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Minium

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Formula:
Pb3O4
Colour:
Red, brownish-red, yellowish tint at times; red in transmitted light.
Lustre:
Greasy, Dull
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
8.9 - 9.2
Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Name:
A name originally given to cinnabar. The cinnabar was adulterated with red lead and, in time, the adulterant alone received the name.
A usually bright red lead oxide.
May be confused with litharge (red PbO) and powdery cinnabar.


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Classification of MiniumHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
4.BD.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
B : Metal: Oxygen = 3:4 and similar
D : With only large cations
7.2.8.1

7 : MULTIPLE OXIDES
2 : AB2X4
7.11.22

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
11 : Oxides of Sn and Pb

Physical Properties of MiniumHide

Greasy, Dull
Transparency:
Translucent
Colour:
Red, brownish-red, yellowish tint at times; red in transmitted light.
Streak:
Orange-yellow
Hardness:
2½ on Mohs scale
Density:
8.9 - 9.2 g/cm3 (Measured)    8.92 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of MiniumHide

Type:
Uniaxial
RI values:
n = 2.42
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.000
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Optical Extinction:
Extinction parallel, elongation negative
Pleochroism:
Strong
Comments:
X = deep reddish brown, Z = nearly colourless

Chemical Properties of MiniumHide

Formula:
Pb3O4
IMA Formula:
Pb2+2Pb4+O4

Crystallography of MiniumHide

Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Class (H-M):
4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) - Ditetragonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
P42/mbc
Cell Parameters:
a = 8.811(5) Å, c = 6.563(3) Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 0.745
Unit Cell V:
509.51 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Massive, earthy, pulverulent. Microscopic crystalline scales.
Comment:
On synthetic material.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.38 (100)
3.113 (20)
2.903 (50)
2.787 (45)
2.632 (30)
1.903 (20)
1.775 (30)

Synonyms of MiniumHide

Other Language Names for MiniumHide

Russian:Сурик
Simplified Chinese:铅丹
铅华

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Mimetite15 photos of Minium associated with Mimetite on mindat.org.
Cerussite12 photos of Minium associated with Cerussite on mindat.org.
Galena8 photos of Minium associated with Galena on mindat.org.
Baryte5 photos of Minium associated with Baryte on mindat.org.
Wulfenite5 photos of Minium associated with Wulfenite on mindat.org.
Plumbojarosite4 photos of Minium associated with Plumbojarosite on mindat.org.
Gypsum4 photos of Minium associated with Gypsum on mindat.org.
Lead4 photos of Minium associated with Lead on mindat.org.
Calcite3 photos of Minium associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Cuprite3 photos of Minium associated with Cuprite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.11.1RomarchiteSnOTet.
7.11.2CassiteriteSnO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
7.11.4SchoenfliesiteMg[Sn(OH)6]Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pn3
7.11.5BurtiteCa[Sn(OH)6]Iso.
7.11.6VismirnoviteZn[Sn(OH)6]Iso.
7.11.7WickmaniteMn2+[Sn(OH)6]Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pn3
7.11.8TetrawickmaniteMn2+[Sn4+(OH)6]Tet. 4/m : P42/n
7.11.9JeanbandyiteFe3+xFe2+1-xSn(OH)6-xOx (1 ≥ x > 0.5)Tet. 4/m : P42/n
7.11.10NataniteFe2+[Sn(OH)6]Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Pn3m
7.11.11Mushistonite(Cu,Zn,Fe2+)[Sn(OH)6]
7.11.12Ferronigerite-2N1S(Al,Fe,Zn)2(Al,Sn)6O11(OH)Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
7.11.13MagnesionigeriteTrig.
7.11.14ArgutiteGeO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
7.11.15BrunogeieriteFe2+2Ge4+O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.11.16StottiteFe2+[Ge4+(OH)6]Tet.
7.11.17CarboiriteFeAl2(GeO4)O(OH)2Tric.
7.11.18OtjisumeitePbGe4O9Tric.
7.11.19BartelkeitePb(Fe2+Ge)[Ge2O7](OH)2 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
7.11.20MassicotPbOOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmmm
7.11.21LithargePbOTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
7.11.23PlattneritePbO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m)
7.11.24Scrutinyiteα-PbO2Orth.
7.11.25MurdochitePbCu6O8-x(Cl,Br)2x where x<=0.5Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
7.11.26MacedonitePbTiO3Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
7.11.27CesàrolitePb(Mn4+)3O6(OH)2
7.11.28CoronaditePb(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16Mon. 2/m
7.11.29QuenselitePbMnO2(OH)Mon. 2/m : P2/b
7.11.30PlumboferritePb2(Fe3+,Mn2+,Mg)11O19Trig. 3 2
7.11.31Magnetoplumbite(Pb,Mn)(Fe,Mn)12O19Hex.
7.11.32SenaitePb(Mn,Y,U)(Fe,Zn)2(Ti,Fe,Cr,V)18(O,OH)38Trig.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
Contains lead - always wash hands after handling. Avoid inhaling dust when handling or breaking. Never lick or ingest.

