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Quartz

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Formula:
SiO
 
2
System:TrigonalColour:Colorless, Purple, Rose, ...
Lustre:VitreousHardness:7
Name:Quartz has been known and appreciated since pre-historic times. The most ancient name known is recorded by Theophrastus in about 300-325 BCE, κρύσταλλος or kristallos. The varietal names, rock crystal and bergcrystal, preserve the ancient usage. The root words κρύοσ signifying ice cold and στέλλειυ to contract (or solidify) suggest the ancient belief that kritallos was permanently solidified ice. The earliest printed use of "quertz" was anonymously published in 1505, but attributed to a physician in Freiberg. Germany, Ulrich Rühlein von Kalbe. By 1530, Agricola used the spelling "quartz" as well as "quertze", but Agricola also referred to "crystallum", "silicum", "silex", and silice". Tomkeieff (1941) suggested an etymology for quartz: "The Saxon miners called large veins - Gänge, and the small cross veins or stringers - Querklüfte. The name ore (Erz, Ertz) was applied to the metallic minerals, the gangue or to the vein material as a whole. In the Erzgebirge, silver ore is frequently found in small cross veins composed of silica. It may be that this ore was called by the Saxon miners 'Querkluftertz' or the cross-vein-ore. Such a clumsy word as 'Querkluftertz' could easily be condensed to 'Querertz' and then to 'Quertz', and eventually become 'Quarz' in German, 'quarzum' in Latin and 'quartz' in English." Tomkeieff (1941, q.v.) noted that "quartz", in its various spellings, was not used by other noted contemporary authors. "Quartz" was used in later literature referring to the Saxony mining district, but seldom elsewhere. Gradually, there were more references to quartz: E. Brown in 1685 and Johan Gottschalk Wallerius in 1747. In 1669, Nicolaus Steno (Niels Steensen) obliquely formulated the concept of the constancy of interfacial angles in the caption of an illustration of quartz crystals. He referred to them as "cristallus" and "crystallus montium". Tomkeieff (1941) also noted that Erasmus Bartholinus (1669) used the various spellings for "crystal" to signify other species than quartz and that crystal could refer to other "angulata corpora" (bodies with angles): "In any case in the second half of the XVIIIth century quartz became established as a name of a particular mineral and the name crystal became a generic term synonymous with the old term 'corus angulatum'."
Polymorph of:Coesite, Cristobalite, Mogánite, Seifertite, Stishovite, Tridymite
Isostructural with:Berlinite


Quartz is the most common mineral found on the surface of the Earth. A significant component of many igneous, metamorphic and sedimentary rocks, this natural form of silicon dioxide is found in an impressive range of varieties and colours. There are many names for different varieties: Cryptocrystalline varieties of quartz are listed separately under chalcedony, and include agate.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Quartz. Currently in public beta-test.

Classification of Quartz

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:4/D.01-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:4.DA.05

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
D : Metal: Oxygen = 1:2 and similar
A : With small cations: Silica family
Dana 7th edition ID:75.1.3.1
Dana 8th edition ID:75.1.3.1

75 : TECTOSILICATES Si Tetrahedral Frameworks
1 : Si Tetrahedral Frameworks - SiO2 with [4] coordinated Si
Hey's CIM Ref.:7.8.1

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
8 : Oxides of Si
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Occurrences of Quartz

Geological Setting:Most of them...

Physical Properties of Quartz

Lustre:Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Colorless, Purple, Rose, Red, Black, Yellow, Brown, Green, Blue, Orange, etc.
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):7
Hardness Data:Mohs hardness reference species
Comment:Some variability by direction.
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Poor/Indistinct
The rhombohedral cleavage r{1011} is most often seen, there are at least six others reported.
Fracture:Conchoidal
Comment:Tough when massive
Density (measured):2.65 - 2.66 g/cm3
Density (calculated):2.66 g/cm3

Crystallography of Quartz

Crystal System:Trigonal
Class (H-M):3 2 - Trapezohedral
Space Group:P31 2 1
Cell Parameters:a = 4.9133Å, c = 5.4053Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 1.1
Unit Cell Volume:V 113.00 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:3
Morphology:Typically long prismatic with steep pyramidal terminations, but may be short prismatic to bipyramidal, or needle-like; massive material (especially agate & chalcedony) may be microscopically fibrous.
Twinning:Dauphiné law.
Brazil law.
Japan law.
Others for beta-quartz...

