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Stishovite

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Formula:
SiO
 
2
System:TetragonalColour:Colourless
Hardness:7½ - 8
Member of:Rutile Group
Name:Named after Sergei Mikhailovich Stishov, Crystallographer, Institute of Crystallography, Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russia) who synthesized the compound.
Polymorph of:Coesite, Cristobalite, Quartz, Tridymite


Rutile Group.

A high-pressure polymorph of SiO2. Found as microscopic grains in impact craters and in ultra-high pressure rocks.

Classification of Stishovite

IMA status:Approved
Strunz 8th edition ID:4/D.01-60
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:4.DA.40

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
D : Metal: Oxygen = 1:2 and similar
A : With small cations: Silica family
Dana 8th edition ID:4.4.1.9

4 : SIMPLE OXIDES
4 : AX2
Hey's CIM Ref.:7.8.4

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
8 : Oxides of Si
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Type Occurrence of Stishovite

Type Locality:Meteor Crater (Barringer Crater), Winslow, Coconino Co., Arizona, USA
Year of Discovery:1962

Occurrences of Stishovite

Geological Setting:Meteorite impact craters

Physical Properties of Stishovite

Lustre:Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent
Colour:Colourless
Hardness (Mohs):7½ - 8
Hardness (Vickers):VHN100=1700 - 2800 kg/mm2
Comment:Synthetic; 2080 parallel to [001], 1700 perpendicular [001]
Density (measured):4.35 g/cm3
Density (calculated):4.29 g/cm3
Comment:Synthetic material

Crystallography of Stishovite

Crystal System:Tetragonal
Class (H-M):4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) - Ditetragonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:P42/mnm {P42/m 21/n 2/m}
Cell Parameters:a = 4.1772(7) Å, c = 2.6651(4) Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 0.638
Unit Cell Volume:V 46.50 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Aggregates of submicron particles.
Comment:Synthetic material

Optical Data of Stishovite

Type:Uniaxial (+)
RI values: nω = 1.799 - 1.800 nε = 1.826 - 1.845
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.027

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High

Chemical Properties of Stishovite

Formula:
SiO
 
2
Simplified for copy/paste:SiO2
Essential elements:O, Si
All elements listed in formula:O, Si

Relationship of Stishovite to other Species

Member of:Rutile Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Argutite
GeO
 
2
Cassiterite
SnO
 
2
Paratellurite
TeO
 
2
Plattnerite
PbO
 
2
Pyrolusite
MnO
 
2
Rutile
TiO
 
2
Tripuhyite
Fe
3+
 
Sb
5+
 
O
 
4
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
4.DA.05Quartz
SiO
 
2
4.DA.10Opal
SiO
 
2
· nH
 
2
O
4.DA.10Tridymite
SiO
 
2
4.DA.15Cristobalite
SiO
 
2
4.DA.20Mogánite
SiO
 
2
4.DA.25Melanophlogite
46SiO
 
2
· 6(N
 
2
,CO
 
2
) · 2(CH
 
4
,N
 
2
)
4.DA.30Lechatelierite
SiO
 
2
4.DA.35Coesite
SiO
 
2
4.DA.45Keatite
SiO
 
2
4.DA.50Seifertite
SiO
 
2
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
7.8.1Quartz
SiO
 
2
7.8.2Coesite
SiO
 
2
7.8.3Tridymite
SiO
 
2
7.8.5Cristobalite
SiO
 
2
7.8.6Lechatelierite
SiO
 
2
7.8.7Silhydrite
3SiO
 
2
· H
 
2
O
7.8.8Opal
SiO
 
2
· nH
 
2
O
7.8.9Mogánite
SiO
 
2

Other Names for Stishovite

Synonyms:
Stipoverite
Other Languages:
German:Stipoverit
Stishovit
Russian:Стишовит
Spanish:Stipoverita
Stishovita

Other Information

Thermal Behaviour:Forms at > 1200C and ~100 kilobars. Metastable, alters above 300C.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Stishovite

Reference List:

- +
Stishov, S.M., Popova, S.V. (1961) A new modification of silica. Geochemistry, 10, 923-926.

Chao, E.C.T. et al (1962), Stishovite, a very high pressure new mineral from Meteor Crater, AZ, Journal of Geophysical Research: 67: 419-421.

American Mineralogist (1962): 47: 807.

Fahey J.J. (1964), Recovery of coesite and stishovite from Coconino Sandstone of Meteor Crater, AZ. American Mineralogist: 49, 1643-1647.

Bohn, E. & W. Stöber (1966), Coesit und Stishovit als isolierte natürliche Mineralien. Neues Jahrb. Min., 89-96.

Nature: 272: 714-715.

Hemley, R.J., Mao, H.-K., and Chao, E.C.T. (1986) Raman spectrum of natural and synthetic stishovite. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 13: 285-290.

Ross, N.L., Shu, J.F., Hazen, R.M., and Gasparik, T. (1990), High-pressure crystal chemistry of stishovite. American Mineralogist: 75: 739-747.

American Mineralogist (1990): 75: 951.

Pawley, A.R., Mcillan, P.F., and Holloway, J.R. (1993) Hydrogen in stishovite, with implications for mantle water content. Science: 261: 1024-1026.

Xue, X., Stebbins, J.F., and Kanzaki, M. (1993) A 29Si MAS NMR study of sub-Tg amorphization of stishovite at ambient pressure. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 19: 480-485.

Mao, H.-K., Shu, J., Hu, J., and Hemley, R.J. (1994), Single-crystal X-ray diffraction of stishovite to 65 GPa. Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union: 75: 662.