References for MiniumHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Darbyshire (1932), Journal Chem. Soc. London: 211.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Seventh edition, Volume I: 517-519.
Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Abhandlungen (1960): 94: 1187.

Internet Links for MiniumHide

Localities for MiniumHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Yancowinna Co.
Worner, H. K. and Mitchell, R. W., eds. Birch, W. D. (et al) (1982) Minerals of Broken Hill, published by Australian Mining & Smelting Limited ISBN 0-909221-18-9
Worner, H. K. and Mitchell, R. W., eds. Birch, W. D. (et al) (1982) Minerals of Broken Hill, published by Australian Mining & Smelting Limited ISBN 0-909221-18-9
        • Broken Hill South Mine (BHS Mine; South Mine)
Mineralogical Mag. Dec 1990, Vol 54
  • South Australia
    • Flinders Ranges
      • North Flinders Ranges
        • Leigh Creek
          • Lyndhurst
Noble, RJ & Just, J, 1983 , Catalogue of South Australian minerals : 1983 , Dept. of Mines and Energy, South Australia, Adelaide.
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Gailtaler Alpen & Karnische Alpen
      • Paternion
        • Kellerberg
          • Kroislerwand
G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
  • Salzburg
    • Hohe Tauern
      • Rauris valley
        • Hüttwinkl valley
          • Alteck - Hoher Sonnblick area
            • Kolm-Saigurn
A. Strasser: Die MInerale Salzburgs (1989)
Niedermayr, G. & Wittern, A. (2009): Mineralreiches Österreich - Tirol, Salzburg, Vorarlberg. Bode Verlag, Haltern, 144 pp.
  • Tyrol
    • North Tyrol
      • Lechtaler Alpen
        • Biberwier
Dittler (1916)
Belgium
 
  • Namur Province
    • Rochefort
      • Ave-et-Auffe
        • Roptai forest
Blondieau, M (1997) Recherches Minieres, mines et carrieres de Famenne
No reference listed
Bolivia
 
  • Cochabamba Department
    • Mizque Province
Alfredo Petrov and Jaroslav Hyrsl collections
Bulgaria
 
  • Haskovo Oblast (Khaskovo Oblast)
    • Rhodope Mts
Kostov et al :Minerals of Bulgaria (1964); Lips, ALW (2006) A review of non-ferrous mineral deposits in Europe - Finalised initial database BRGM/RP -54957 - FR
Canada
 
  • British Columbia
    • Revelstoke Mining Division
      • Lardeau
Richard Gunter specimen
  • Yukon
    • Mayo Mining District
Sabina (1992) gsc mr 50, 80-84
Sabina (1992) GSC MP 50, 80-84
Chile
 
  • Antofagasta Region
    • Antofagasta Province
      • Cerro Palestina
        • Estación Cerro Negro
          • Magallanes district
W. T Holberton (1920): "Report of silver and lead mine of the Sociedad Minera Cerro el Plomo, Antofagasta": Sernageomin, Stgo de Chile.
China
 
  • Qinghai Province
    • Gyêgu Autonomous Prefecture (Yushu Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Nangqên Co. (Nanqian Co.)
        • Mozhong (Maozhuang)
Qunxi Zhang, Shenglong Wang, and Xinjin Wang (2006): Gold Science and Technology 14(5), 8-14
  • Shaanxi Province
    • Weinan Prefecture
      • Huayin Co.
Xiaochao Hui (2014): Geochemical studies of the uranium-polymetallic mineralization at Huayangchuan, Shaanxi Province. PhD Thesis, Beijing Research Institute of Uranium Geology, 159 pp.
  • Tibet Autonomous Region
    • Shannan Prefecture (Lhokha Prefecture; Lhoka Prefecture)
      • Cona Co. (Cuona Co.)
Bin Lin, Juxing Tang, Wenbao Zheng, Qiufeng Leng, Yiyun Wang, MinYuan Liu, Huanhuan Yang, Shuai Ding, Lihua Zhang, and Hongzhang Yang (2013): Mineral Deposits 32(5), 899-914
Pavel M. Kartashov data
    • Yili Hasake Autonomous Prefecture (Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Aletai Prefecture (Altay Prefecture)
        • Habahe Co. (Kaba Co.; Qaba Co.)
Huliang Xiao, Jiyuan Zhou, Henian Wang, Yongguan Dong, Junfeng Ji, and Zhao Yu (2003): Chinese Journal of Geochemistry 22(1), 74-82.
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Plzeň Region
Pauliš, P.: Nejzajímavější mineralogická naleziště Čech II. Kutná Hora: Kuttna, 2003, s. 111-114.
France
 
