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Quartz

This page kindly sponsored by Dragon Minerals
Formula:
SiO2
System:
Trigonal
Colour:
Colorless, Purple, Rose, ...
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
7
Name:
Quartz has been known and appreciated since pre-historic times. The most ancient name known is recorded by Theophrastus in about 300-325 BCE, κρύσταλλος or kristallos. The varietal names, rock crystal and bergcrystal, preserve the ancient usage. The root words κρύοσ signifying ice cold and στέλλειυ to contract (or solidify) suggest the ancient belief that kritallos was permanently solidified ice.

The earliest printed use of "querz" was anonymously published in 1505, but attributed to a physician in Freiberg, Germany, Ulrich Rülein von Kalbe (a.k.a. Rülein von Calw, 1527). Agricola used the spelling "quarzum" (Agricola 1530) as well as "querze", but Agricola also referred to "crystallum", "silicum", "silex", and silice". Tomkeieff (1941) suggested an etymology for quartz: "The Saxon miners called large veins - Gänge, and the small cross veins or stringers - Querklüfte. The name ore (Erz, Ertz) was applied to the metallic minerals, the gangue or to the vein material as a whole.

In the Erzgebirge, silver ore is frequently found in small cross veins composed of silica. It may be that this ore was called by the Saxon miners 'Querkluftertz' or the cross-vein-ore. Such a clumsy word as 'Querkluftertz' could easily be condensed to 'Querertz' and then to 'Quertz', and eventually become 'Quarz' in German, 'quarzum' in Latin and 'quartz' in English." Tomkeieff (1941, q.v.) noted that "quartz", in its various spellings, was not used by other noted contemporary authors. "Quartz" was used in later literature referring to the Saxony mining district, but seldom elsewhere.

Gradually, there were more references to quartz: E. Brown in 1685 and Johan Gottschalk Wallerius in 1747. In 1669, Nicolaus Steno (Niels Steensen) obliquely formulated the concept of the constancy of interfacial angles in the caption of an illustration of quartz crystals. He referred to them as "cristallus" and "crystallus montium".

Tomkeieff (1941) also noted that Erasmus Bartholinus (1669) used the various spellings for "crystal" to signify other species than quartz and that crystal could refer to other "angulata corpora" (bodies with angles): "In any case in the second half of the XVIIIth century quartz became established as a name of a particular mineral and the name crystal became a generic term synonymous with the old term 'corus angulatum'."
Isostructural with:
Quartz is the most common mineral found on the surface of the Earth. If pure, quartz forms colorless, transparent and very hard crystals with a glass-like luster. A significant component of many igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, this natural form of silicon dioxide is found in an impressive range of varieties and colours.

Macro- and Cryptocrystalline Quartz


Quartz occurs in two basic forms:

1. The more common macrocrystalline quartz is made of visible crystals or grains. Examples are rock crystals, the grains in sandstone, but also massive quartz that is made of large crystallites without any crystal faces, like vein quartz.

Macrocrystalline Quartz: Smoky Quartz
Macrocrystalline Quartz: Rose Quartz
Macrocrystalline Quartz: Quartz Grains in a Sandstone
Macrocrystalline Quartz: Smoky Quartz
Macrocrystalline Quartz: Rose Quartz
Macrocrystalline Quartz: Quartz Grains in a Sandstone
Macrocrystalline Quartz: Smoky Quartz
Macrocrystalline Quartz: Rose Quartz
Macrocrystalline Quartz: Quartz Grains in a Sandstone
2. Cryptocrystalline quartz or microcrystalline quartz is made of dense and compact aggregates of microscopic quartz crystals and crystallites. Examples are agate and chert. The different types of cryptocrystalline quartz are colloquially subsumed under the term chalcedony, although that term has a more strict definition in scientific literature. It is worth mentioning that most chalcedony contains small amounts of another SiO2 polymorph, moganite, so it is not always pure quartz.

Cryptocrystalline Quartz: Flint
Cryptocrystalline Quartz: Agate
Cryptocrystalline Quartz: Radiolarite Chert
Cryptocrystalline Quartz: Flint
Cryptocrystalline Quartz: Agate
Cryptocrystalline Quartz: Radiolarite Chert
Cryptocrystalline Quartz: Flint
Cryptocrystalline Quartz: Agate
Cryptocrystalline Quartz: Radiolarite Chert


Quartz Varieties


Quartz crystals or aggregates that share certain peculiar physical properties habe been classified as quartz varieties with specific "trivial names".
The best known examples are the colored varieties of quartz, like amethyst or smoky quartz, but there are also trivial names for specific crystal shapes, aggregates and textures, like scepter quartz, gwindel or quartzine. Because there are no canonical rules on naming or defining quartz varieties like they are for minerals, the definition of some quartz varieties is precise and generally accepted, while the definition of others varies considerably between different authors, or is rather fuzzy.

On Mindat, macrocrystalline quartz and its varieties are listed as quartz and varieties of quartz.
Cryptocrystalline quartz and its varieties are listed as chalcedony, like "Quartz (Var: Chalcedony)", or as variety of chalcedony, like "Chalcedony (Var: Agate)".
More about the specific properties of chalcedony and its varieties can be found at the respective mineral pages.
Note that, contrary to minerals, the definitions of varieties are not mutually exclusive in the sense that no mineral can be another, a single specimen can be correctly classified as several varieties.

Handedness of Quartz Crystals

Handedness of Quartz Crystals
Quartz forms left- and right-handed crystals, whose crystal structure and morphology are mirror-images of each other. The atomic lattice of quartz has the symmetry properties of a screw or helix, which is either turning clockwise (right-handed) or counter-clockwise (left-handed). Quartz can actually be thought of as being made of threefold and sixfold helical chains of SiO4 tetrahedra that run parallel to the c axis.

In a left-handed crystal with space group P3121, the sixfold helices turn counter-clockwise (left) and the threefold helices clockwise (right).
In a right-handed crystal with space group P3221, the sixfold helices turn clockwise (right) and the threefold helices counter-clockwise (left).
For a thorough review of the symmetry features of quartz, see Heaney (1994).

The crystallographic form of quartz that is characteristic for its symmetry properties is the trigonal trapezohedron, and the position of its faces on the crystal reflect the handedness of the structure of the crystal. The figure to the right visualizes the relationship between the handedness of the six-fold helices and the position of the faces of the trigonal trapezohedron (x - orange) and trigonal bipyramid (s - blue). Unfortunately, these faces are not present on all crystals, and often it is not possible to determine the handedness of a crystal from its morphology.