Kingma, K.J., Cohen, R.E., Hemley, R.J., and Mao, H.-K. (1995), Transformation of stishovite to a denser phase at lower-mantle pressures. Nature: 374: 243-245.

Lee, C. and Gonze, X. (1995), The pressure-induced ferroelastic phase transition of SiO2 stishovite. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter: 7: 3693-3698.

Dubrovinsky, L.S. and Belonoshko, A.B. (1996), Pressure-induced phase transition and structural changes under deviatoric stress of stishovite to CaCl2-like structure. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 60: 3657-3663.

Li, B., Rigden, S.M., and Liebermann, R.C. (1996), Elasticity of stishovite at high pressure. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors: 96: 113-127.

Zhang, J., Li, B., Utsumi, W., and Liebermann, R.C. (1996) In situ X-ray observations of the coesite-stishovite transition: reversed phase boundary and kinetics. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 23: 1-10.

Lee, C. and Gonze, X. (1997), SiO2 stishovite under high pressure: dielectric and dynamical properties and the ferroelastic phase transition. Physical review B: 56: 7321-7330.

Andrault, D., Fiquet, G., Guyot, F., and Hanfland, M. (1998), Pressure-induced Landau-type transition in stishovite. Science: 23: 720-724.

Carpenter, M.A., Hemley, R.J., and Mao, H.-K. (2000), High-pressure elasticity of stishovite and the P4 2/mnm ↔ Pnnm phase transition. Journal of Geophysical Research: 105: 10807-10816.

Chung, J.I. and Kagi, H. (2002) High concentration of water in stishovite in the MORB system. Geophysical Research Letters: 29, 2020, DOI: 10.1029/2002GL015579.

Andrault, D., Angel, R.J., Mosenfelder, J.L., and Le Bihan, T. (2003). Equation of state of stishovite to lower mantle pressures. American Mineralogist: 88: 301-307.

Stebbins, J.F., Du, L.-S., Kelsey, K., Kojitani, H., Akaogi, M., and Ono, S. (2006) Aluminum substitution in stishovite and MgSiO3 perovskite: High-resolution 27 Al NMR. American Mineralogist: 91: 337-343.

Internet Links for Stishovite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Stishovite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Stishovite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Algeria
     
    Shohei Kaneko, Eiji Ohtani, Masaaki Miyahara, Takeshi Sakai, Masahiro Kayama, Hirotsugu Nishido, Yasuo Oishi, Naohisa Hirao (2011) Dynamic event recorded in a lunar meteorite NWA 4734. Japan Geooscience Union Meeting Makuhari, Chiba Japan.
    Germany
     
    • Bavaria
      • Swabia
        • Nördlingen
          • Ries Crater
    http://geosciences.smsu.edu/geology/FieldTrips/Ries/page2.html
            • Unterschneidheim
    Stähle, V., Altherr, R., Koch, M., and Nasdala, L. (2008): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 155, 457-472.
            • Wemding
    Stähle, V., Altherr, R., Koch, M., and Nasdala, L. (2008): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 155, 457-472.
    India
     
    • Maharashtra
      • Buldhana District
    Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
    Morocco
     
    www2.jpl.nasa.gov/snc/news51.html
    Nigeria
     
    • Katsina State
    Zhidong Xie et al. , Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI (2005), 1216.pdf
    • Yobe State
      • Bogga Dingare
    Garvie, L. A. J.; Németh, P.; Buseck, P. R. (2011). Diamond, Bucky-Diamond, Graphite-Diamond, Al-Silicate, and Stishovite in the Gujba CB Chondrite. 74th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society, held August 8-12, 2011 in London, UK. Published in Meteoritics and Planetary Science Supplement, id. #5227.
    Russia
     
    • Far-Eastern Region
      • Chukotskii Autonomous Okrug
    Bindi, L., Steinhardt, P.J., Yao, N., Lu, P.J. (2011) Icosahedrite, Al63Cu24Fe13, the first natural quasicrystal. American Mineralogist, 96, 928-931.
    South Africa
     
    • Free State Province
      • Fezile Dabi District
    Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa.
    http://www.unb.ca/passc/ImpactDatabase/images/vredefort.htm
    Sweden
     
    • Norrbotten
      • Pajala
        • Kitkiöjärvi
    Holtstam, D., Broman, C., Söderhielm, J., Dan; Broman, C.; Söderhielm, J.; Zetterqvist, A. (2003): First discovery of stishovite in an iron meteorite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science (Meteoritical Society). 38 (11): 1579–1583
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Coconino Co.
        • Winslow
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 383; Chao, E.C.T., et al (1962), Stishovite, a very high pressure new mineral from Meteor Crater, AZ, Jour. Geophys. Res.: 67: 419-421; Fahey, J.J. (1964), Recovery of coesite and stishovite from Coconino Sandstone of Meteor Crater, AZ, Am.Min.: 49: 1643-1647; Bohn, E. & W. Stöber (1966), Coesit und Stishovit als isolierte natürliche Mineralien, Neues Jahrb. Min.: 89-96; Gigl, P.D. & F. Dachille (1968), Effect of pressure and temperature on the reversal transitions of stishovite, Meteorites: 4: 123-136; J. Geophys. Res. 67 (1962), 419.
    • Indiana
      • Newton Co.
        • Kentland
    • New Mexico
      • Colfax Co.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    • Oklahoma
      • Johnston Co.
    www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2005/pdf/2062.pdf.
    • Texas
      • Randall Co.
    Zhidong Xie et al. , Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI (2005), 1216.pdf
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