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Haute-Loire
      • Lavoûte-Chilhac
        • Ally
          • La Rodde mine
J.J. Périchaud : "Les Gisements Métalliques du District à Antimoine de Brioude-Massiac (Massif-Central Français)", BRGM, 1968
    • Loire
      • La Pacaudière
        • Le Crozet
No reference listed
    • Rhône
      • Beaujeu
        • Les Ardillats
Favreau G., Legris J-R., Dardillac M. (1996), La Verrière (Rhône): Histoire et Minéralogie, Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°3, pp:3-28
  • Bourgogne-Franche-Comté
    • Saône-et-Loire
      • Saint-Léger-sous-Beuvray
        • Saint-Prix
ASSELBORN E. (1982) - Mine des Molérats à Saint-Prix, Saône-et-Loire. - Minéraux et Fossiles, 85, pp 15-19
  • Brittany
    • Finistère
      • Poullaouen
Germain C., Leydet J-C., Saget Ph. (1990), Les minéraux de néoformation de Huelgoat (Finistère), Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°3, 3-16
  • Grand Est
    • Moselle
      • St Avold
J.W. Anthony, R.A. Bideaux, K.W. Bladh, M.C. Nichols: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. III (1997)
  • Occitanie
    • Ariège
      • Saint-Girons
        • Aulus-les-Bains
Gol, D. (2014): L'ancienne mine de Laquorre, Aulus-les-bains, Ariège. Le Règne Minéral, 118, 5-27.
    • Aude
      • Padern
Favreau, G., Berbain, C. & Meisser, N. (2003): Cyanophyllite et autres minéraux rares de Padern (Aude). Le Cahiers des Micromonteurs, 82(4), 17-23.
      • Palairac
        • Couise pass
          • Montauch
Berbain, C., Favreau, G., Aymar, G. (2005): Mines et minéraux des Pyrénées-Orientales et des Corbières, 176-178.
    • Aveyron
      • Asprières
Leconte J., Hatert F., Grégoire L., (2016) - Bréziès, Asprières, Aveyron, France - Micromonteurs, p. 84
    • Gard
      • Alzon
Robert PECORINI (2016) - La mine de Valcroze, Alzon (Gard) - Le cahier des micromonteurs 133, pp 3-52
Gabon
 
  • Haut-Ogooué Province
    • Franceville
Janusz Janeczek (1999) Mineralogy and geochemistry of natural fission reactors in Gabon. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry, MSA, v. 38, p. 321-392
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Black Forest
      • Badenweiler
        • Badenweiler Pb mining District
          • Sehringen
K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
      • Elz valley
        • Bleibach
K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
      • Gengenbach
        • Haigerach valley
Wittern,A. (1995) Mineralien finden im Schwarzwald
      • Hausach
        • Einbach valley
[Wittern,A. (1995) Mineralien finden im Schwarzwald]
      • Schönau
        • Aitern
Lapis 21(12), 44 (1996)
  • Hesse
    • Spessart
      • Freigericht
        • Altenmittlau
Lapis 1985(1), 13-16; Emser Hefte 1988(1), 56-64
    • Taunus
      • Villmar
        • Langhecke
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
      • Weilmünster
        • Laubuseschbach
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Lower Saxony
    • Harz
      • Bad Grund
        • Iberg
Schnorrer, G. & Klänhardt, K. (2002): Die Minerale des Iberg-Winterberg-Massives bei Bad Grund/Harz. Aufschluss, 53 (4), 181-199; Jahn, S., K. Stedingk & K. Klänhardt (2012): Das Iberg-Winterberg-Massiv bei Bad Grund. Mineralien-Welt, 23 (4), 30-67.
      • Clausthal-Zellerfeld
        • Bockswies veins
          • Oberschulenberg
Lapis, 11 (1), 9-18+42
      • St Andreasberg District
        • Oder valley
Schnorrer-Köhler, G. (1984): Mineralogische Notizen II. Der Aufschluss 35(6), 219-230.
Gröbner, J. (2007): Neue Funde aus den Bergbaurevieren St. Andreasberg, Bad Lauterberg und Oberschulenberg im Harz. Mineralien-Welt, 18 (1), 43-51.
No reference listed
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Bergisches Land
      • Bergneustadt
        • Zimmerseifen
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
      • Engelskirchen
        • Loope
Habel, B. & Linder, R. (2009): Die Grube "Castor" bei Loope und ihre Mineralien. Mineralien-Welt 20 (3), 10-23
    • Eifel
      • Düren
        • Leversbach
Graf, HW., (1992): Fundstellen und Mineralien in der Nordeifel (Teil 1+2), MineralienWelt 1/1992, 3/1992
[Hintze, C., Handbuch der Mineralogie, Band I, 3.Abteilung, 1. Hälfte, p. 3568] [Beyer, H., (1961): Die Mineralien im Hohen Venn und auf dem Nordabfall der Eifel, Der Aufschluss, 10. Sonderheft, 67-81] [Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990]
        • Kall
Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
    • Niederberg area
      • Heiligenhaus
        • Flandersbach
Lapis 1988(1), 16-35
      • Velbert
Lapis 1988(1), 14-32
        • Rützkausen
Lapis 1988(1), 15-34
      • Wülfrath
        • Rohdenhaus
Lapis 1988(1), 16-35
    • Ruhr Coal Mining area
      • Essen
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
    • Sauerland
      • Meschede
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
      • Sundern
        • Bönkhausen
Lapis, 14 (2), 22-27+33+42.
    • Siegerland
      • Burbach
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
      • Littfeld
Weiss. "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
      • Müsen
Weiss. "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
Weiss. "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Eifel
      • Mayen
        • Langenfeld
          • St Jost
Graf, HW., (1991): Die Grube Bendisberg, bei Virneburg / Eifel, Mineralien-Welt 5/91
      • Prüm
        • Bleialf
          • Neue Hoffnung Mine
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Hunsrück
      • St Goar
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Lahn valley
      • Bad Ems District
        • Frücht
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Taunus
      • St Goarshausen
A. Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland, Schweizerbart (Stuttgart), 2001
    • Westerwald
      • Wied Iron Spar District
        • Altenkirchen
J.W. Anthony, R.A. Bideaux, K.W. Bladh, M.C. Nichols: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. III (1997)
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Harz
      • Tanne
        • Trautenstein
Gröbner, J., Hajek, W., Junker, R. & Nikoleizig, J. (2011): Neue Mineralschätze des Harzes. Papierflieger Verlag GmbH, Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany, 127 pp.
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirge
      • Zschopau
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
Greece
 
  • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
    • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
      • Lavrion District Mines
        • Agios Konstantinos [St Constantine] (Kamariza)
No reference listed
        • Botsaris area
          • Botsaris Mines
Lapis, 24, 7/8 (1999)
        • Megala Pefka area
          • Megala Pefka Mines
Lapis, 24, 7/8 (1999)
        • Plaka
          • Plaka Mines
No reference listed
Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Standfuss, K. & Standfuss, L. (1982): Neue Schlackenminerale aus Laurion. Der Aufschluss, 33 (12), 459-462.
        • Agios Nikolaos [St Nicholas] area
No reference listed
        • Lavrion (Laurion; Laurium)
No reference listed
        • Oxygon area
No reference listed
        • Panormos area
No reference listed
        • Passa Limani area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals of the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
        • Sounion area
Fritz Schreiber Collection
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian, (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
        • Thorikos area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
        • Tourkolimanon area
No reference listed
        • Vrissaki area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
Hungary
 
  • Fejér Co.
    • Szár Hill
      • Szabadbattyán
Szakáll: Minerals of Szár Hill, 2004
Iran
 
  • Esfahan Province (Isfahan Province; Aspadana Province)
    • Nain County (Nayin County)
      • Anarak District
        • Chah Milleh (Chah-Mileh; Tchah-Mille)
P Haas collection
  • Yazd Province
Javanshir. A. 2007. Mineralogy, geochemistry, facies analysis and genesis of Zn–Pb (Mo) mineralization in Shotori Formation dolomites of the Ahmadabad deposit (NE-Bafq), Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Unpubl MSc. thesis (in Farsi with English summary). Hairapetian, V., Welting, T. and Pelckmans, H. 2015. Wulfenite from Central Iran: A Review and Some New Observations. Rocks & Minerals, 90 (5): 426-434. Grüll, M. 2015. Auf Wulfenite-Suche in der Ahmad Abad-mine im Bahabad county, Yazd-provinz, Iran. Mineralien-Welt, 26 (5): 50-61. Bariand, P. 1963. Contribution à la minéralogie de l’lran. Bulletin de la Société Française de minéralogie et de cristallographie, 86: 17-64.
Italy
 