Quartz is optically active: the polarization of a light ray passing through a crystal parallel to the c-axis will be rotated either to the left or the right, depending on the handedness of the crystal.

The following table lists how symmetry, morphology and optical behaviour are related:
Space GroupHandedness of
sixfold helix
Handedness of
threefold helix
Indices for
x- and s-forms
Position of
x- and s-face
Rotation of
polarization of light
Left-handed QuartzP3121left (counter-clockwise)right (clockwise)x {6 1 5 1}
s {2 1 1 1}
leftleft (counter-clockwise)
Right-handed QuartzP3221right (clockwise)left (counter-clockwise)x {5 1 6 1}
s {1 1 2 1}
rightright (counter-clockwise)


Morphology


Quartz is found as individual crystals and as crystal aggregates. Well crystallized quartz crystals are typically six-sided prisms with steep pyramidal terminations. They can be stubby ("short prismatic") or elongated and even needle-like. In most environments quartz crystals are attached to the host rock and only have one tip, but double-terminated crystals are also found.
As a rock-forming mineral quartz commonly occurs as sub-millimeter to centimeter-sized anhedral grains, well-formed crystals are uncommon. Secondary vein-fillings of quartz are typically massive.

Quartz crystals show about 40 different crystallographic forms in nature, but most of the crystals are composed of only a few basic forms that are frequently mentioned in discussions about quartz crystal morphology (Frondel, 1962; Rykart, 1995). It is convenient and common practise to designate them with Latin and Greek letter symbols instead of Miller-Bravais indices. The following figure illustrates the relation of the basic forms (sorted by abundance) to the faces found on quartz crystals. The most common combination of crystallographic forms in quartz crystals is r+m+z.

Basic Crystallographic Forms of Quartz


Macroscropic Structure of Quartz Crystals

In response to lattice defects, and apparently reflecting their growth conditions, quartz crystals may develop two very distinct and mutually exclusive types of internal structure:
- Macromosaic Structure, sometimes called "Friedlaender Quartz"
- Lamellar Structure, sometimes called "Bambauer Quartz"

Individual crystals may possess both structural types, but the respective parts of the crystals grew at different developmental stages (Hertweck et al., 1998).
The lamellar structure was first described by Weil (1931). The crystals contain layers that show an optical anomaly: they are biaxial. The layers are stacked parallel to the crystal faces in an onion-like manner and were found to be associated with a relatively high hydrogen and aluminium content (Bambauer et al., 1961, 1962, 1963). Lamellar quartz cannot be safely recognized without studying the optical properties of the crystal in a thin section.

Macromosaic quartz crystals have been described by Friedlaender (1951) and are composed of slightly tilted and radially arranged wedge-shaped sectors. They are recognized by the presence of sutures on the crystal faces which are often confused with twin boundaries. Crystals with such a structure are found in pegmatite and miarole pockets and in hight-temperature alpine-type fissures.

Note: It is sometimes claimed that all quartz occurs either as macromosaic or as lamellar structural type. This is not correct.

Handling Quartz


Quartz normally does not require special attention when handled or stored. At ambient conditions, quartz is chemically almost inert, so it does not suffer from the problems seen in many other minerals. Crystals do not disintegrate or crumble, they do not oxydize or dissolve easily in water and they don't mind being touched. The only problem for the collector is dust, which will find and cover your crystals, no matter what you do.
Quartz crystals that contain large fluid or gas inclusions may crack when heated - skeleton quartz is the most sensitive variety in this respect - but most quartz specimens can take some heat, like cleaning in warm water, without being damaged.
Quartz is hard, but quite brittle, and with some effort one can damage a crystal even with things that are much softer. The edges of the crystals are very often slightly damaged because crystals were not kept separate from each other.

Colored quartz varieties can pale in sun light, the most sensitive variety is euhedral rose quartz/pink quartz, which should be kept in the dark. Amethyst, smoky quartz and natural citrine will also pale, but it takes very long.

Mild ultrasonic cleaning is usually not a problem as long the crystals are not internally cracked, but some varieties may be damaged, in particular amethyst (due to its polysynthetical Brazil-law twinning) and skeleton quartz with liquid and gas inclusions.

Rock Currier wrote a Mindat article on cleaning quartz that is worthwhile reading: http://www.mindat.org/article.php/403/Cleaning+Quartz

When cutting, grinding and polishing specimens, keep in mind that quartz dust will cause silicosis (for a review, see Goldsmith, 1994), do not cut or grind dry and wear an appropriate dust mask.


Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Quartz.

Classification of Quartz

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
4.DA.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
D : Metal: Oxygen = 1:2 and similar
A : With small cations: Silica family
Dana 7th ed.:
75.1.3.1
75.1.3.1

75 : TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
1 : Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
7.8.1

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
8 : Oxides of Si
mindat.org URL:
http://www.mindat.org/min-3337.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

Occurrences of Quartz

Geological Setting:
Most of them...

Physical Properties of Quartz

Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Colorless, Purple, Rose, Red, Black, Yellow, Brown, Green, Blue, Orange, etc.
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
7
Hardness Data:
Mohs hardness reference species
Comment:
Some variability by direction.
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Poor/Indistinct
The rhombohedral cleavage r{1011} is most often seen, there are at least six others reported.
Fracture:
Conchoidal
Comment:
Tough when massive
Density:
2.65 - 2.66 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.66 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Quartz

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3 2 - Trapezohedral
Space Group:
P31 2 1
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.9133Å, c = 5.4053Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 1.1
Unit Cell Volume:
V 113.00 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
3
Twinning:
Dauphiné law.
Brazil law.
Japan law.
Others for beta-quartz...
Right-handed Dauphiné law twin
Left-handed Dauphiné law twin
Typical irregular intergrowth of Dauphiné law twin domains
Right-handed Dauphiné law twin
Left-handed Dauphiné law twin
Typical irregular intergrowth of Dauphiné law twin domains
Right-handed Dauphiné law twin
Left-handed Dauphiné law twin
Typical irregular intergrowth of Dauphiné law twin domains
Dauphiné law twin with re-entrant angles (rare)
Japan law twin
Dauphiné law twin with re-entrant angles (rare)
Japan law twin
Dauphiné law twin with re-entrant angles (rare)
Japan law twin
Comment:
Space group is P3121 for left-handed crystals and P3221 for right-handed crystals

Crystallographic forms of Quartz

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Quartz no.5 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Quartz no.7 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Quartz no.9 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Quartz no.10 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Quartz no.12 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Quartz no.23 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Quartz no.35 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Quartz no.46 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Quartz no.47 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Quartz no.96 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Quartz no.121 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Crystal Structure

Structure
Reference
Kihara K (1990) An X-ray study of the temperature dependence of the quartz structure Sample: at T = 298 K. European Journal of Mineralogy 2:63-77.

