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Citrine

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System:TrigonalColour:Yellow - Orange
Lustre:VitreousHardness:7
Name:From citrina (color as yellow as citron).
A variety of Quartz

A yellow to yellow-orange or yellow-green variety of quartz.


A yellow-green citrine crystal with smoky phantoms.

A cut natural citrine from Norway

The cause of the color is still under debate. At least some citrine is colored by aluminum-based and irradiation-induced color centers related to those found in smoky quartz (Lehmann, 1972; Maschmeyer et al., 1980). Accordingly, transitions to smoky quartz ("smoky citrine") exist, many citrines show smoky phantoms. Like smoky quartz, these types of citrines pale when heated above 200-500°C and turn yellow again when irradiated (Lehmann, 1970). There appear to be at least two types of yellow color centers with different thermal stability (Schmetzer, 1988). Since the yellow color centers are often more stable than the smoky color centers, some smoky quartz can be turned into citrine by careful heating (Nassau and Prescott, 1977).


It has also been suggested that iron is the cause of color, as artificial crystals grown in a iron-bearing solution turn out yellow. However, the dichroic behavior of the lab-grown crystals differs from that in natural citrine (Rossmann, 1994).


A natural citrine from Salamanca, a classic citrine locality

An amethyst geode cut into 2 halves, the right one was heated to turn the amethyst into "citrine".

Note: Natural citrine is very rare. Large quantities of amethyst, usually of lesser quality, are heated to turn it yellow or orange and sold as "citrine." Because the color is now caused by finely distributed iron minerals (mostly hematite and goethite), heated amethyst is not citrine in the strict sense.
Thin coatings of iron oxides on colourless quartz, as well as inclusions of yellow iron oxides ("limonite"), may simulate citrine.

Quartz colored by inclusions of any kind is not called citrine.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Citrine. Currently in public beta-test.


Classification of Citrine

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Physical Properties of Citrine

Lustre:Vitreous
Colour:Yellow - Orange
Hardness (Mohs):7

Crystallography of Citrine

Crystal System:Trigonal

Other Names for Citrine

Synonyms:
Bohemian TopazCitronKundalini QuartzLemon Quartz
Other Languages:
Basque:Zitrino
Bulgarian:Цитрин
Dutch:Citrien
Finnish:Sitriini
French:Citrine
German:Citrin
Zitrin
Hebrew:סיטרין
Hungarian:Citrin
Latvian:Citrīns
Lithuanian:Citrinas
Polish:Cytryn
Portuguese:Citrino
Romanian:Citrin
Russian:Цитрин
Simplified Chinese:黃水晶
黄晶
Slovak:Citrín
Spanish:Cuarzo citrino
Swedish:Citrin
Turkish:Sitrin

Other Information

Health Warning:Citrine is a variety of quartz which is usually quite harmless unless broken or powdered. Broken crystals and masses may have razor-sharp edges that can easily cut skin and flesh. Handle with care. Do not grind dry since long-term exposure to finely ground powder may lead to silicosis.

References for Citrine

Reference List:

- +
Georgius Agricola (1546) "De Natura Fossilium" (Book VI). Dover reprint Mark Chance Bandy & Jean A. Bandy translation Dover Publications p. 120

Dana, 1892, 187 - "Syst. Min. 6th Ed"

Chudoba, K. F. (1962): Some relations between the causes of amethyst, smoky quartz, and citrine colors as given by modern science. Mineralogicheskii Sbornik (Lvov), (16), 91-105.

Lehmann, G. (1972): Yellow color centers in natural and synthetic quartz. Physik der Kondensierten Materie 13, 297-306.

Maschmeyer, D. et al (1980): Two modified smoky quartz centres in natural citrine. Phys.Chem.Minerals (6), 145-156

Schmetzer, K. (1988): Thermal stability of yellow color centers in natural citrine. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte 2, 71-80.

Rossman, G.R. (1994): Colored varieties of the silica minerals. In: Reviews in Mineralogy, Vol.29, Silica - Physical behavior, geochemistry and materials applications, Mineralogical Society of America.