  • Campania
    • Naples Province
Pelloux A., (1927): The Minerals of Vesuvius, American Mineralogist, Vol. 12, 14-19
  • Liguria
    • Savona Province
      • Castelvecchio di Rocca Barbena
AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
      • Rialto
        • Melogno
Balestra, C., Ciriotti, M.E., Bracco, R. (2011): Su alcune novità mineralogiche liguri caratterizzate dal SIUK dell'AMI. Micro, 2/2011, 46-53
  • Lombardy
    • Bergamo Province
      • Brembana Valley
        • Camerata Cornello
Bertolini A. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana 1-1995 "Le miniere di Cespedosio" pagg. 75-78
        • Dossena
Maida, F. (2002): Descrizione delle specie e varietà di minerali e loro ritrovamento nella bergamasca. G.O.M. Gruppo Orobico Minerali - Novecento Grafico, Ed., Bergamo 82 pp.
        • Oltre il Colle
          • Vedra Valley
Maida, F. (2002): Descrizione delle specie e varietà di minerali e loro ritrovamento nella Bergamasca. G.O.M. Gruppo Orobico Minerali - Novecento Grafico, Ed., Bergamo 82 pp. (geologic part by F. Pezzotta). F. Brignoli 2009
      • Valtorta
Maida, F. (2002): Descrizione delle specie e varietà di minerali e loro ritrovamento nella bergamasca. G.O.M. Gruppo Orobico Minerali - Novecento Grafico, Ed., Bergamo 82 pp.
  • Sardinia
    • Cagliari Province
De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol
        • Burcei
AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
Stara, P., Rizzo, R., Brizzi G., (1993): Sarrabus Miniere e Minerali. Edito a cura dell'EMSA e "varie associazioni mineralogiche", 208 pp.
        • San Vito
AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
    • Carbonia-Iglesias Province
      • Domusnovas
Stara, P., Rizzo, R., Tanca, G.A. [with contributions of Vinci, A., Astolfi, M.] (1996): Iglesiente e Arburese. Miniere e Minerali. Associazione Mineralogica Sarda, Associazione Mineralogica Domusnovas, Gruppo Mineralogico Arburese, Gruppo Mineralogico Paleontologico Piacentino, Gruppo Mineralogico Lombardo et al. Ed., Siena, Vol. 1, 240 pp.
Stara, P., Rizzo, R. & Tanca, G.A. - Iglesiente - Arburese, Miniere e Minerali - Gruppi Min. Italiani Ed.Vol.I, 240pp.
      • Gonnesa
Stara, P., Rizzo, R., Tanca, G.A. (1996): Iglesiente - Arburese. Miniere e Minerali. Volume 1 & 2. Nine Italian Mineralogical Groups/Associations, 192 + 239 pp.
      • Iglesias
Stara, P., Rizzo, R. & Tanca, G.A. - Iglesiente - Arburese, Miniere e Minerali - Gruppi Min. Italiani Ed.Vol.I, 240pp.
Stara, P., Rizzo, R., Tanca, G.A. (1996): Iglesiente - Arburese. Miniere e Minerali. Edito a cura dell'EMSA e "varie associazioni mineralogiche", Volume 1, 238 pp.
De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol.
AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
    • Medio Campidano Province
      • Arbus and Guspini municipalities
Preite, D., & Zuanel, A. (2007). Montevecchio: storia, miniere e minerali. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 31 (4), 230-246.
  • Trentino-Alto Adige (Trentino-Südtirol)
    • Trento Province
      • Valsugana
        • Vignola-Falesina
Paolo Gasparetto, Erica Bittarello, Andrea Canal, Lara Casagrande, Marco E. Ciriotti, Bruno Fassina, Paolo Ferretti, Sergio Pegoraro, Fabio Tosato, Paolo Zammatteo (2014): I lavori minerari del Rio Ricet, Vignola, Falesina, Trento. Micro, 12, 50-123.
  • Tuscany
    • Grosseto Province
      • Massa Marittima
Bazzoni, C., Betti, C., & Capperi, M. (2007). Valle dello Stregaio e Monte Gai, Massa Marittima, Grosseto. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 31 (2), 92-102.
      • Montieri
        • Gerfalco
Bazzoni, C. & Capperi, M. (2001): La miniera di «Montevecchio» in Toscana (Gerfalco - Grosseto). Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2011, 236-241
Mexico
 
  • Chihuahua
    • Mun. de Aquiles Serdán
      • Santa Eulalia District
        • East Camp
Panczner (1987): 77-395.
        • West Camp
          • Francisco Portillo
Panczner (1987):94-366.
    • Mun. de Manuel Benavides
      • Manuel Benavides
Panczner(1987):93 & 276.
Saini-Eidukat et al., 2009, Mineralium Deposita v. 44, p. 363-370
  • Coahuila
    • Mun. de Melchor Múzquiz
      • La Encantada (Encantada; Estacion La Encantada)
Diaz-Unzueta, Raul (1987) Geochemical and isotopic study of calcite stockworks at La Encantada mining district, Coahuila, Mexico: relationships with orebodies and implications for exploration. MS Thesis University of Arizona.
  • Durango
    • Mun. de Mapimí
      • Mapimí
Rocks & Min.: 56:247.
Thomas P. Moore (2008) Lapis, 33, #7-8, 33-40.
  • Hidalgo
    • Mun. de Zimapán
      • Zimapán
Panczner(1987): 93-396.
  • Jalisco
    • Mun. de Bolaños
      • Bolaños
Panczner (1987):80-393; Dana 7:I:518.
  • Sonora
    • Mun. de Arizpe
Michael W. Kieron collection
Morocco
 
  • Drâa-Tafilalet Region
    • Midelt Province
Jébrak, M., Marcoux, E., Masloubi, M., and Zaharaoui, M. (1998): Mineralium Deposita 33, 406-415.
      • Upper Moulouya lead district
Jébrak, M., Marcoux, E., Masloubi, M., and Zaharaoui, M. (1998): Mineralium Deposita 33, 406-415.
Namibia
 
  • Otjikoto Region (Oshikoto)
    • Tsumeb
Gebhard, G. (1999): Tsumeb II. A Unique Mineral Locality. GG Publishing, Grossenseifen, Germany
  • Otjozondjupa Region
    • Grootfontein District
Von Bezing, L., Bode, R., and Jahn, S., (2008) Namibia Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern. 652 pp (in English);
      • Grootfontein
Rocks & Min.: 23:606; Bureau of Mines Mineral Trade Notes (Jan 1948).
New Zealand
 