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More Crystal Structures
Click here to view more crystal structures at the American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
4.257 (22)
3.342 (100)
2.457 (8)
2.282 (8)
1.8179 (14)
1.5418 (9)
1.3718 (8)

Optical Data of Quartz

Type:
Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.543 - 1.545 nε = 1.552 - 1.554
Birefringence:
0.009
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.009
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
low, 0.009
Comments:
Varieties colored by trace elements built into the crystal lattice, as opposed to varieties colored by inclusions, generally show dichroism: smoky quartz, amethyst, citrine, prasiolite, "rose quartz in crystals" (a.k.a. pink quartz), are pleochroic.

Chemical Properties of Quartz

Formula:
SiO2
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
H,Al,Li,Fe,Ti,Na,Mg,Ge,etc

Relationship of Quartz to other Species

4.DA.Carbon Dioxide IceCO2
4.DA.10OpalSiO2 · nH2O
4.DA.10TridymiteSiO2
4.DA.15CristobaliteSiO2
4.DA.20MogániteSiO2
4.DA.25Melanophlogite46SiO2 · 6(N2,CO2) · 2(CH4,N2)
4.DA.30LechatelieriteSiO2
4.DA.35CoesiteSiO2
4.DA.40StishoviteSiO2
4.DA.45KeatiteSiO2
4.DA.50SeifertiteSiO2
7.8.2CoesiteSiO2
7.8.3TridymiteSiO2
7.8.4StishoviteSiO2
7.8.5CristobaliteSiO2
7.8.6LechatelieriteSiO2
7.8.7Silhydrite3SiO2 · H2O
7.8.8OpalSiO2 · nH2O
7.8.9MogániteSiO2

Other Names for Quartz

Name in Other Languages:
Arabic:مرو
Bosnian (Latin Script):Kvarc
Bulgarian:Кварц
Catalan:Quars
Croatian:Kvarc
Czech:Křemen
Danish:Kvarts
Dutch:Kwarts
Esperanto:Kvarco
Estonian:Kvarts
Finnish:Kvartsi
French:Quartz
Galician:Cuarzo
Hebrew:קוורץ
Hungarian:Kvarc
Indonesian:Kuarsa
Irish Gaelic:Grian Cloch
Italian:Quarzo
Japanese:石英
水晶
Korean:석영
Latvian:Kvarcs
Lithuanian:Kvarcas
Luxembourgish:Quarz
Macedonian:Кварц
Malay:Kuarza
Norwegian (Bokmål):Kvarts
Persian:کوارتز
Polish:Kwarc
Portuguese:Quartzo
Romanian:Cuarţ
Russian:Кварц
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Кварц
Simplified Chinese:石英
水晶
Slovak:Kremeň
Slovenian:Kamena strela
Spanish:Cuarzo
Swedish:Kvarts
Traditional Chinese:石英
Turkish:Kuvars
Ukrainian:Кварц
Vietnamese:Thạch anh

Other Information

Electrical:
piezoelectric, pyroelectric, may be triboluminescent.
Thermal Behaviour:
Transforms to beta-quartz at 573 deg C and 1 bar (100 kPa) pressure.
Health Risks:
Quartz is usually quite harmless unless broken or powdered. Broken crystals and masses may have razor-sharp edges that can easily cut skin and flesh. Handle with care. Do not grind dry since long-term exposure to finely ground powder may lead to silicosis.
Industrial Uses:
Ore for silicon, glassmaking, frequency standards, optical instruments, silica source for concrete setting, filtering agents as sand. Major component of sand.

References for Quartz

Reference List:
Rülein von Calw, U. (1527) Querz. in Ein nützilch Bergbüchlin: von allen Metallen / als Golt / Silber / Zcyn / Kupferertz / Eisenstein / Bleyertz / und vom Quecksilber, Loersfelt (Erffurd) 25, 38.

Agricola, G. (1530) Quarzum. in Bermannus, Sive De Re Metallica, in aedibus Frobenianis (Basileae) 88, 129.

Agricola, G. (1546) Book V. Quartz. in De Natura Fossilium, Froben (Basileae) 249-275.

Bras-de-Fer, L. (1778) (84) Terre (Élément). in: Explication Morale du Jeu de Cartes; Anecdote Curieuse et Interessante, (Bruxelles), 99-100.

Hoffmann, C.A.S. (1789) Mineralsystem des Herrn Inspektor Werners mit dessen Erlaubnis herausgegeben von C.A.S. Hoffmann. Bergmännisches Journal: 1: 369-398.

Adams, S. (1920) A microscopic study of vein quartz. Economic Geology: 15: 623-664.

Bragg, W., Gibbs, R.E. (1925) The structure of α and β quartz. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A: 109(751) 405-427.

Gibbs, R.E. (1926) Structure of α quartz. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A: 110(754) 443-455.

Sosman, R.B. (1927) The properties of silica. American Chemical Society, Monograph No.37.

Tarr, W.A., Lonsdale, J.T. (1929) Pseudo-cubic quartz crystals from Artesia, New Mexico. American Mineralogist: 14: 50-53.

Weil, R. (1931) Quelques observations concernant la structure du quartz. Compte Rendu 1er Réunion de l'Institut d'Optique: 2-11.

Drugman, J. (1939) Prismatic cleavage and steep rhombohedral form in α-quartz. Mineralogical Magazine: 25: 259-263.

Koenigsberger, J.G. (1940) Die zentralalpinen Minerallagerstätten. Teil III. Wepf & Co. Verlag, Basel.

Raman, C.V., Nedungadi, T.M.K. (1940) The α-β transition of quartz. Nature: 145: 147.

Tomkeieff, S.I. (1941) Origin of the Name 'Quartz'. Mineralogical Magazine: 26: 172-178.

Krishnan, R.S. (1945) Raman spectrum of quartz. Nature: 155: 452.