Right-handed Dauphiné law twin

Left-handed Dauphiné law twin

Typical irregular intergrowth of Dauphiné law twin domains

Dauphiné law twin with re-entrant angles (rare)

Japan law twin
Crystal Atlas:
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Quartz no.5 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Quartz no.7 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Quartz no.9 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Quartz no.10 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Quartz no.12 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Quartz no.23 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Quartz no.35 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Quartz no.46 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Quartz no.47 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Quartz no.96 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Quartz no.121 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Structure
  Reference
Kihara K (1990) An X-ray study of the temperature dependence of the quartz structure Sample: at T = 298 K. European Journal of Mineralogy 2:63-77.

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More Crystal Structures
Click here to view more crystal structures at the American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
4.257 (22)
3.342 (100)
2.457 (8)
2.282 (8)
1.8179 (14)
1.5418 (9)
1.3718 (8)

Optical Data of Quartz

Type:Uniaxial (+)
RI values: nω = 1.543 - 1.545 nε = 1.552 - 1.554
Birefringence:0.009
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.009

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Low
Dispersion:low, 0.009
Comments:Varieties colored by trace elements built into the crystal lattice, as opposed to varieties colored by inclusions, generally show dichroism: smoky quartz, amethyst, citrine, prasiolite, "rose quartz in crystals" (a.k.a. pink quartz).

Chemical Properties of Quartz

Formula:
SiO
 
2
Simplified for copy/paste:SiO2
Essential elements:O, Si
All elements listed in formula:O, Si
Common Impurities:Traces,of,Al,Fe,Ti,Li,Ca,Mg,etc

Relationship of Quartz to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
4.DA.10Opal
SiO
 
2
· nH
 
2
O
4.DA.10Tridymite
SiO
 
2
4.DA.15Cristobalite
SiO
 
2
4.DA.20Mogánite
SiO
 
2
4.DA.25Melanophlogite
46SiO
 
2
· 6(N
 
2
,CO
 
2
) · 2(CH
 
4
,N
 
2
)
4.DA.30Lechatelierite
SiO
 
2
4.DA.35Coesite
SiO
 
2
4.DA.40Stishovite
SiO
 
2
4.DA.45Keatite
SiO
 
2
4.DA.50Seifertite
SiO
 
2
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
7.8.2Coesite
SiO
 
2
7.8.3Tridymite
SiO
 
2
7.8.4Stishovite
SiO
 
2
7.8.5Cristobalite
SiO
 
2
7.8.6Lechatelierite
SiO
 
2
7.8.7Silhydrite
3SiO
 
2
· H
 
2
O
7.8.8Opal
SiO
 
2
· nH
 
2
O
7.8.9Mogánite
SiO
 
2

Other Names for Quartz

Synonyms:
α-QuartzAlpha-QuartzAzetuliteAzeztuliteβ-Quartz (of Geophys. Lab)
Brazillian PebbleConite (of Macculloch)Cornish DiamondKoniliteLemurian Seed Crystal
LodoliteLow QuartzMexican DiamondQuartz-alphaQuartz-α
Quertz
Other Languages:
Arabic:مرو
Bosnian (Latin Script):Kvarc
Bulgarian:Кварц
Catalan:Quars
Croatian:Kvarc
Czech:Křemen
Danish:Kvarts
Dutch:Kwarts
Esperanto:Kvarco
Estonian:Kvarts
Finnish:Kvartsi
French:Quartz
Galician:Cuarzo
German:Quarz
Kammquarz
Kiesel
Konilit
Greek:Χαλαζίας
Hebrew:קוורץ
Hungarian:Kvarc
Indonesian:Kuarsa
Irish Gaelic:Grian Cloch
Italian:Quarzo
Japanese:石英
水晶
Korean:석영
Latvian:Kvarcs
Lithuanian:Kvarcas
Luxembourgish:Quarz
Macedonian:Кварц
Malay:Kuarza
Norwegian (Bokmål):Kvarts
Persian:کوارتز
Polish:Kwarc
Portuguese:Quartzo
Romanian:Cuarţ
Russian:Кварц
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Кварц
Simplified Chinese:石英
水晶
Slovak:Kremeň
Slovenian:Kamena strela
Spanish:Cuarzo
Swedish:Kvarts
Thai:ควอตซ์
Traditional Chinese:石英
Turkish:Kuvars
Ukrainian:Кварц
Vietnamese:Thạch anh
Varieties:
Abakusz-köAgateAgate-JasperAgatized coralAmarillo Stone
AmberineAmethystAmetrineApricotineArkansas Candle
AventurineAzurchalcedonyBabel-QuartzBall JasperBasanite
BayateBeekiteBinghamiteBloodstoneBlue Chalcedony
Blue Lace AgateBlue QuartzBotswana AgateBrazilian PebbleBrecciated Agate
Bristol DiamondsBuhrstoneBull QuartzBurnt amethystCactus Quartz
Cape May DiamondsCapped QuartzCarnelianChalcedonyChrome-Chalcedony
ChrysojasperCitrineClear Lake DiamondsCloud AgateCotterite
Crazy Lace AgateCreoliteCubosiliciteDallasiteDamsonite
DarlingiteDendritic AgateDiackethystDragoniteEgyptian Jasper
EisenkieselEl DoradoiteEnhydro AgateEye AgateFairburn Agate
Ferruginous QuartzFire AgateFortification AgateFossil AgateGwindel
Haema-ovoid-agatesHair AmethystHaytoriteHedgehog StoneHerbeckite
Herkimer DiamondHerradura DiamondsIris AgateIris QuartzIrnimite
Jacinto de Compostela QuartzJasperKeystonite ChalcedonyKinraditeLaguna Agate
Lake County DiamondsLake Superior AgateLandscape AgateLithium QuartzMarmaroscher Diamanten
Mexican Lace AgateMilky QuartzMocha StoneMoss AgateMutzschen Diamonds
MyrickiteNipomo AgateOil QuartzOnyxOrbicular Jasper
Owyhee JasperPastelitePietersitePigeon Blood AgatePlasma
Plume AgatePrasePrase-malachitePrasiolitePseudocubic Quartz
QuartzineQuetzalitztliRiband AgateRiband JasperRock Crystal
Rose QuartzRutilated QuartzSagenite (of Kunz)SardSardonyx
Sceptre QuartzSchaumburger DiamantSchlangenhautachatSchwimmsteinSeftonite
Shocked QuartzSmoky QuartzSnakeskin AgateStar QuartzSuttroper Quarz
Vallum DiamondVogelaugenachatVogelaugenjaspisWatercolour jasperWilkite
YoungiteÖhrli-Diamanten

