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Wheal Remfry (Wheal Remfrey) China Clay Pit, Fraddon, St Enoder, Cornwall, England, UK

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Latitude & Longitude (WGS84): 50° 22' 51'' North , 4° 55' 13'' West
Latitude & Longitude (decimal): 50.38083,-4.92028
GeoHash:G#: gbuw8591t
UK National Grid Reference:SW924576
Locality type:Pit
Köppen climate type:Cfb : Temperate oceanic climate


Note: "Wheal Remfrey" is also found on specimen labels, but is probably a misnomer.

Regions containing this locality

Devon and Cornwall metalliferous mining district, England, UK

Mining District - 759 mineral species & varietal names listed

St Austell Mining District, Cornwall, England, UK

Mining District - 252 mineral species & varietal names listed

Select Mineral List Type

Standard Detailed Strunz Dana Chemical Elements

Commodity List

This is a list of exploitable or exploited mineral commodities recorded at this locality.


Mineral List


17 valid minerals.

Detailed Mineral List:

Anatase
Formula: TiO2
Habit: Tabular, blocky, bipyramiddle
Colour: Black, brown
Reference: Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
'Apatite'
Reference: No reference listed
Autunite ?
Formula: Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Habit: Platy
Colour: Yellow
Bismutite
Formula: (BiO)2CO3
Habit: Prismatic
Colour: Brown to yellow
Reference: UKJMM No19
Cassiterite
Formula: SnO2
Reference: No reference listed
'commodity:Clay'
Reference: From USGS MRDS database
Dravite
Formula: Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: Müller, A., and Halls, C. (2005), In: Jingwen Mao and Bierlein, F.P. (Eds.): Mineral Deposit Research: Meeting the Global Challenge, Vol. 1, Springer (Berlin, Heidelberg, New York), pp. 441-444
Fluorite
Formula: CaF2
Reference: No reference listed
'commodity:Kaolin (China Clay)'
Reference: From USGS MRDS database
Kaolinite
Formula: Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Reference: Bristow, C. M., & Howe, J. H. (1995). Field excursion to the Fal valley, in the western part of the St Austell granite, 4th January 1995. PROCEEDINGS-USSHER SOCIETY, 8, 454-454.
Muscovite
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: No reference listed
Muscovite var: Pig's Egg
Formula: KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Reference: No reference listed
Opal
Formula: SiO2 · nH2O
Reference: No reference listed
Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: [MinRec 12:350-352]; Taylor, S. D. (1983). A fluid inclusion study of the Wheal Remfry breccia, Cornwall, UK. MS Thesis Univ of Windsor, Canada
Quartz var: Amethyst
Formula: SiO2
Habit: Pyramiddle crystals
Quartz var: Smoky Quartz
Formula: SiO2
Reference: No reference listed
Rutile
Formula: TiO2
Habit: Block crystals
Colour: Black
Reference: Müller, A., and Halls, C. (2005), In: Jingwen Mao and Bierlein, F.P. (Eds.): Mineral Deposit Research: Meeting the Global Challenge, Vol. 1, Springer (Berlin, Heidelberg, New York), pp. 441-444
Schorl
Formula: Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Reference: Müller, A., and Halls, C. (2005), In: Jingwen Mao and Bierlein, F.P. (Eds.): Mineral Deposit Research: Meeting the Global Challenge, Vol. 1, Springer (Berlin, Heidelberg, New York), pp. 441-444
Topaz
Formula: Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Reference: No reference listed
Torbernite
Formula: Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
Reference: No reference listed
'Tourmaline'
Formula: A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
Reference: [MinRec 12:350-352]; Bristow, C. M., & Howe, J. H. (1995). Field excursion to the Fal valley, in the western part of the St Austell granite, 4th January 1995. PROCEEDINGS-USSHER SOCIETY, 8, 454-454.; Taylor, S. D. (1983). A fluid inclusion study of the Wheal Remfry breccia, Cornwall, UK. MS Thesis Univ of Windsor, Canada
Turquoise
Formula: Cu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Reference: [MinRec 12:350-352]
Wavellite
Formula: Al3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
Reference: Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
Waylandite
Formula: BiAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
Habit: Drusy crusts, pseudocubic crystals
Colour: Colourless, tan-brown
Reference: UKJMM No19 Tindle, A.G. (2008) Minerals of Britain and Ireland. Terra Publishing, Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire. 624pp.