Armstrong, E. (1946) Relation between secondary Dauphiné twinning and irradiation-coloring in quartz. American Mineralogist: 31: 456-461.

Baker, G. (1946) Microscopic quartz crystals in brown coal, Victoria. American Mineralogist: 31: 22-30.

Friedman, I.I. (1947) The laboratory growth of quartz. American Mineralogist: 32: 583-588.

Faust, G.T. (1948) Thermal analysis of quartz and its use in calibration in thermal analysis studies. American Mineralogist: 33: 337-345.

Gault, H.R. (1949) The frequency of twin types in quartz crystals. American Mineralogist: 34: 142-162.

Tuttle, O.F. (1949) The variable inversion temperature of quartz as a possible geologic thermometer. American Mineralogist: 34: 723-730.

Chapman, C.A. (1950) Quartz veins formed by metamorphic differentiation of aluminous schists. American Mineralogist: 35: 693-710.

Friedlaender, C. (1951) Untersuchung über die Eignung alpiner Quarze für piezoelektrische Zwecke. Beiträge zur Geologie der Schweiz, Geotechnische Serie, Lieferung 29.

Brown, C.S., Kell, R.C., Thomas, L.A., Wooster, N., Wooster, W.A. (1952) Growth and properties of large crystals of synthetic quartz. Mineralogical Magazine: 29: 858-874.

Van Praagh, G., Willis, B.T.M. (1952) Striations on prism faces of quartz. Nature: 169: 623-624.

Fairbairn, H.W. (1954) The stress-sensitivity of quartz in tectonites. Tschermaks mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen: 4: 75-80.

Frederickson, A.F., Cox, J.E. (1954) Mechanism of "solution" of quartz in pure water at elevated temperatures and pressures. American Mineralogist: 39: 886-900.

Frederickson, A.F. (1955) Mosaic structure in quartz. American Mineralogist: 40: 1-9.

Borg, I. (1956) Note on twinning and pseudo-twinning in detrital quartz grains. American Mineralogist: 41: 792-796.

Krauskopf, K.B. (1956) Dissolution and precipitation of silica at low temperatures. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 10: 1-26.

Dapples, E.C. (1959) The behavior of silica in diagenesis. in: Ireland, H.A. (editor) Silica in Sediments. A symposium sponsored by the Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Special Puplication No.7: 36-54.

Denning, R.M., Conrad, M.A. (1959) Directional grinding hardness of quartz by peripheral grinding. American Mineralogist: 44: 423-428.

Krauskopf, K.B. (1959) The geochemistry of silica in sedimentary environments. in: Ireland, H.A. (editor) Silica in Sediments. A symposium sponsored by the Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists Society of Economic Paleontologists and Mineralogists, Special Puplication No.7: 4-19.

Foster, R.J. (1960) Origin of embayed quartz crystals in acidic volcanic rocks. American Mineralogist: 45: 892-894.

Ballman, A.A. (1961) Growth and properties of colored quartz. American Mineralogist: 46: 439-446.

Bambauer, H.U. (1961) Spurenelementgehalte und -Farbzentren in Quarzen aus Zerrklüften der Schweizer Alpen. Schweizerische mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen: 41: 335-369.

Bambauer, H.U., Brunner, G.O., Laves, F. (1961) Beobachtungen über Lamellenbau an Bergkristallen. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 116: 173-181.

Bambauer, H.U., Brunner, G.O., Laves, F. (1962) Wasserstoff-Gehalte in Quarzen aus Zerrklüften der Schweizer Alpen und die Deutung ihrer regionalen Abhängigkeit. Schweizerische mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen: 42: 221-236.

Frondel, C. (1962) Dana's System of Mineralogy, 7th Edition: Vol. III: Silica Minerals. John Wiley, New York and London.

Bambauer, H.U., Brunner, G.O., Laves, F. (1963) Merkmale des OH-Spektrums alpiner Quarze (3μ-Gebiet). Schweizerische mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen: 43: 259-268.

Blatt, H., Christie, J.M. (1963) Undulatory extinction in quartz of igneous and metamorphic rocks and its significance in provenance studies of sedimentary rocks. Journal of Sedimentary Research: 33: 559-579.

Bloss, F.D., Gibbs, G.V. (1963) Cleavage in quartz. American Mineralogist: 48: 821-838.

Dennen, W.H. (1966) Stoichiometric substitution in natural quartz. Geochichimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 30: 1235-1241.

Carr, R.M. (1968) The problem of quartz-corundum stability. American Mineralogist: 53: 2092-2095.

Carstens, H. (1968) A note on the origin of Brazil twins in lamellar quartz. Norsk Geologiske Tidsskrift: 48: 61-64.

Carstens, H. (1968) The lineage structure of quartz crystals. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 18: 295-304.

Frondel, C. (1968) Quartz twin on {3032}. Mineralogical Magazine: 36: 861-864.

Bambauer, H.U., Brunner, G.O., Laves, F. (1969) Light scattering of heat-treated quartz in relation to hydrogen-containing defects. American Mineralogist: 54: 718-724.

Kushiro, I. (1969) The system forsterite-diopside-silica with and without water at high pressures. American Journal of Science: 267: 269-294.

Rice, S.J. (1969) Quartz family minerals. California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22: 35-38.

Carmichael, I.S.E., Nicholls, J., Smith, A.I. (1970) Silica activity in igneous rocks. American Mineralogist: 55: 246-263.

Feigl, F.J., Anderson, J.H. (1970) Defects in crystalline quartz: electron paramagnetic resonance of E' vacancy centers associated with germanium impurities. Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids: 31: 575-596.

Calvert, S.E. (1971) Nature of silica phases in deep sea cherts of the North Atlantic Ocean. Nature Physical Science: 234: 133-134.

Scott, S.D., O'Connor, T.P. (1971) Fluid inclusions in vein quartz, Silverfields Mine, Cobalt, Ontario. The Canadian Mineralogist 11, 263-271.

Bates, J.B., Quist, A.S. (1972) Polarized Raman spectra of β-quartz. The Journal of Chemical Physics: 56: 1528-1533.

Baëta, R.D., Ashbee, K.H.G. (1973) Transmission electron microscopy studies of plastically deformed quartz. Physica Status Solidi A: 18: 155-170.

Gross, G. (1973) Trigonale Symmetrie anzeigende Querstreifung bei Bergkristall. Schweizerische Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen: 53: 173-183.