Nassau, K. Prescott, B.E. (1977): Smoky, blue, greenish yellow, and other irradiation-related colors in quartz. Mineralogical Magazine, 41, 301-312.

Internet Links for Citrine

Search Engines:
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  • Search for Citrine on Well-Arranged Molecules
  • Buy from David K Joyce minerals
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  • Buy RARE Minerals from Rocks of Africa
  • Buy from Dave Bunk Minerals
  • Fine Minerals from Weinrich Minerals, Inc.
  • Buy fine minerals and gemstones from Pala International
  • Rare and Unusual minerals at Mineralogical Research Company
  • DAKOTA MATRIX offers Cabinet and Rare Species from Worldwide Localities.
  • Specimens:The following Citrine specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Citrine

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Angola
     
    • Moxico Province
      • Alto Zambeze City Council
    António Manuel Ináçio Martins collection
    Argentina
     
    • Catamarca
      • Antofagasta de la Sierra Department
    Raúl Jorge Tauber Larry
    Raúl Jorge Tauber Larry
      • Belen Department
        • El Portezuelo Granite
    http://www.papachacraminerals.com.ar/english/aboutpap.htm.
    • Misiones
    Hugo A. Peña (1970): Minerales y rocas de aplicación de la Provincia de Tucumán. Secretaría de Estado de Comercio, Industria y Minería. Dirección Provincial de Minas. Tucumán. República Argentina.
      • Graneros Department
        • Cerro Quico
    Raúl Jorge Tauber Larry´s collection.
      • Tafí del Valle Department
    Raúl Jorge Tauber Larry´s collection.
        • Cerro Pichao
    Raúl Jorge Tauber Larry
        • El Infiernillo
          • El Infiernillo pegmatite
    Raúl Jorge Tauber Larry
    Australia
     
    • New South Wales
      • Clive Co.
        • Torrington
    Patrick Gundersen
      • Drake Co.
        • Ewingar State Forest
    P.Gundersen (personal communication)
      • Gough Co.
        • Torrington district
    Personal collection
    Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-10, SH/56-11), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
    Keith Compton
      • Yancowinna Co.
    Minerals of Broken Hill, W.D. Birch (Ed), 1999
    • Northern Territory
      • Central Desert Shire
        • Harts Range (Harts Ranges; Hartz Range; Hartz Ranges)
    NT MInes + personal collecting
          • Mt Riddock Station
    NT Mines + personal collecting
    • Queensland
      • Tablelands Region
        • Mount Surprise
    http://www.nrm.qld.gov.au/mines/fossicking/pdf/obriens_creek.pdf
    • South Australia
      • Eyre Peninsula
        • Kimba
    Barnes L. C., et al, (1980), Some Semiprecious and Ornamental Stones of South Australia, Government Printer, Adelaide, South Australia.
      • Mt Lofty Ranges
        • South Mt Lofty Ranges (Adelaide Hills)
          • Echunga
    Paul Stahl collection
    • Victoria
      • Rural City of Wangaratta
        • Eldorado
    Dunn, E.J.,(1913). Bulletins of the Geological Survey of Victoria No. 25. The Woolshed Valley, Beechworth. Department of Mines.
    Austria
     
    • Carinthia
      • Hohe Tauern
        • Goldberg group
          • Große Fleiß valley
    G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
          • Innerfragant
            • Wurten
    Paar, W.H., and Niedermayr, G. (1998): Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Mineralogischen Gesellschaft 143, 425-435.
          • Kleine Fleiß valley
            • Hoher Sonnblick
    G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
    G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
            • Zirmsee area
    R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
        • Hafner group
          • Pölla valley
            • Lanisch
    G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens (1995)
    • Lower Austria
      • Waldviertel
        • Dobersberg
    R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
        • Geras
    Peter Lamatsch collection
    RIEDEL, Christian (2011): Schmucksteine aus Österreich.- Gemmo News, 31, 3, Wien.
    R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
    • Salzburg
      • Hohe Tauern
        • Gastein valley
          • Siglitz - Bockhart area
            • Siglitz - Bockhart Gold Mining District
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
        • Rauris valley
          • Hüttwinkl valley
            • Alteck - Hoher Sonnblick area
              • Hoher Sonnblick
    R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
    Gerd Stefanik collection
    • Styria
      • Graz
        • Wildon
          • Weitendorf
    H. Meixner: Carinthia II 143./63.:96-97 (1953)
    • Upper Austria
      • Mühlviertel
        • Rohrbach
    - Hans Commenda, in: Übersicht der Gesteine und Mineralien Oberösterreichs, II. Minerale.
    Bolivia
     