List of minerals arranged by Strunz 10th Edition classification

Group 3 - Halides
Fluorite3.AB.25CaF2
Group 4 - Oxides and Hydroxides
Anatase4.DD.05TiO2
Cassiterite4.DB.05SnO2
Opal4.DA.10SiO2 · nH2O
Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
var: Amethyst4.DA.05SiO2
var: Smoky Quartz4.DA.05SiO2
Rutile4.DB.05TiO2
Group 5 - Nitrates and Carbonates
Bismutite5.BE.25(BiO)2CO3
Group 8 - Phosphates, Arsenates and Vanadates
Autunite ?8.EB.05Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Torbernite8.EB.05Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
Turquoise8.DD.15Cu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Wavellite8.DC.50Al3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
Waylandite8.BL.13BiAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
Group 9 - Silicates
Dravite9.CK.05Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Kaolinite9.ED.05Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Muscovite9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
var: Pig's Egg9.EC.15KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Schorl9.CK.05Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Topaz9.AF.35Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
Apatite-
Tourmaline-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals arranged by Dana 8th Edition classification

Group 4 - SIMPLE OXIDES
AX2
Anatase4.4.4.1TiO2
Cassiterite4.4.1.5SnO2
Rutile4.4.1.1TiO2
Group 9 - NORMAL HALIDES
AX2
Fluorite9.2.1.1CaF2
Group 16a - ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
Bismutite16a.3.5.1(BiO)2CO3
Group 40 - HYDRATED NORMAL PHOSPHATES,ARSENATES AND VANADATES
AB2(XO4)2·xH2O, containing (UO2)2+
Autunite ?40.2a.1.1Ca(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Torbernite40.2a.13.1Cu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
Group 41 - ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)2(XO4)Zq
Waylandite41.5.12.1BiAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
Group 42 - HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
(AB)7(XO4)4Zq·xH2O
Turquoise42.9.3.1Cu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
A3(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
Wavellite42.10.2.1Al3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
Group 52 - NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] coordination only
Topaz52.3.1.1Al2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Group 61 - CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
Six-Membered Rings with borate groups
Dravite61.3.1.9Na(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Schorl61.3.1.10Na(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Group 71 - PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 layers
Muscovite71.2.2a.1KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Group 75 - TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Quartz75.1.3.1SiO2
Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with H2O and organics
Opal75.2.1.1SiO2 · nH2O
Unclassified Minerals, Rocks, etc.
'Apatite'-
Kaolinite-Al2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Muscovite
var: Pig's Egg
-KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Quartz
var: Amethyst
-SiO2
var: Smoky Quartz-SiO2
'Tourmaline'-A(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z