Bettermann, P., Liebau, F. (1975) The transformation of amorphous silica to crystalline silica under hydrothermal conditions. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 53: 25-36.

Donnay, J.D.H., Le Page, Y. (1975) Twin laws versus electrical and optical characters in low quartz. The Canadian Mineralogist: 13: 83-85.

Barron, T.H.K, Huang, C.C., Pasternak, A. (1976) Interatomic forces and lattice dynamics of α-quartz. Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics: 9: 3925-3940.

Chakraborty, D., Lehmann, G. (1976) Distribution of OH in synthetic and natural quartz crystals. Journal of Solid State Chemistry: 17: 305-311.

Chakraborty, D., Lehmann, G. (1976) On the structures and orientations of hydrogen defects in natural and synthetic quartz crystals. Physica Status Solidi A: 34: 467-474.

Le Page, Y., Donnay, G. (1976) Refinement of the crystal structure of low-quartz. Acta Crystallographica: B32: 2456-2459.

Flick, H., Weissenbach, N. (1978) Magmatische Würfelquarze in Rhyolithen (Quarzkeratophyren) des Rheinischen Schiefergebirges. Tschermaks Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen: 25: 117-129.

Robin, P.Y.F. (1979) Theory of metamorphic segregation and related processes. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 43(10): 1587-1600.

Flörke, O.W., Mielke, H.G., Weichert, J., Kulke, H. (1981) Quartz with rhombohedral cleavage from Madagascar. American Mineralogist: 66: 596-600.

Sprunt, E.S. (1981) Causes of quartz cathodoluminescence colours. Scanning Electron Microscopy: 525-535.

Wright, A.F., Lehmann, M.S. (1981) The structure of quartz at 25 and 590°C determined by neutron diffraction. Journal of Solid State Chemistry: 36: 371-380.

Bohlen, S.R., Boettcher, A.L. (1982) The quartz-coesite transformation: a precise determination and the effects of other components. Journal of Geophysical Research: 87(B8): 7073-7078.

Richet, P., Bottinga, Y., Deniélou, L., Petitet, J.P., Téqui, C. (1982) Thermodynamic properties of quartz, cristobalite, and amorphous SiO2: drop calorimetry measurements between 1000 and 1800 K and a review from 0 to 2000 K. Geochimica et Cosmochmica Acta: 46: 2639-2658.

Serebrennikov, A.J., Valter, A.A., Mashkovtsev, R.I., Scherbakova, M.Ya. (1982) The investigation of defects in shock-metamorphosed quartz. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 8: 155-157.

Scandale, E., Stasi, F., Zarka, A. (1983) Growth defects in a Quartz Druse. ac Dislocations. Journal of Applied Crystallography: 16: 39-403.

Barker, C., Robinson, S.J. (1984) Thermal release of water from natural quartz. American Mineralogist: 69: 1078-1081.

Bernhardt, H.-J., Alter, U. (1984) Induced growth striations in quartz crystals. Crystal Research Technology: 19: 453-460.

Rykart, R. (1984) Authigene Quarz-Kristalle. Lapis Mineralien Magazin: 9(6).

Weil, J.A. (1984) A review of electron spin resonance and its applications to the study of paramagnetic defects in crystalline quartz. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 10: 149-165.

Scandale, E., Stasi, F. (1985) Growth defects in Quartz Druses. a Pseudo-basal Dislocations. Journal of Applied Crystallography: 18: 275-278.

Bernhardt, H.-J. (1986) A pragmatic model for the simulation of self-induced striations in quartz crystals. Crystal Research Technology: 21: 983-994.

Hurai, V., Stresko, V. (1987) Correlation between quartz crystal morphology and composition of fluid inclusions as infered from fissures in Central Slovakia (Czechoslovakia). Chemical Geology: 61: 225-239.

Jayaraman, A., Wood, D.L., Maines, R.G. (1987) High-pressure Raman study of the vibrational modes in AlPO4 and SiO2 (α-quartz). Physical Review B: 35: 8316-8321.

Molenaar, N., de Jong, A.F.M. (1987) Authigenic quartz and albite in Devonian limestones: origin and significance. Sedimentology: 34: 623-640.

Graziani, G., Lucchesi, S., Scandale, E. (1988) Growth defects and genetic medium of a quartz druse from Traversella,Italy. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Abhandlungen: 159: 165-179.

Owen, M.R. (1988) Radiation-damage halos in quartz. Geology: 16: 529-532.

Ramseyer, K., Baumann, J., Matter, A., Mullis, J. (1988) Cathodoluminescence colours of α-quartz. Mineralogical Magazine: 52: 669-677.

Sowa, H. (1988) The oxygen packings of low-quartz and ReO3 under high pressure. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 184: 257-268.

Davidson, P.M., Lindsley, D.H. (1989) Thermodynamic analysis of pyroxene-olivine-quartz equilibria in the system CaO-MgO-FeO-SiO2. American Mineralogist: 74: 18-30.

Drees, L.R., Wilding, L.P., Smeck, N.E., Senkayi, A.L. (1989) Silica in soils: quartz and disordered silica polymorphs. in Minerals in Soil Environments, Editor S B Weed. Soil Science Society of America (Madison Wisconsin, USA) 913-974.

Dubrovinskii, L.S., Nozik, Y.Z. (1989) Calculation of the anisotropic thermal parameters of the atoms of α-quartz. Soviet Physics - Doklady: 34: 484-485.

Hazen, R.M. ,Finger, L.W., Hemley, R.J., Mao, H.K. (1989) High-pressure crystal chemistry and amorphization of α-quartz. Solid State Communications: 72: 507-511.

Scandale, E., Stasi, F., Lucchesi, S., Graziani, G. (1989) Growth marks and genetic conditions in a quartz druse. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Abhandlungen: 160: 181-192.

Rao, P.S., Weil, J.A., Williams, J.A.S. (1989) EPR investigation of carbonaceous natural quartz single crystals. The Canadian Mineralogist: 27: 219-224.

Blum, A.E., Yund, R.A., Lasaga, A.C. (1990) The effect of dislocation density on the dissolution rate of quartz. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 54: 283-297.

Brady, P.V., Walther, J.V. (1990) Kinetics of quartz dissolution at low temperature. Chemical Geology: 82: 253-264.

Dove, P.M., Crerar, D.A. (1990) Kinetics of quartz dissolution in electrolyte solutions using a hydrothermal mixed flow reactor. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 54: 955-969.