    • Santa Cruz Department
      • Sandoval Province
        • La Gaiba District
    No reference listed
    Brazil
     
    • Minas Gerais
    Karel Bal Collection
      • Doce valley
        • Conselheiro Pena
          • Ferruginha
    Mineralogical Record (2009) 40:273-292
        • Galiléia
          • Laranjeiras
    [MinRec 21:411]
      • Jequitinhonha valley
        • Diamantina
    Rafael Corrêa-Silva
      • Mucuri valley
    Proctor, K. (1984). Gem pegmatites of Minas Gerais, Brazil: exploration, occurrence, and aquamarine deposits. Gems and Gemology, 20(2), 78-100.
    • Paraíba
      • Borborema mineral province
        • Junco do Seridó
    Kievlenko E.Ya., Geology of gems, 2003, p. 113
    • Rio Grande do Sul
      • Fontoura Xavier
        • Três Pinheiros
    Small quartz crystals, citrine var., in a chalcedony geode collected in August 1996 by Prof. Paulo César Pereira Neves (USP - São Paulo University), co-author with Dr. Daniel Atencio of "Enciclopédia dos Minerais do Brasil".
    Burma (Myanmar)
     
    • Mandalay Division
      • Pyin-Oo-Lwin District
        • Mogok Township
          • Bernardmyo
    Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
          • Kyauk-Pyat-That
    Ted Themelis (2008) Gems & mines of Mogok
    Canada
     
    • Ontario
      • Hastings Co.
        • Wollaston Township
    Identified by Mineral Associates Inc.
      • Thunder Bay District
        • McTavish Township
    Ontario Gem Company
    www.alpinegems.net
    China
     
    • Guangdong Province
      • Shaoguan Prefecture
        • Lechang Co.
    Joe Freilich specimen
    • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
      • Ulaan Chab League (Wulanchabu Prefecture)
        • Chahar Right Middle Banner (Chaha'er Youyi Zhongqi)
    Yantian Guo and Guangming Tian (1979): Geology and Prospecting 15(8), 29-34
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Central Bohemia Region
        • Čáslav (Tschaslau)
    Novák, J.: Výskyt rutilu západně od Golčova Jeníkova. Věstník ÚÚG, 1959, roč. XXXIV, s. 409 - 415.
        • Uhlířské Janovice
    Sejkora, J., Hejný, M.: Minerály severní části Ratajské zóny (Českomoravská vrchovina). Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii, 1984, roč. 29, č. 2, s. 212.
      • Karlovy Vary Region
        • Horní Slavkov (Schlaggenwald)
          • Krásno (Schönfeld)
    Beran, P. & Sejkora, J. (2006): The Krásno Sn-W ore district near Horní Slavkov: Mining history, geological and mineralogical characteristics. Journal of the Czech Geological Society, 51, 3-42
        • Lázně Kynžvart (Bad Königswart)
    Černý, P., Veselovský, F.: Pegmatit Bílý kámen (Weisser Stein) u Kynžvartu. Minerál, 2000, roč. 8, č. 1, s. 10-16.
      • Liberec Region
        • Jizerské Mtn (Iser Mtn)
    geological prospecting, 2008 - 2009, Czech geological Organization
        • Liberec
    Fengl, M.: Mineralogie těžených fluoritových ložisek (1.). Minerál, 1998, 6, 2, 243–252.
        • Lomnice nad Popelkou (Lomnitz an der Popelka)
    Pauliš, P.: Nejzajímavější mineralogická naleziště Čech II. Kutná Hora: Kuttna, 2003, s. 49-50.
      • South Bohemia Region
        • Písek
    Historic mineral collection National museum of Czech Republic
    • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
      • Vysočina Region
        • Žďár nad Sázavou
    V. Mátl: Lokalita Česká mez u Žďáru n. Sázavou, Minerál,1995,roč.1,č.1,
    Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
     
