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Brookite

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Formula:
TiO2
Colour:
Brown, yellowish brown, reddish brown; dar brown to iron-black; yellowish brown to dark brown in transmitted light
Lustre:
Adamantine, Sub-Adamantine, Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous, Sub-Metallic
Hardness:
5½ - 6
Specific Gravity:
4.08 - 4.18
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Name:
Named in 1825 by Serve-Dieu Abailard "Armand" Lévy in honor of Henry James Brooke [May 25, 1771 Exeter, England, UK - 1857 London, England, UK], wealthy textile manufacturer and actuary, amateur English crystallographer and mineralogist. Brooke discovered 12 minerals: Annabergite, Autunite, Arfvedsonite, Caledonite, Childrenite, Linarite, Nitronatrite, Susannite, Thomsonite, and Whewellite. He was author of A Familiar Introduction to Crystallography and co-author of Elementary Introduction to Mineralogy (1852). He wrote numerous scientific articles and was a fellow of the Royal Society, Geological Society of London, and the Linnaen Society.
Brookite is one of the five forms of titanium dioxide found in nature.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Brookite.


Classification of Brookite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
4.DD.10

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
D : Metal: Oxygen = 1:2 and similar
D : With medium-sized cations; frameworks of edge-sharing octahedra
4.4.5.1

4 : SIMPLE OXIDES
4 : AX2
7.9.4

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
9 : Oxides of Ti

Physical Properties of Brookite

Adamantine, Sub-Adamantine, Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous, Sub-Metallic
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent, Opaque
Colour:
Brown, yellowish brown, reddish brown; dar brown to iron-black; yellowish brown to dark brown in transmitted light
Streak:
White to greyish white or yellowish white
Hardness:
5½ - 6 on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Poor/Indistinct
on {120}, in traces on {001}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
4.08 - 4.18 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.133 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Brookite

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 2.583 nβ = 2.584 nγ = 2.700
2V:
Calculated: 12° to 20°
Birefringence:
0.1173
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.117
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
r > v, very strong, with crossed axial dispersion
Optical Extinction:
Parallel
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
Yellow, red, orange to brown

Chemical Properties of Brookite

Formula:
TiO2
Common Impurities:
Fe,Ta,Nb

Crystallography of Brookite

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.4558 Å, b = 9.1819 Å, c = 5.1429 Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.594 : 1 : 0.56
Unit Cell V:
257.63 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
8
Morphology:
Crystals typically tabular on {010}, striated parallel to [001] and elongated; pyramidal {111} or pseudohexagonal with {120} and {111} equally developed; also prismatic on [001] with {120} prominent; rarely tabular on {001} or pseudo-pyramidal.
Twinning:
On {120}, uncertain

Crystallographic forms of Brookite

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Brookite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Brookite no.45 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Brookite no.78 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Brookite no.86 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

Toggle
Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

View
Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

Epitaxial Relationships of Brookite

Epitaxial Minerals:
RutileTiO2
Epitaxy Comments:
Rutile {110} [001] parallel to brookite {120} [001].
Rutile {110} [001] parallel to brookite {111} [001].

X-Ray Powder Diffraction

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.51 (100)
3.47 (80)
2.90 (90)
2.729 (4)
2.476 (25)
2.409 (18)
2.370 (6)
2.344 (4)
2.332 (4)
2.296 (5)
2.254 (8)
2.244 (18)
2.133 (16)
1.969 (16)
1.893 (30)
1.851 (18)
1.833 (3)
1.757 (3)
1.691 (20)
1.662 (30)
1.649 (5)
1.610 (13)
1.597 (2)
1.541 (7)
1.494 (10)
1.473 (4)
1.466 (9)
1.461 (12)
1.452 (12)
1.442 (6)
1.434 (10)
1.417 (9)
1.364 (5)
1.336 (8)
1.319 (3)
1.312 (2)
1.285 (2)
1.238 (10)
1.211 (2)
Comments:
ICDD 29-1360. Recorded on material from Magnet Cove, Arkansas, USA.

Type Occurrence of Brookite

General Appearance of Type Material:
Bladed red to brown transparent to translucent bladed crystals with longitudinal striations.
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Hydrothermal vein
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of Brookite

Other Language Names for Brookite

Czech:Brookit
Dutch:Brookiet
Italian:Brookite
Polish:Brukit
Portuguese:Brookita
Russian:Брукит
Simplified Chinese:板钛矿
Slovak:Brookit
Ukrainian:Брукіт

Varieties of Brookite

Arkansite

Name for a morphological variety of brookite from Arkansas, USA.