Kihara, K. (1990) An X-ray study of the temperature dependence of the quartz structure. European Journal of Mineralogy: 2: 63-77.

Ribet, I., Thiry, M. (1990) Quartz growth in limestone: example from water-table silicification in the Paris Basin. Geochemistry of the Earth's Surface and Mineral Formation. 2nd International Symposium, July 2, 1990, Aix en Provance, France. Chemical Geology: 84: 316-319.

Chernosky, J.V., Berman, R.G. (1991) Experimental reversal of the equilibrium andalusite + calcite + quartz = anorthite + CO2. The Canadian Mineralogist: 29: 791-802.

Cordier, P., Doukhan, J.C. (1991) Water speciation in quartz: A near infrared study. American Mineralogist: 76: 361-369.

Heaney, P.J., Veblen, D.R. (1991) Observations of the alpha-beta phase transition in quartz: A review of imaging and diffraction studies and some new results. American Mineralogist: 76: 1018-1032.

Lüttge, A., Metz, P. (1991) Mechanism and kinetics of the reaction 1 dolomite + 2 quartz = 1 diopside + 2 CO2 investigated by powder experiments. The Canadian Mineralogist: 29: 803-821.

Agrosì, G., Lattanzi, P., Ruggieri, G., Scandale, E. (1992) Growth history of a quartz crystal from growth marks and fluid inclusions data. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte: 7: 289-294.

Glinnemann, J., King, H.E., Schulz, H., Hahn, T., La Placa, S.J., Dacol, F. (1992) Crystal structures of the low-temperature quartz-type phases of SiO2 and GeO2 at elevated pressure. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 198: 177-212.

Lentz, D.R., Fowler, A.D. (1992) A dynamic model for graphic quartz-feldspar intergrowths in granitic pegmatites in the southwestern Grenville Province. The Canadian Mineralogist: 30: 571-585.

Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B., Behr, H.-J. (1993) Chemistry of hydrothermal quartz in the post-Variscan "Bavarian Pfahl" system, F.R. Germany. Chemical Geology: 103: 85-102.

Rink, W.J., Rendell, H., Marseglia, E.A., Luff, B.J., Townsend, P.D. (1993) Thermoluminescence spectra of igneous quartz and hydrothermal vein quartz. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 20: 353-361.

Berti G.(1994) Microcrystalline properties of quartz by means of XRPD measures. Adv. X-Ray Analysis: 37:359-366.

Cohen, R.E. (1994) First-principles theory of crystalline SiO2. in: Heaney, P.J., Gibbs, G.V., editors. Reviews in Mineralogy Volume 29 Silica - Physical behaviour, geochemistry and materials applications. Mineralogical Society of America, 369-402.

Cordier, P., Weil, J.A., Howarth, D.F., Doukhan, J.C. (1994) Influence of the (4H)Si defect on dislocation motion in crystalline quartz. European Journal of Mineralogy: 6: 17-22.

Dolino, G., Vallade, M. (1994) Lattice dynamical behavior of anhydrous silica. in: Heaney, P.J., Gibbs, G.V., editors. Reviews in Mineralogy Volume 29 Silica - Physical behaviour, geochemistry and materials applications. Mineralogical Society of America, 403-431.

Dove, P.M., Rimstidt, J.D. (1994) Silica-water interactions. in: Heaney, P.J., Gibbs, G.V., editors. Reviews in Mineralogy Volume 29 Silica - Physical behaviour, geochemistry and materials applications. Mineralogical Society of America, 259-308.

Gibbs, G.V., Downs, J.W., Boisen, M.B. Jr. (1994) The elusive SiO bond. in: Heaney, P.J., Gibbs, G.V., editors. Reviews in Mineralogy Volume 29 Silica - Physical behaviour, geochemistry and materials applications. Mineralogical Society of America, 331-368.

Goldsmith, D.F. (1994) Health effects of silica dust exposure. in: Heaney, P.J., Gibbs, G.V., editors. Reviews in Mineralogy Volume 29 Silica - Physical behaviour, geochemistry and materials applications. Mineralogical Society of America, 545-606.

Graetsch, H. (1994) Structural characteristics of opaline and microcrystalline silica minerals. in: Heaney, P.J., Gibbs, G.V., editors. Reviews in Mineralogy Volume 29 Silica - Physical behaviour, geochemistry and materials applications. Mineralogical Society of America, 209-232.

Heaney, P.J. (1994) Structure and chemistry of the low-pressure silica polymorphs. in: Heaney, P.J., Gibbs, G.V., editors. Reviews in Mineralogy Volume 29 Silica - Physical behaviour, geochemistry and materials applications. Mineralogical Society of America, 1-40.

Hemley, R.J., Prewitt, C.T., Kingma, K.J. (1994) High-pressure behavior of silica. in: Heaney, P.J., Gibbs, G.V., editors. Reviews in Mineralogy Volume 29 Silica - Physical behaviour, geochemistry and materials applications. Mineralogical Society of America, 41-81.

Knauth, L.P. (1994) Petrogenesis of chert. in: Heaney, P.J., Gibbs, G.V., editors. Reviews in Mineralogy Volume 29 Silica - Physical behaviour, geochemistry and materials applications. Mineralogical Society of America, 233-258.

Kronenberg, A.K. (1994) Hydrogen speciation and chemical weakening of quartz. in: Heaney, P.J., Gibbs, G.V., editors. Reviews in Mineralogy Volume 29 Silica - Physical behaviour, geochemistry and materials applications. Mineralogical Society of America, 123-176.

Langenhorst, F. (1994) Shock experiments on pre-heated α- and β-quartz: II. X-ray and TEM investigations. Earth and Planetary Science Letters: 128: 683-698.

Navrotsky, A. (1994) Thermochemistry of crystalline and amorphous silica. in: Heaney, P.J., Gibbs, G.V., editors. Reviews in Mineralogy Volume 29 Silica - Physical behaviour, geochemistry and materials applications. Mineralogical Society of America, 309-329

Rossman, G.R. (1994) Colored varieties of the silica minerals. in: Heaney, P.J., Gibbs, G.V., editors. Reviews in Mineralogy Volume 29 Silica - Physical behaviour, geochemistry and materials applications. Mineralogical Society of America, 433-467.

Swamy, V., Saxena, S.K., Sundman, B., Zhang, J. (1994) A thermodynamic assessment of silica phase diagram. Journal of Geophysical Research 99, 11787-11794.