    • Katanga (Shaba)
      • Katanga Copper Crescent
    Safaa Yu collection
    Information Eric Greene
    Germany
     
    • Bavaria
      • Franconia
        • Fichtelgebirge
          • Wunsiedel
            • Göpfersgrün
    F. Müller: "Bayerns steinreiche Ecke", 2nd. ed. (1984), pp. 49-59
        • Franconian Forest
          • Kronach
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
    • Hesse
      • Taunus
        • Weilmünster
          • Phillipstein
    S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • North Rhine-Westphalia
      • Sauerland
    various added photos
        • Hagen
          • Hohenlimburg
            • Oege
    S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Rhineland-Palatinate
      • Hunsrück
        • Stromberg
    S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Saxony
      • Erzgebirge
    Lapis 30(7/8):78-80 (2005)
      • Vogtland
        • Tannenbergsthal
    Tröger, S. (2008): Der Bergbau um Gottesberg im Sächsischen Erzgebirge. Lapis 33 (2), 22-27; 50.
    Greece
     
    • Thraki Department (Thrace; Thracia)
      • Évros Prefecture
    Christos Spiromitros - Chris Spiromitros collection
    Hungary
     
    • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Co.
      • Zemplén Mtns (Tokaj Mtns)
        • Telkibánya
    Szakáll & Weiszburg: Telkibánya
    Szakáll & Weiszburg: Topographia Mineralogica Hungariae II.
    Szakáll-Gatter: Hungarian Mineral Species, 1996
    • Heves Co.
      • Mátra Mtns
        • Gyöngyösoroszi
    Koch: Minerals of Hungary, 1985
    Iceland
     
    • Capital Region
      • Hvalfjordur
    Weisenberger, T. & Selbekk, R.S. (2009): Multi stage zeolite facies mineralization in the Hvalfjordur area, Iceland. International Journal of Earth Sciences. 98 (5), 985-999
    India
     
    • Andhra Pradesh
    http://minerals.gps.caltech.edu/AMETRINE/Index.htm.
    Kazakhstan
     
    • Karagandy Province (Qaragandy Oblysy; Karaganda Oblast')
    Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30
    Madagascar
     
    • Antananarivo Province
      • Analamanga Region
        • Ankazobe Pegmatite Field
    Pezzotta, F.(1999): Madagaskar. Das Paradies der Mineralien und Edelsteine. ExtraLapis nr 17, p. 44 (in german, short notice)
      • Vakinankaratra Region
        • Betafo District
    Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
        • Mandoto District
          • Anjoman-dRamartinina Commune
    Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
        • Sahatany Pegmatite Field (Mt Ibity area)
          • Sahatany Valley
    Pezzotta, F. & Praszkier, T. (2013): Giant liddicoatites from Estatoby pegmatite, Madagascar. Minerals- The Collector’s Newspaper. Issue # 6, 13-17
    Pezzotta, F. (2011): Neufunde in Madagascar-Edle Liddicoatite in Spitzenqualität. ExtraLapis 41, 66-71
    • Fianarantsoa Province
      • Amoron'i Mania Region
        • Ambatofinandrahana District
          • Mandrosonoro area
            • Ambatovita
    Pezzotta F., Guastoni A., Forner H., Demartin F., Kristiansen R. (2004) : Exceptional chiavennite associated with pezzottaite from the Sakavalana Pegmatite, Ambatovita, Madagascar. Web site of Mineralogical Society of America. www.minsocam.org/msa/Pegmatites.html
      • Atsimo-Atsinanana Region
    Pezzotta, F. (1999): Madagaskar. Ein Paradies voll mit Mineralien und Edelsteine. ExtraLAPIS No 17: 64-65 (german edition)
    Mexico
     