  • North Island
    • Te Aroha
Courtney, S.F., King, P. & Rodgers, K.A., (1990). A Check List of Minerals from the Tui Mine, Te Aroha, New Zealand. New Zealand Natural Sciences 17: 95-98.
Norway
 
  • Sør-Trøndelag
    • Hitra
Witsø, T.(1998): Minium og massicotitt. STEIN 25 (2), 30
Russia
 
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Primorskiy Kray
      • Kavalerovo Mining District
[MinRec 32:8]
  • Northern Region
    • Murmanskaya Oblast'
      • Khibiny Massif
        • Eveslogchorr Mt
Yurii P. Men'shikov data
http://maurice.strahlen.org/kola/khibiny.htm
  • Western-Siberian Region
    • Altaiskii Krai
      • Rudnyi Altai
        • Alei River Basin
          • Korbalikha River
            • Zmeevka Stream
John C. White collection via Southwest Scientific Company--Hamilton, MT (reference added by Dana Slaughter)
Slovakia
 
  • Košice Region
    • Rožňava Co.
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590
Slovenia
 
• Aleksander Rečnik (2010) Minerals of the lead and zinc ore deposit Mežica. Bode Vlg. & Jožef Stefan Institute. Ljubljana: 112 pp.; Grafenauer, S. (1960): Rare natural lead oxides from Mezica (Mies), Yugoslavia. Neues Jahrbuch fuer Mineralogie, Abhandlungen 94, 1187-1190.
South Africa
 
  • Gauteng Province
    • Pretoria District (Tshwane District)
Minerals of South Africa; Glass, J. (2006). The environmental impact of the abandoned Edendale lead mine near Tshwane, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, University of Johannesburg).
  • Mpumalanga Province
    • Nkangala District
      • Delmas
Minerals of South Africa
Minerals of South Africa
  • North West Province
    • Bojanala Platinum District
      • Western Bushveld Complex
        • Brits (Brits District)
          • Leeuwenkloof Farm
Minerals of South Africa
    • Ngaka Modiri Molema District
Rocks & Min.: 20:429.
Minerals of South Africa
Natural History Museum Vienna collection (sample from 1894; minium red, powdery; hemim. platy crystals)
South Korea
 
  • Gyeongsangbuk-do (Kyongsang-bukto; Gyeongsangbugdo)
    • Youngdong
Econ Geol 92 (1997) 92:60-80
Spain
 
  • Andalusia
    • Málaga
      • Malaga East
Romero Silva JC (2003) Minerales y Rocas de la provincia de Malaga. 318 pp. Published by CEDMA Malaga County Council. Spain
  • Catalonia
    • Tarragona
      • Priorat
        • Bellmunt del Priorat
Joan Abella i Creus (2008): Minerals I Mines De La Conca De Bellmunt Del Priorat.
Sweden
 
  • Värmland
    • Filipstad
Dr. Gunter Grundmann collection, #932.
Switzerland
 
  • Ticino (Tessin)
    • Malcantone
Le Cristallier Suisse, 11 (7), 309-323.
Vanini F., Oppizzi P., Steiger E. (1998): I minerali di Novaggio, Malcantone, Ticino. Schweizer Strahler 11(7), 309-323 (in Italian and German).
  • Wallis (Valais)
    • Bagnes Valley
      • Sembrancher
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 277.
    • Martigny
      • Mont Chemin
Turkmenistan
 
  • Lebap Province
    • South Tien-Shan Mts
      • Kugitangtau Ridge
Lapis 17(2), 13-18 (1992)
U.S. Virgin Islands
Alminas, Henry V.; Foord, Eugene E.; Tucker, Robert E. (1994) Geochemistry, mineralogy, and geochronology of the U.S. Virgin Islands USGS Bulletin 2057 36p
UK
 