Dong, G., Morrison, G., Jaireth, S. (1995) Quartz textures in epithermal veins, Queensland - classification, origin and implications. Economic Geology: 90: 1841-1856.

Onasch, C.M., Vennemann, T.W. (1995) Disequilibrium partitioning of oxygen isotopes associated with sector zoning in quartz. Geology: 23: 1103-1106.

Rykart, R. (1995) Quarz-Monographie - Die Eigenheiten von Bergkristall, Rauchquarz, Amethyst, Chalcedon, Achat, Opal und anderen Varietäten. Ott-Verlag, Thun.

Stevens Kalceff, M.A., Phillips, M.R. (1995) Cathodoluminescence microcharacterization of the defect structure of quartz. Physics Review: B: 52: 3122-3134.

Gratz, A.J., Fisler, D.K., Bohor, B.F. (1996) Distinguishing shocked from tectonically deformed quartz by the use of the SEM and chemical etching. Earth and Planetary Science Letters: 142: 513-521.

Plötze, M., Wolf, D. (1996) EPR- und TL-Spektren von Quartz: Bestrahlungsabhängigkeit der [TiO4 -/Li +] 0-Zentren. Bericht derJahrestagung der Deutschen Mineralogischen Gesellschaft: 8: 217 (abstr.).

Gaines, R.V., Skinner, C.H>W., Foord, E.E., Mason, B., Rosenzweig, A., King, V.T. (1997) Dana's New Mineralogy : The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, 8th. edition: 1573.

Carpenter, M.A., Salje, E.K.H., Gaeme-Barber, A., Wruck, B., Dove, M.T., Knight, K.S. (1998) Calibration of excess thermodynamic properties and elastic constant variations associated with the α ↔ β phase transition in quartz. American Mineralogist: 83: 2-22.

Gautier, J.-M., Schott, J., Oelkers, E.H. (1998) An experimental study of quartz precipitation and dissolution rates at 200°C. Mineralogical Magazine: 62: 509-510.

Hertweck, B., Beran, A., Niedermayr, G. (1998) IR-spektroskopische Untersuchungen des OH-Gehaltes alpiner Kluftquarze aus österreichischen Vorkommen. Mitteilungen der österreichischen Mineralogischen Gesellschaft: 143: 304-306.

Von Goerne, G., Franz, G., Robert, J.L. (1999) Upper thermal stability of tourmaline + quartz in the system MgO–Al2O3–SiO2–B2O3–H2O and Na2O–MgO–Al2O3–SiO2–B2O3–H2O–HCl in hydrothermal solutions and siliceous melts. The Canadian Mineralogist: 37: 1025-1039.

Bachheimer, J.-P. (2000) Comparative NIR and IR examination of natural, synthetic, and irradiated synthetic quartz. European Journal of Mineralogy: 12: 975-986.

Ghent, E.D., Stout, M.Z. (2000) Mineral equilibria in quartz leucoamphibolites (quartz—garnet—plagioclase—hornblende cacl-silicates) from southeastern British Columbia, Canada. The Canadian Mineralogist: 38: 233-244

Bons, P.D. (2001) The formation of large quartz veins by rapid ascent of fluids in mobile hydrofractures. Tectonophysics: 336: 1-17.

Götze, J., Plötze, M., Fuchs, H., Habermann, D. (2001) Origin, spectral characteristics and practical applications of the cathodoluminescence (CL) of quartz - a review. Mineralogy and Petrology: 71: 225-250.

Skála R., Hörz F. (2001) Unit-cell dimensions of experimentally shock-loaded quartz revisited. Meteoritics & Planetary Science: 36: 192-193.

Monger, H.C., Kelly, E.F. (2002) Silica minerals. in Soil Mineralogy with Environmental Applications, Soil Science Society of America (Madison Wisconsin, USA) 611-636.

Hyrsl, J., Niedermayr, G. (2003) Magic World: Inclusions in Quartz / Geheimnisvolle Welt: Einschlüsse in Quarz. Bode Verlag GmbH, Haltern. [in English and German]

Rodgers, K.A., Hampton, W.A. (2003) Laser Raman identification of silica phases comprising microtextural components of sinters. Mineralogical Magazine: 67: 1-13.

Wangen, M., Munz, I.A. (2004) Formation of quartz veins by local dissolution and transport of silica. Chemical Geology: 209: 179-192.

Basile-Doelsch, I., Meunier, J.D., Parron, C. (2005) Another continental pool in the terrestrial silicon cycle. Nature: 433: 399-402.

Botis, S., Nokhrin, S.M., Pan, Y., Xu, Y., Bonli, T. (2005) Natural radiation-induced damage in quartz. I. Correlations between cathodoluminescence colors and paramagnetic defects. The Canadian Mineralogist: 43: 1565-1580.

de Hoog, J.C.M., van Bergen, M.J., Jacobs, M.H.G. (2005) Vapour-phase crystallisation of silica from SiF4-bearing volcanic gases. Annals of Geophysics: 48: 775-785.

Dove, P.M., Han, N., De Yoreo, J.J. (2005) Mechanisms of classical crystal growth theory explain quartz and silicate dissolution behavior. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science: 102: 15357-15362.

Götze, J., Plötze, M., Trautmann, T. (2005) Structure and luminescence characteristics of quartz from pegmatites. American Mineralogist: 90: 13-21.

Choudhury, N., Chaplot, S.L. (2006) Ab initio studies of phonon softening and high-pressure phase transitions of α-quartz SiO2. Physical Review B: 73: 094304-11.

Enami, M., Nishiyama, T., Mouri, T. (2007) Laser Raman microspectrometry of metamorphic quartz: a simple method for comparison of metamorphic pressures. American Mineralogist: 92: 1303-1315.

Hebert L.B., Rossman G.R. (2008) Greenish quartz found at the Thunder Bay Amethyst Mine Panorama, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. The Canadian Mineralogist: 46: 111-124.

Baur, W.H. (2009) In search of the crystal structure of low quartz. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 224: 580-592.

Botis, S.M., Pan, Y. (2009) Theoretical calculations of [AlO4/M+]0 defects in quartz and crystal-chemical controls on the uptake of Al. Mineralogical Magazine: 73: 537-550.

Korsakov, A.V., Perraki, M., Zhukov, V.P., De Gussem, K., Vandenabeele, P., Tomilenko, A.A. (2009) Is quartz a potential indicator of ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism? Laser Raman spectroscopy of quartz inclusions in ultrahigh-pressure garnets. European Journal of Mineralogy: 21: 1313-1323.