    • Chihuahua
      • Mun. de Aquiles Serdán
        • Santa Eulalia District
          • West Camp
            • Aquiles Serdán
    Rob Lavinsky
    • San Luis Potosí
      • Mun. de Charcas
        • Charcas
    www.matsminerals.com/html/mexico_sl1.html.
    Panczner (1987): 177.
    Mozambique
     
    • Zambezia Province
      • Alto Ligonha District
    Geotrade Bohemia
      • Gilé District
        • Gilé
    Namibia
     
    • Erongo Region
    Amir Akhavan collection
    • Otjozondjupa Region
      • Otjiwarongo District
    various added photos
    Norway
     
    • Aust-Agder
      • Evje og Hornnes
        • Landsverk
    Revheim, O. (2006): Landsverk 1, Jokeli-bruddet i Evje. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift. 33: 41-50
    • Buskerud
      • Hurum
    Viktor Strøm Collection (pers. com to Egil Hollund 2011)
    Larsen, K.E. & Nordrum, F.S. (2013): Noen funn av mineraler i Norge 2012-2013. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift. 50, 111-117
    Nordrum, F.S. & Larsen, A.O.(1999): Einige neue Mineralfunde aus dem Gebiet Drammen-Holmestrand in Norwegen. MineralienWelt 10 (6):57-61
    Nordrum, F. S. and Larsen, A.O. (1999): Einige neue Mineralfunde aus dem Gebiet Drammen-Holmestrand in Norwegen. Mineralien Welt nr 6, 57-61
      • Røyken
    Nordrum, F.S. (2012): Noen funn av mineraler i Norge 2011-2012. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrifter. 49, 117-124
    • Østfold
      • Halden
    Egil Hollund Collection
    • Rogaland
      • Bjerkreim
        • Ørsdalen
    P. Andresen collection (2006)
    Peru
     
    • Piura Department
      • Sechura Province
    Petersen, G.G. (1970) Minería y metalurgía en el antiguo Peru. Arqueologicas, 12 140pp. (Museo Nacional de Antropologia y Arqueologia, Lima)
    Poland
     
    • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
      • Strzegom-Sobótka Massif
        • Świdnica District
    K. Łobos - Kamienie szlachetne i ozdobne Sudetów. Wydawnictwo 3NEXUS s.c. Wrocław 2010
      • Wałbrzych District
        • Czarny Bór
    Awdankiewicz M. & Szymański M. 2009: New data on the structure, emplacement mode and post-magmatic alteration of the Grzędy trachyandesites (Lower Permian), the Intra- Sudetic Basin. Mineralogia - Special Papers, vol. 34, p. 11
    Portugal
     
    • Castelo Branco District
      • Vila Velha de Rodão
        • Talhadas Mountain
    Martins da Pedra collection
    • Guarda District
      • Guarda
        • Gonçalo
    Martins da Pedra collection
    Russia
     
    • Urals Region
      • Southern Urals
        • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
          • Astaf'evskoe quartz deposit (Astafievskoe)
    Pavel M. Kartashov
    • Western-Siberian Region
      • Polar Urals
        • Tyumenskaya Oblast'
    Rob Lavinsky specimens
    Slovakia
     
    • Banská Bystrica Region
      • Banská Štiavnica Co.
    South Africa
     
    • Gauteng Province
      • Witwatersrand field
        • Johannesburg District
          • Johannesburg
    Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa, 236 pp.
    • Mpumalanga Province
      • Nkangala District
        • Mkobola
    (Error for yellow iron-stained quartz; not true citrine.)
    Spain
     
