, 35, 25-31
    • Mandal
Neumann, H. (1959): Contributions to the mineralogy of Norway No. 1. An introduction. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 39:231-236
  • Guarda
    • Gouveia
      • Folgosinho
    • Sabugal
      • Bendada
Schnorrer-Köhler (1991), Mineral Occurrences.
  • Setúbal
    • Santiago do Cacém
      • Cercal
Martins da Pedra collection
  • Suceava
    • Suceava district
      • Iacobeni (Jakobeny; Jacobeny; Jakabfalva)
South Africa
  • Northern Cape
    • Kalahari manganese field
      • Hotazel
Wilson, W.E. & Dunn, P.J., (1978) Famous localities: The Kalahari manganese field. Mineralogical Record 9(3) 137-153; Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa: pp 237.
Minerals of South Africa
    • Western Belt
Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
  • Västra Götaland County
    • Åmål
      • Strandhem ore field
Kjell Gatedal
  • Valais
    • Turtmann Valley
      • Pipjitälli
Ansermet, S. (2012): Mines et minéraux du Valais - II. Anniviers et Tourtemagne. With contributions by N. Meisser, Ed. Porte-plumes (Ayer)
  • Wales
    • Ceredigion
      • Trefeirig
        • Ponterwyd
          • Nant-y-Moch Reservoir area
T.F. Cotterell, unpublished data
  • Arizona
    • Maricopa Co.
      • Vulture Mining District
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 351; Hewett, D.F. (1964), Veins of hypogene manganese oxide minerals in the southwestern US, Econ.Geol.: 59: 1429-1472.
    • Mohave County
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of AZ, 3rd. ed.: 188; Mouat, M.M. (1962), Mn Oxides from the Artillery Mts area, AZ, Am.Min.: 47: 744-757.
        • Artillery Peak
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 351.; Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 252, 351.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.: 252, 351.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of AZ, 3rd.ed.: 351; Mouat, M.M. (1962), Manganese oxides from the Artillery Mountains area, AZ, Am.Min.: 47:744-757.
    • Pinal Co.
      • Dudleyville
        • Malpais Hill
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.: 160, 250; Bideaux, R.A., et al (1960), Some new occurrences of minerals of AZ, AZ Geol. Soc. Digest: 3: 53-56; Thomssen, R.W. (1983), The minerals of Malpais Hill, Pinal Co., AZ, Min.Rec.: 14: 109-113.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.: 351; Thomssen, R.W. (1983), The minerals of Malpais Hill, Pinal Co., AZ, Min.Rec.: 14: 109-113.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.: 160, 250; Bideaux, R.A., et al (1960), Some new occurrences of minerals of AZ, AZ Geol. Soc. Digest: 3: 53-56; Thomssen, R.W. (1983), The minerals of Malpais Hill, Pinal Co., AZ, Min.Rec.: 14: 109-113.
      • Mammoth Mining District
        • Tiger
          • St. Anthony deposit
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 351; Bideaux, R.A. (1980), Tiger, AZ, Min.Rec.: 11: 155-181.
    • Yavapai Co.
      • Box Canyon Mining District
        • Sam Powell Peak
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 342-343, 351; Wilkinson, W.H., Jr., et al (1983), Ramsdellite from the Mistake Mine, Min.Rec.: 14: 333-335.
      • Weaver Mts
        • Weaver Mining District (Virginia Mining District; Mocking Bird Mining District)
          • Octave
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 351.
  • California
    • Imperial Co.
      • Chocolate Mts
        • Paymaster Mining District
          • Midway Well
            • Whedon claims
Hadley, Jarvis Bardwell (1942), Manganese deposits in the Paymaster mining district, Imperial County, California: USGS Bulletin 931-S: 465; Hewett, Donnel Foster (1964), Veins of hypogene manganese oxide minerals in the southwestern United States: Economic Geology: 59: 1440; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 318; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 164.
  • Colorado
    • Saguache Co.
Rocks & Minerals (July-August, 2002)
  • Minnesota
    • St. Louis Co.
      • Mesabi Range
Klingsberg, C., & Roy, R. (1957). Ramsdellite; newly observed in Minnesota. Economic Geology, 52(5), 574-577.
  • Montana
    • Butte-Silver Bow (Butte; Silver Bow Co.)
The mineralogy of the butte district, Montana By John M. Guilbert and Lester G. Zeihen; "Butte, Montana, Minerals, Mines and History", The Mineralogical Record, Vol 33, No. 1, Jan-Feb, 2002
    • Granite Co.
      • Philipsburg Mining District (Flint Creek Mining District)
Geology and Ore Deposits of the Philipsburg District, Granite Co., Montana; William C. Prinz, 1967
  • New Mexico
    • Sierra Co.
      • Iron Mountain No. 2 District
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. Ed., 1996
      • Sierra Cuchillo (Cuchillo Negro Mts)
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    • Socorro Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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