List of minerals for each chemical element

HHydrogen
H AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
H DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
H MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H OpalSiO2 · nH2O
H Muscovite (var: Pig's Egg)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
H SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
H TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
H TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
H TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
H WavelliteAl3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
H WaylanditeBiAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
BBoron
B DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
B TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
CCarbon
C Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
OOxygen
O Quartz (var: Amethyst)SiO2
O AnataseTiO2
O AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
O Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
O CassiteriteSnO2
O DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
O MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O OpalSiO2 · nH2O
O Muscovite (var: Pig's Egg)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
O QuartzSiO2
O RutileTiO2
O SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
O Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
O TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
O TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
O TourmalineA(D3)G6(T6O18)(BO3)3X3Z
O TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
O WavelliteAl3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
O WaylanditeBiAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
FFluorine
F FluoriteCaF2
F TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
F WavelliteAl3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
NaSodium
Na DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Na SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
MgMagnesium
Mg DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
AlAluminium
Al DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Al MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al Muscovite (var: Pig's Egg)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Al SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Al TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
Al TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
Al WavelliteAl3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
Al WaylanditeBiAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
SiSilicon
Si Quartz (var: Amethyst)SiO2
Si DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si KaoliniteAl2(Si2O5)(OH)4
Si MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si OpalSiO2 · nH2O
Si Muscovite (var: Pig's Egg)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
Si QuartzSiO2
Si SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Si Quartz (var: Smoky Quartz)SiO2
Si TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2
PPhosphorus
P AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
P TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
P TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
P WavelliteAl3(PO4)2(OH,F)3 · 5H2O
P WaylanditeBiAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
KPotassium
K MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
K Muscovite (var: Pig's Egg)KAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
CaCalcium
Ca AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
Ca FluoriteCaF2
TiTitanium
Ti AnataseTiO2
Ti RutileTiO2
FeIron
Fe SchorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Fe TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
CuCopper
Cu TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O
Cu TurquoiseCu(Al,Fe3+)6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2O
SnTin
Sn CassiteriteSnO2
BiBismuth
Bi Bismutite(BiO)2CO3
Bi WaylanditeBiAl3(PO4)2(OH)6
UUranium
U AutuniteCa(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 11H2O
U TorberniteCu(UO2)2(PO4)2 · 12H2O

Geochronology

Geologic TimeRocks, Minerals and Events
Phanerozoic
 Paleozoic
  Permian
   Guadalupian
ⓘ Major polymetallic mineralization~270 MaCornwall, England, UK
   Cisuralian
ⓘ Porphyry dikes intruded (latest age)~275 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Greisenization (latest age)~280 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Porphyry dikes intruded (earliest age)~280 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Formation of metallized pegmatites~285 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Greisenization (earliest age)~285 MaCornwall, England, UK
ⓘ Emplacement of major plutons~295 MaCornwall, England, UK

Regional Geology

This geological map and associated information on rock units at or nearby to the coordinates given for this locality is based on relatively small scale geological maps provided by various national Geological Surveys. This does not necessarily represent the complete geology at this locality but it gives a background for the region in which it is found.

Click on geological units on the map for more information. Click here to view full-screen map on Macrostrat.org

Permian - Carboniferous
251.902 - 358.9 Ma



ID: 2027014
Unnamed Igneous Intrusion, Carboniferous To Permian

Age: Phanerozoic (251.902 - 358.9 Ma)

Lithology: Felsic-rock

Reference: British Geological Survey. DiGMapGB-625. British Geological Survey ©NERC. [23]

Early Carboniferous
323.2 - 358.9 Ma



ID: 3192903
Paleozoic sedimentary rocks

Age: Mississippian (323.2 - 358.9 Ma)

Lithology: Sedimentary rocks

Reference: Chorlton, L.B. Generalized geology of the world: bedrock domains and major faults in GIS format: a small-scale world geology map with an extended geological attribute database. doi: 10.4095/223767. Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 5529. [154]

Early Devonian
393.3 - 419.2 Ma



ID: 3151591
Early Devonian sandstone

Age: Early Devonian (393.3 - 419.2 Ma)

Lithology: Sandstone

Reference: Asch, K. The 1:5M International Geological Map of Europe and Adjacent Areas: Development and Implementation of a GIS-enabled Concept. Geologisches Jahrbuch, SA 3. [147]

Data and map coding provided by Macrostrat.org, used under Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License

References

Sort by

Year (asc) Year (desc) Author (A-Z) Author (Z-A)
Selwood, Durance & Bristow, (1998), The Geology of Cornwall, Exeter University Press, p135 [though in this text the grid ref is given the sx prefix which puts it somewhere in Brixham marina!]
Müller, A., and Halls, C. (2005): Rutile - the tin-tungsten host in the intrusive tourmaline breccia at Wheal Remfry, SW England. In: Jingwen Mao and Bierlein, F.P. (Eds.): Mineral Deposit Research: Meeting the Global Challenge, Vol. 1, Springer (Berlin, Heidelberg, New York), pp. 441-444.

External Links



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