    • Castile and Leon
      • Salamanca
        • Villasbuenas
    Arroyo, A. and Calvo, M. (1995). El cuarzo citrino de Villasbuenas (Salamanca). Revista de minerales. 1: 86-89.
    Sri Lanka
     
    • Sabaragamuwa Province
      • Ratnapura District
        • Ratnapura
    Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
    UK
     
    • England
      • Co. Durham
        • North Pennines
          • Weardale
            • Bollihope District
    [J.Ralph Collection]
      • Cornwall
        • Camborne - Redruth - St Day District
          • Kea
            • Baldhu
    [Golley & Williams, 1995 - "Cornish Mineral Reference Manual", 51]
          • Redruth
    [Golley & Williams, 1995 - "Cornish Mineral Reference Manual", 51]
        • Mount's Bay District
    [Golley & Williams, 1995 - "Cornish Mineral Reference Manual", 51]
        • St Austell District
          • Lostwithiel
    [Golley & Williams, 1995 - "Cornish Mineral Reference Manual", 51]
        • St Just District
          • St Just
            • Botallack
    Golley, P. & Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
    [Golley & Williams, 1995 - "Cornish Mineral Reference Manual", 51]
      • Somerset
        • Banwell
    Paul Render
    • Scotland
      • Strathclyde (Bute)
        • Isle of Arran
    Bauer, M. (1904) Precious Stones. Volume II. Dover Publications.
    Ukraine
     