Other Information

Electrical:piezoelectric, pyroelectric, may be triboluminescent.
Thermal Behaviour:Transforms to beta-quartz at 573 deg C and 1 bar (100 kPa) pressure.
Health Warning:Quartz is usually quite harmless unless broken or powdered. Broken crystals and masses may have razor-sharp edges that can easily cut skin and flesh. Handle with care. Do not grind dry since long-term exposure to finely ground powder may lead to silicosis.
Industrial Uses:Ore for silicon, glassmaking, frequency standards, optical instruments, silica source for concrete setting, filtering agents as sand. Major component of sand.

References for Quartz

Reference List:

- +
Tomkeieff, Sergei Ivanovitch (1941) Origin of the Name 'Quartz, Mineralogical Magazine, v. 26, p. 172-178.
Frondel, Clifford (1962), Dana's System of Mineralogy, 7th Edition: Vol. III.Reviews in Mineralogy vol 29 Silica: Physical behaviour, geochemistry and materials applications; P.J. Heany and G.V. Gibbs ed. Mineralogical Society of America, 1994, 606pp.
Kushiro, I. (1969), The system forsterite-diopside-silica with and without water at high pressures: American Journal of Science: 267: 269-294.
Rice, S.J. (1969) Quartz family minerals. California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22: 35-38.
Feigl, F.J. and Anderson, J.H. (1970) Defects in crystalline quartz: electron paramagnetic resonance of E' vacancy centers associated with germanium impurities. Journal of Physics and Chemistry of Solids: 31: 575-596.
Sprunt, E.S. (1981) Causes of quartz cathodoluminescence colours. Scan. Elec. Micros.: 525-535.
Bohlen, S.R. and Boettcher, A.L. (1982) The quartz-coesite transformation: a precise determination and the effects of other components. Journal of Geophysical Research: 87(B8): 7073-7078.
Richet, P., Bottinga, Y., Deniélou, L., Petitet, J.P., and Téqui, C. (1982) Thermodynamic properties of quartz, cristobalite, and amorphous SiO2: drop calorimetry measurements between 1000 and 1800 K and a review from 0 to 2000 K. Geochimica et Cosmochmica Acta: 46: 2639-2658.
Serebrennikov, A.J., Valter, A.A., Mashkovtsev, R.I., and Scherbakova, M.Ya. (1982) The investigation of defects in shock-metamorphosed quartz. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 8: 155-157.
Scandale, E., Stasi, F., and Zarka, A. (1983) Growth defects in a Quartz Druse. ac Dislocations. Journal of Applied Crystallography: 16: 39-403.
Weil, J.A. (1984) A review of electron spin resonance and its applications to the study of paramagnetic defects in crystalline quartz. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 10: 149-165.
Scandale, E. and Stasi, F. (1985) Growth defects in Quartz Druses. a Pseudo-basal Dislocations. Journal of Applied Crystallography: 18: 275-278.
Graziani, G., Lucchesi, S., and Scandale, E. (1988) Growth defects and genetic medium of a quartz druse from Traversella,Italy. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Abhandlungen: 159: 165-179.
Owen, M.R. (1988) Radiation-damage halos in quartz. Geology: 16: 529-532.
Ramseyer, K., Baumann, J., Matter, A., and Mullis, J. (1988) Cathodoluminescence colours of α-quartz. Mineralogical Magazine: 52: 669-677.
Scandale, E., Stasi, F., Lucchesi, S., and Graziani, G. (1989) Growth marks and genetic conditions in a quartz druse. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Abhandlungen: 160: 181-192.