  • England
    • Cheshire
      • Alderley Edge
No reference listed
    • Cornwall
      • St Agnes District
        • Crantock
BMS Newsletter 79, March 2010 (http://britishmicromountsociety.homestead.com/Gannell-Smelter.html)
    • Derbyshire
      • Matlock
Ford, T., A. Sarjeant & M. Smith (1993): The minerals of the Peak district of Derbyshire. UK Jour. Mines & Minerals 13, 16-55.
      • South Darley
BMS Database; Ford, T., A. Sarjeant & M. Smith (1993): The minerals of the Peak district of Derbyshire. UK Jour. Mines & Minerals 13, 16-55.
    • North Yorkshire
      • North Pennines
        • Pateley Bridge District
          • Greenhow
BMS Database
        • Wharfedale
          • Grassington
F. Rutley: "Elements of Mineralogy", 12th Ed. (1900)
Dunham, Sir K. C. Geology of the North Pennine Orefield, Volume 2 Stainmore to Craven (2nd Edition), pp 199.
    • Shropshire
      • Callow Hill-Bog District
        • Snailbeach
Hall, T.M. (1868): The Mineralogist's Directory. Edward Stanford (London), 168 pp.
  • Scotland
    • Strathclyde
      • South Lanarkshire
        • Leadhills
  • Wales
    • Isle of Anglesey
      • Amlwch
No reference listed
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Cochise Co.
      • Chiricahua Mts
        • California District
          • Rustler Park
Rolf Luetcke
      • Little Dragoon Mts
        • Cochise District
          • Dragoon
Rolf Luetcke
      • Mule Mts
        • Warren District
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.:69
    • Graham Co.
      • Aravaipa District
        • Santa Teresa Mts
          • Klondyke
            • Grand Reef Mountain
              • Laurel Canyon
[MinRec 27:305]
    • La Paz Co.
      • Harquahala Mts
        • Harquahala District
Wilson, E.D., et al (1934), AZ Bur. of Mines Bull. 137: 133.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 374; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 49.
        • Silver District
[MinRec 21:160]
Wilson, E.D. (1933), AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 134: 64-65.
Rocks & Min.: 61:55-56; MinRec 21:160.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 300.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 159.
      • Big Horn Mts
        • Osborn District
          • Hummingbird Spring
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 300.
          • Tonopah
            • Belmont Mountain
              • Tiger Wash
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 290, 300; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 28.
      • Painted Rock Mts
        • Painted Rock District
          • Theba
Rolf Luetcke
      • Vulture Mts
        • Vulture District
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 300.
    • Mohave Co.
      • Black Mts
        • Oatman District (San Francisco District; Union Pass District)
          • Oatman
            • Tom Reed vein
              • Big Jim-Aztec oreshoot
Galbraith, F.W. & Brennan (1959), Minerals of Arizona: 28.
    • Pima Co.
      • Empire Mts
        • Empire District
          • Hilton (Lead Mountain)
            • Copper Camp
              • Hilton Mines (Hilton Mine group; Hiltano group; Hiltano & State of Maine group)
                • Prince Mine group
Rolf Luetcke
      • Santa Rita Mts
Collected by Donn Cuson 2000
      • Tohono O'odom (Papago) Indian Reservation
        • Comobabi Mts
          • Cababi District (Comobabi District)
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 300.
            • Ko Vaya
              • Mildren Mine group
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 300; Williams, S.A, (1963), Oxidation of sulfide ores in the Mildren and Steppe mining districts, Pima Co., AZ, Econ.Geol.: 58: 1119-1125.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 291.
      • Tucson Mts
        • Amole District
          • Saguaro National Monument
Michael Cline and Michael C. Roarke specimens.
    • Pinal Co.
      • Mammoth District
        • Tiger
          • St. Anthony deposit
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 300; Bideaux, R.A. (1980), Tiger, AZ, Min.Rec.: 11: 155-181.
      • Tohono O'odham Indian Reservation
        • Silver Reef District
          • Tat Momoli Mts
            • Chuichu area
              • Silver Reef Mountains area
                • White Horse Pass area
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 300.
      • Tortilla Mts
        • Ripsey District
          • Ripsey Hill area
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona (1995), 3rd.ed.: 158, 300, 413; Williams, S.A. & J.W. Anthony (1970), Hemihedrite, a new mineral from AZ, Am.Min.: 55: 1088-1102
    • Santa Cruz Co.
      • Patagonia Mts
        • Harshaw District
          • Alum Gulch
            • Flux Gulch
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 300; Schrader, F.C. & J.M. Hill (1915), Mineral deposits of the Santa Rita and Patagonia Mountains, AZ, USGS Bull. 582: 258-263.
    • Yavapai Co.
      • Bradshaw Mts (Bradshaw Range)
        • Castle Creek District
          • Copperopolis
Rolf Luetcke
    • Yuma Co.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 300.
Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 44.
Wilson, E.D. (1933), AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 134: 104.
      • Neversweat Ridge-Palomas Mts
        • Neversweat District (Palomas Mountains District)
          • Neversweat Ridge
Wilson, E.D. (1933), AZ Bur. Mines Bull. 134: 128.
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
      • Darwin Hills
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 184; Stolburg, C.S. (1984): The mines and minerals of Darwin, Californa. Mineralogical Record 15(1): 5-18.
      • Inyo Mts (Inyo Range)
        • Cerro Gordo District
          • Cerro Gordo
      • Panamint Mts (Panamint Range)
        • Carbonate District
          • Warm Spring