    • Crimea Oblast'
      • Crimea peninsula
    Tischenko A. data
    Uruguay
     
    • Artigas Department
    California Federation of Mineralogical Societies Mineral Notes and News: Bulletin, Issues 121-154
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Cochise Co.
        • Huachuca Mts
          • Hartford District (Huachuca Mountains District)
    C. Wellington Rose, II;
    • Arkansas
      • Saline Co.
        • Salem
    Rocks & Min.:63:122; Stone, et al (1973).
    • California
      • Alameda Co.
        • Diablo Range
          • Livermore District (Tesla District)
            • Livermore
    Rocks & Min.: 15:41.
      • Los Angeles Co.
        • Santa Catalina Island
          • Interior of Santa Catalina Island
    Carnahan, V. (1967), Minerals of Los Angeles County, part 1, Catalina Island, Palos Verdes and Soledad Basin: Los Angeles County Natural History Museum Alliance Quarterly: 6(2): 27; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 346.
    Pelletier, 1962. Mineral Species & Localities of Marin County
      • San Diego Co.
        • Pala District
          • Pala
            • Chief Mountain
              • Elizabeth R. Mine (Hazel W. claim)
    Stephenson, J. (2007), Pala District Opens Wide: Oceanview Mine Strikes It Big. Mineral News: Pala International, Fallbrook, CA. December.
            • Hiriart Mountain (Hariat Mtn; Harriot Mtn; Heriart Mtn; Heriot Mtn; Hiriat Hill)
    Weber, F. H. 1963. Geology and mineral resources of San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report 3: p. 111.
            • Tourmaline Queen Mountain (Pala Mtn; Queen Mtn)
    Fisher, J. 2002. Gem and rare-element pegmatites of southern California. Mineralogical Record, Vol. 33: pages 378-381.
        • Ramona District
          • Ramona
    San Diego Mining Company (1996)
        • Warner Springs District
          • Chihuahua Valley
    Ritchie, S. 2000. History of the Carmelita Gem Mine in the 20th Century. Southern California Gem Industries web publication: July.
    • Colorado
      • Douglas Co.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
      • Jefferson Co.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
      • Park Co.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
    • Connecticut
      • Litchfield Co.
    Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State; Samuel Robinson (1825) A Catalogue of American Minerals, with their localities. Boston
      • Middlesex Co.
    Sohon, 1951. Connecticut Minerals
        • Portland
          • Collins Hill
            • Strickland pegmatite (Strickland-Cramer Quarry; Strickland-Cramer Mine; Strickland-Cramer Feldspar-Mica Quarries)
    Rocks & Min.: 70:381; Rocks & Minerals (1955) 30:351-358
      • New Haven Co.
    Samuel Robinson (1825) A Catalogue of American Minerals, with their localities. Boston
    • Georgia
    Gems and Minerals of America- Jay Ellis Ransom-1974
    Gems and Minerals of America- Jay Ellis Ransom-1974
    • Iowa
    • Maine
      • Androscoggin Co.
        • Auburn
          • East Mount Apatite District
    No reference listed
          • West Mount Apatite District
    Guidebook 1 to Mineral Collecting in the Maine Pegmatite Belt Pg 2
      • Oxford Co.
        • Greenwood
    Mineral News (1993) 9:2 p. 8
      • Sagadahoc Co.
        • Georgetown
    Thompson, W.B., et.al., 1991, Maine Mineral Localities, 2nd edition, Maine Geological Survey, Augusta.
    • Massachusetts
      • Essex Co.
    Gleba, 1978. Massachusetts Mineral & Fossil Localities
    ; Sears, John Henry (1905): The Physical Geography, Geology, Mineralogy and Paleontology of Essex County
      • Franklin Co.
    Emerson, B. K. (1895): A Mineralogical Lexicon of Franklin, Hampshire, and Hampden Counties, Massachusetts (USGS Bulletin 126).
      • Hampshire Co.
        • Easthampton
    Hitchcock, Edward (1835): Report on the Geology, Mineralogy, Botany, and Zoology of Massachusetts, p 489. Also, P. Cristofono collection 2009.
    • Missouri
      • Crawford Co.
        • Missouri Brown Iron Belt
          • Scotia Iron Bed Mines
    R&M 73:2 pp 98-117
    R&M 73:2 pp 98-117
    • Montana
      • Beaverhead Co.
        • Pioneer Mts
          • Elkhorn Hot Springs area
    Gobla, M.J. (2012) Montana mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 87, #3, 208-240.
    • Nevada
      • Elko Co.
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Washoe Co.
        • Hallelujah Junction area
          • Petersen Mountain (Hallelujah Junction [sic])
    Rocks & Minerals 82:415-418
    NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada
        • Peavine District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • New Hampshire
      • Coos Co.
    Rocks & Min 65:295 (1990)
    Morrill, 1960. NH Mines and Mineral Localities.
    Rocks & Minerals (2005) 80:242-261 New Hampshire Mineral Locality Index
    Rocks & Min 80:249; Rocks and Minerals, (1990) 65:286-296
    Harvard Mineralogical Museum, no. 129369.
      • Grafton Co.
        • Groton
    Nashua Min. Soc. Display Cat., 1995
    • New Jersey
    Gems and Minerals of America -Jay Ellis Ransom-1974
      • Somerset Co.
        • Warren Township
    A Quest for New Jersey Minerals, Robert Speiser(1978):10.
    • New Mexico
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    • New York
      • Westchester Co.
    • North Carolina
      • Alexander Co.
    Mineralogical Record (2002) 33:263
    Rob Lavinsky
    Speer,Wade Edward.,(2008) Emerald Crystal Pockets Of The Hiddenite District Alexander Co., North Carolina:The Geological Society of America
    Kunz, 1892. Gems & Precious Stones of N. America,p.117
        • Love Valley
    Wilson,W.F and McKenzie,B.J,1978,Mineral Collecting Sites in North Carolina,Information Circular 24
    • Rhode Island
      • Providence Co.
        • Cumberland
    Samuel Robinson (1825) A Catalogue of American Minerals, with their localities. Boston
        • Lincoln
          • Lime Rock
    Rocks & Minerals (1986): 61: 286-289
    • Texas
      • Brewster Co.
        • Alpine
    http://www.omsinc.org/archives/Ore-cutts_Jan04.pdf
      • Gillespie Co.
    R&M 66:3 pp 196-224
    • Washington
      • King Co.
        • Green Ridge
    Zambia
     
    Peter Beckwith collection
    Peter Beckwith collection
    Lapis 36 (12), p.14
    P Cristofono collection
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