Common Associates

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Quartz480 photos of Brookite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Anatase183 photos of Brookite associated with Anatase on mindat.org.
Rutile103 photos of Brookite associated with Rutile on mindat.org.
Albite31 photos of Brookite associated with Albite on mindat.org.
Pyrite16 photos of Brookite associated with Pyrite on mindat.org.
Smoky Quartz15 photos of Brookite associated with Smoky Quartz on mindat.org.
Chlorite Group13 photos of Brookite associated with Chlorite Group on mindat.org.
Clinochlore9 photos of Brookite associated with Clinochlore on mindat.org.
Rock Crystal8 photos of Brookite associated with Rock Crystal on mindat.org.
Calcite8 photos of Brookite associated with Calcite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping

4.DD.05AnataseTiO2

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals Grouping

7.9.1HongquiiteTiO
7.9.2RutileTiO2
7.9.3AnataseTiO2
7.9.5GeikieliteMgTiO3
7.9.6PerovskiteCaTiO3
7.9.7KassiteCaTi2O4(OH)2
7.9.8TausoniteSrTiO3
7.9.9CrichtoniteSr(Mn,Y,U)Fe2(Ti,Fe,Cr,V)18(O,OH)38
7.9.10Lucasite-(Ce)CeTi2(O,OH)6
7.9.11Hibonite(Ca,Ce)(Al,Ti,Mg)12O19
7.9.12Yttrocrasite-(Y)(Y,Th,Ca,U)(Ti,Fe)2(O,OH)6
7.9.13PyrophaniteMn2+TiO3
7.9.14IwakiiteMn2+Fe3+2O4
7.9.15IlmeniteFe2+TiO3
7.9.16PseudobrookiteFe2TiO5
7.9.17UlvöspinelFe2TiO4
7.9.18PseudorutileFe2Ti3O9
7.9.19FreudenbergiteNa2(Ti,Fe)8O16
7.9.20KennedyiteFe2TiO5
7.9.21Armalcolite(Mg,Fe2+)Ti2O5
7.9.22Högbomite(Mg,Fe)2(Al,Ti)5O10
7.9.23Qandilite(Mg,Fe3+)2(Ti,Fe3+,Al)O4
7.9.24CafetiteCaTi2O5 · H2O
7.9.25Loveringite(Ca,Ce,La)(Zr,Fe)(Mg,Fe)2(Ti,Fe,Cr,Al)18O38
7.9.26Lindsleyite(Ba,Sr)(Zr,Ca)(Fe,Mg)2(Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38
7.9.27PrideriteK(Ti4+7Fe3+)O16
7.9.28Jeppeite(K,Ba)2(Ti,Fe)6O13
7.9.29AnkangiteBa(Ti,V3+,Cr)8O16
7.9.30Ecandrewsite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)TiO3
7.9.31LandauiteNaMnZn2(Ti,Fe)6Ti12O38

Fluorescence of Brookite

Not fluorescent in ultraviolet

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Brookite

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Levy, M. (1825) An account of a new mineral. The Annals of Philosophy: 9: 140-142.
Haidinger (1825) Annalen der Physik: 5: 162.
Des Cloizeaux (1858) Annales minéralogiques: 14: 361.
Pauling, L., Sturdivant, J.H. (1928) The crystal structure of brookite. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 68: 239-256.
Schröder, A. (1928) Beiträge zur Kenntnis des Feinbaues des Brookits und des physikalischen Verhaltens sowie der Zustandsänderungen der drei natürlichen Titandioxyde. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 67: 485-542.
Arnold, W. (1929) Beiträge zur Kenntnis des Brookit in morphologischer und optischer Hinsicht. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 71: 344-405.
Holzgang (1930) Schweizer mineralogische Mitteilungen: 10: 374.
Berek, M., Strieder, F. (1933) Beiträge zur Kenntnis der komplexen Indikatrix rhombisch schwach absorbierender Kristalle. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 86: 212-224.
Schoßberger, F. (1942) Über die Umwandlungen des Titandioxyds. Journal of Solid State Chemistry: 104: 358-374.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides, John Wiley and Sons, Inc. (New York), 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 588-593.
Deer, W.A., Howie, R.A., Zussman, J. (1962) Rock-forming minerals, Vol. 4, Non-Silicates: 44-47.
Meagher, E.P., Lager, G.A. (1979) Polyhedral thermal expansion in the TiO2 polymorphs: refinement of the crystal structures of rutile and brookite at high temperature. The Canadian Mineralogist: 17: 77-85.
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997) Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 80.

Internet Links for Brookite

mindat.org URL:
https://www.mindat.org/min-787.html
Please feel free to link to this page.
Specimens:
The following Brookite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Brookite

Mineral and/or Locality  
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