Lehmann, K., Berger, A., Götte, T., Ramseyer, K., Wiedebeck, M. (2009) Growth related zonations in authigenic and hydrothermal quartz characterized by SIMS, EPMA-, SEM-CL- and SEM-CC-imaging. Mineralogical Magazine: 73: 633-643.

Sunagawa, I., Iwasaki, H., Iwasaki, F. (2009) Growth and Morphology of Quartz Crystals: Natural and Synthetic. Terrapub, Tokyo, 201pp.

Thompson, R.M., Downs, R.T. (2010) Packing systematics of the silica polymorphs: The role played by O-O nonbonded interactions in the compression of quartz. American Mineralogist: 95: 104-111.

Wagner, T. Boyce, A.J., Erzinger, J. (2010) Fluid-rock interactions during formation of metamorphic quartz veins: a REE and stable isotope study from the Rhenish Massif, Germany. American Journal of Science: 310: 645-682.

Seifert, W., Rhede, D., Thomas, R., Forster, H.-J., Lucassen, F., Dulski, P., Wirth, R. (2011) Distinctive properties of rock-forming blue quartz: inferences from a multi-analytical study of submicron mineral inclusions. Mineralogical Magazine: 75: 2519-2534.

Götte, T., Ramseyer, K. (2012) Trace element characteristics, luminescence properties and real structure of quartz. in: Götze, J., Möckel, R., editors. Quartz: Deposits, mineralogy and analytics. Springer Verlag, 265-285.

Götze, J. (2012) Classification, mineralogy and industrial potential of SiO2 minerals. in: Götze, J., Möckel, R., editors. Quartz: Deposits, mineralogy and analytics. Springer Verlag, 1-27.

Götze, J. (2012) Mineralogy, geochemistry and cathodoluminescence of authigenic quartz from different sedimentary rocks. in: Götze, J., Möckel, R., editors. Quartz: Deposits, mineralogy and analytics. Springer Verlag, 287-306.

Haus, R., Prinz, S., Priess, C. (2012) Assessment of high purity quartz resources. in: Götze, J., Möckel, R., editors. Quartz: Deposits, mineralogy and analytics. Springer Verlag, 29-51.

Henn, U., Schultz-Guettler, R. (2012) Review of some current coloured quartz varieties. Journal of Gemmology: 33(1-4): 29-43.

Kempe, U., Götze, J., Dombon, E., Monecke, T., Poutivtsev, M. (2012) Quartz regeneration and its use as a repository of genetic information. in: Götze, J., Möckel, R., editors. Quartz: Deposits, mineralogy and analytics. Springer Verlag, 331-355.

Li, Z., Pan, Y. (2012) First-principles calculations of the E'1 center in quartz: structural models, 29Si hyperfine parameters and association with Al impurity. in: Götze, J., Möckel, R., editors. Quartz: Deposits, mineralogy and analytics. Springer Verlag, 161-175.

Müller, A., Wanvik, J.E., Ihlen, P.M. (2012) Petrological and chemical characterization of high-purity quartz deposits with examples from Norway. in: Götze, J., Möckel, R., editors. Quartz: Deposits, mineralogy and analytics. Springer Verlag, 71-118.

Plötze, M., Wolf, D., Krbetschek, M.R. (2012) Gamma-irradiation dependency of EPR and TL-spectral of quartz. in: Götze, J., Möckel, R., editors. Quartz: Deposits, mineralogy and analytics. Springer Verlag, 177-190.

Rusk, B. (2012) Cathodoluminescence textures and trace elements in hydrothermal quartz. in: Götze, J., Möckel, R., editors. Quartz: Deposits, mineralogy and analytics. Springer Verlag, 307-329.

Scholz, R., Chaves, M.L.S.C., Krambrock, K., Pinheiro, M.V.B., Barreto, S.B., de Menezes, M.G. (2012) Brazilian quartz deposits with special emphasis on gemstone quartz and its color treatment. in: Götze, J., Möckel, R., editors. Quartz: Deposits, mineralogy and analytics. Springer Verlag, 139-159.

Deer, W.A., Howie, R.A., Zussman, J. (2013) An introduction to the rock-forming minerals. Mineral Society of Great Britain and Ireland. 510pp.

Pabst, W., Gregorová, E. (2013) Elastic properties of silica polymorphs - a review. Ceramics - Silikáty: 57: 167-184.

Zhang, S., Liu, Y. (2014) Molecular-level mechanisms of quartz dissolution under neutral and alkaline conditions in the presence of electrolytes. Geochemical Journal: 48(2): 189-205.

Eder, S.D., Fladischer, K., Yeandel, S.R., Lelarge, A., Parker, S.C., Søndergård, E., Holst, B. (2015) A giant reconstruction of α-quartz (0001) interpreted as three domains of nano Dauphine twins. Nature, Scientific Reports: 5: 14545. doi: 10.1038/srep14545

Frelinger, S.N., Ledvina, M.D., Kyle, J.R., Zhao, D. (2015) Scanning electron microscopy cathodoluminescence of quartz: Principles, techniques and applications in ore geology. Ore Geology Reviews: 65: 840-852.

Momma, K., Nagase, T., Kuribayashi, T., Kudoh, Y. (2015) Growth history and textures of quartz twinned in accordance with the Japan law. European Journal of Mineralogy: 27: 71-80.

Skalwold, E.A., Bassett, W.A. (2015) Quartz: a bull’s eye on optical activity. Mineralogical Society of America, Chantilly, VA, 16 pages. ISBN 978-0-939950-00-3 [booklet, abstract and free download on the MSA website: http://www.minsocam.org/msa/openaccess_publications/#Skalwold_02]

Skalwold, E.A., Bassett, W.A. (2015) Double trouble: navigating birefringence. Mineralogical Society of America, Chantilly, VA, 20 pages. ISBN 978-0-939950-02-7 [booklet, abstract and free download on the MSA website: http://www.minsocam.org/msa/openaccess_publications/#Skalwold_01]

Calvo, M. (2016) Minerales y Minas de España. Vol VIII. Cuarzo y otros minerales de la sílice. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas de Madrid. Fundación Gómez Pardo. 399pp. [in Spanish]

Internet Links for Quartz

Specimens:
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Localities for Quartz

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