Morton, P.K. (1965) Geology of the Queen of Sheba lead mine, Death Valley, California. California Division of Mines and Geology Special Report 88, 18 pp.; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 184.
    • Kern Co.
      • Fort Tejon (Old Fort Tejon)
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 267.
    • Los Angeles Co.
      • San Gabriel Mts
        • Azusa (Dalton)
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 267; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 184; Housley, R. 2008. Felix Mine cinnabar, not minium. Mindat.org article 341. June.
    • Mono Co.
      • Benton Range
Ransome, Alfred Leslie (1940), General geology and ores of the Blind Spring Hill mining district, Mono County, California: California Division Mines Report 36: 189; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 184.
          • Benton
Van King
Hoffman, W.J. (1878), On the mineralogy of Nevada: US Geol. & Geog. Survey of the Territories, vol. IV, art. XXXI: 737; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 267.
    • Riverside Co.
      • Crestmore
        • Crestmore quarries
          • Sky Blue Hill
Rocks & Min.:64:503.
Irelan, William, Jr. (1890a), Ninth annual report of the State Mineralogist: California Mining Bureau. Report 9, 352 pp.: 47; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 267.
  • Colorado
    • Clear Creek Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
      • Lamartine District
Dana 6:1089.
    • Gilpin Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
    • Gunnison Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
    • Lake Co.
      • Leadville District
        • Alicante
          • Iron Hill
Geology and Mining Industry of Leadville, Samuel F. Emmons, 1886
Geology and Mining Industry of Leadville, Samuel F. Emmons, 1886
Geology and Mining Industry of Leadville, Samuel F. Emmons, 1886
Geology and Mining Industry of Leadville, Samuel F. Emmons, 1886
Dana 6: 1090.
        • Leadville
          • Breece Hill
Mineralogical Record:16(3):171-201
          • Iron Hill
            • California Gulch
Geology and Mining Industry of Leadville, Samuel F. Emmons, 1886
Geology and Mining Industry of Leadville, Samuel F. Emmons, 1886
Dana 6: 231.
Geology and Mining Industry of Leadville, Samuel F. Emmons, 1886
Geology and Mining Industry of Leadville, Samuel F. Emmons, 1886
    • Pitkin Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    • San Juan Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
    • San Miguel Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
  • Connecticut
    • Middlesex Co.
      • Middletown
Schooner, Richard. (circa 1980s), Untitled manuscript on central Connecticut mineralogy.
  • Idaho
    • Blaine Co.
      • Mineral Hill District
Ream, Lanny R. 2004. Idaho Minerals, 2nd edition, Revised and Updated
      • Wood River District
Dana 7:I:103,518.
    • Custer Co.
Rocks & Min. 70:249-250.
        • Ramshorn Mountain
R&M 70:4 pp 242-263
    • Lemhi Co.
      • Gilmore District (Texas District)
        • Gilmore
R&M 70:4 pp 242-263
      • Spring Mountain District
R&M 70:4 pp 242-263
    • Owyhee Co.
Rocks & Min. 70:255
Ream, Lanny R. 2004. Idaho Minerals, 2nd edition, Revised and Updated
Ream, Lanny R. 2004. Idaho Minerals, 2nd edition, Revised and Updated
    • Shoshone Co.
      • Coeur D'Alene District
        • Idaho Gulch
R&M 70:4 pp 242-263
  • Missouri
    • Franklin Co.
R&M 73:2 pp 98-117
Dana 6:1083.
Dana 6:1083.
Dana 6: 1083.
  • Montana
    • Meagher Co.
      • Castle Mountain District
USGS Bull 139
  • Nevada
    • Clark Co.
      • Spring Mts
        • Goodsprings District
Haynes, P. E. (2007):"Minerals of the Fredrickson Mine, Goodsprings District, Clark County, Nevada". New Mexico Geology 29(4),138.
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
Rocks & Minerals 83:1 pp 65-69
    • Elko Co.
      • Jarbidge District
Tom Moore 2008 Tucson Report
    • Eureka Co.
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Sulphur Spring Range
Clive Bailen, geologist on project
    • Lincoln Co.
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Mineral Co.
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Silver Star District
NBMG Bull 58 Geology and Mineral Resources of Mineral County, Nevada
    • Nye Co.
      • Toquima Range
        • Manhattan District
          • Manhattan
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Pershing Co.
      • Antelope District
        • Lovelock
American Mineralogist 37:438-446
    • White Pine Co.
      • White Pine District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New Hampshire
    • Carroll Co.
      • Madison
Rocks & Minerals (2005) 80:242-261 New Hampshire Mineral Locality Index
  • New Mexico
    • Grant Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    • Santa Fe Co.
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. Ed., 1996
R & J DeMark Minerals of the Carnahan Mine, Santa Fe County New Mexico 10th New Mexico Mineral Symposium 1989
    • Sierra Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. Ed., 1996
    • Socorro Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
  • New York
    • St. Lawrence Co.
      • Balmat-Edwards Zinc District
NY State Museum spec. no. 13929
  • Utah
    • Juab Co.
      • East Tintic Mts
        • Tintic District
          • Eureka
Dana 7:I:518.
          • Mammoth
American Mineralogist (1969): 54: 1726-1728.
    • Utah Co.
      • East Tintic Mts
        • East Tintic District
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
  • Virginia
    • Wythe Co.
Dana 6:1073; Dana 7:I:517-518.
      • New River-Cripple Creek Region
Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
  • Wisconsin
    • Iowa Co.
      • Upper Mississippi Valley District
Palache, C. H. Berman, and C. Frondels, 1944 The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dan and Edward Salisbury Dana, 7th Edition, Vol I (834 p.)and Vol II (1124p.)
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