Heaney, P.J., Veblen, D.R. (1991) Observations of the alpha-beta phase transition in quartz: A review of imaging and diffraction studies and some new results. American Mineralogist: 76: 1018-1032.
Agrosì, G., Lattanzi, P., Ruggieri, G., and Scandale, E. (1992) Growth history of a quartz crystal from growth marks and fluid inclusions data. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte: 7: 289-294.
Rink, W.J., Rendell, H., Marseglia, E.A., Luff, B.J., and Townsend, P.D. (1993) Thermoluminescence spectra of igneous quartz and hydrothermal vein quartz. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 20: 353-361.
Berti G.(1994): Microcrystalline properties of quartz by means of XRPD measures. Adv. X-Ray Analysis: 37: 359-366.
Langenhorst, F. (1994): Shock experiments on pre-heated α- and β-quartz: II. X-ray and TEM investigations. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 128, 683-698.
Onasch, C.M. and Vennemann, T.W. (1995) Disequilibrium partitioning of oxygen isotopes associated with sector zoning in quartz. Geology: 23: 1103-1106.
Rykart, R. (1995), Quarz-Monographie - Die Eigenheiten von Bergkristall, Rauchquarz, Amethyst, Chalcedon, Achat, Opal und anderen Varietäten. Stevens Kalceff, M.A. and Phillips, M.R. (1995) Cathodoluminescence microcharacterization of the defect structure of quartz. Physics Review: B 52: 3122-3134.
Plötze, M. and Wolf, D. (1996) EPR- und TL-Spektren von Quartz: Bestrahlungsabhängigkeit der [TiO4 -/Li +] 0-Zentren. Ber. Deutsch. Mineral. Gesellsch. 8: 217 (abstr.)
Gaines, Richard V., H. Catherine, W. Skinner, Eugene E. Foord, Brian Mason, Abraham Rosenzweig, Vandall T. King (1997), Dana's New Mineralogy : The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, 8th. edition: 1573.
Carpenter, M.A., Salje, E.K.H., Gaeme-Barber, A., Wruck, B., Dove, M.T., and Knight, K.S. (1998a), Calibration of excess thermodynamic properties and elastic constant variations associated with the α ↔ β phase transition in quartz. American Mineralogist: 83: 2-22.
Acta Crystallographica: B32: 2456-2459.
Götze, J., Plötze, M., Fuchs, H., and Habermann, D. (2001) Origin, spectral characteristics and practical applications of the cathodoluminescence (CL) of quartz - a review. Mineralogy and Petrology: 71: 225-250.
Skála R., Hörz F. (2001): Unit-cell dimensions of experimentally shock-loaded quartz revisited. Meteoritics & Planetary Science, 36, 192-193.
Botis, S., Nokhrin, S.M., Pan, Y., Xu, Y., and Bonli, T. (2005) Natural radiation-induced damage in quartz. I. Correlations between cathodoluminescence colors and paramagnetic defects. Canadian Mineralogist: 43: 1565-1580.
Götze, J., Plötze, M., and Trautmann, T. (2005) Structure and luminescence characteristics of quartz from pegmatites. American Mineralogist: 90: 13-21.
Hebert LB, Rossman GR (2008) Greenish quartz found at the Thunder Bay Amethyst Mine Panorama, Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist, 46, 111-124.
Baur, W. H. (2009): In search of the crystal structure of low quartz. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie 224, 580-592.
Götze, J., Möckel, R., editors (2012) Quartz: Deposits, Mineralogy and Analytics. Springer-Verlag.
Ulrich Henn and Rainer Schultz-Guettler (2012): Review of come current coloured quartz varieties. Journal of Gemmology 33 (1-4), 29-43.

Mindat.org articles about Quartz

Article entries:
Cleaning QuartzRock Currier

Best Localities for Quartz

Best of Species:Quartz

Internet Links for Quartz

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