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Borax

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Formula:
Na
 
2
(B
 
4
O
 
5
)(OH)
 
4
· 8H
 
2
O
System:MonoclinicColour:Colourless, grey, white, ...
Hardness:2 - 2½
Name:From the Arabic bauraq, meaning "white", which also included niter and natron of the time.

Classification of Borax

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:5/H.10-30
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:6.DA.10

6 : BORATES
D : Tetraborates
A : Neso-tetraborates
Dana 8th edition ID:26.4.1.1

26 : HYDRATED BORATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
4 : Tetraborates
Hey's CIM Ref.:9.1.9

9 : Borates
1 : Borates of the alkalis and boric acid
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Type Occurrence of Borax

Type Locality:Ladakh, Jammu and Kashmir, India
Year of Discovery:1546

Occurrences of Borax

Geological Setting:In evaporite deposits, salt lakes, playas, and efflorescences on soils in arid regions, in solution in hot springs.

Physical Properties of Borax

Lustre:Vitreous, Resinous, Earthy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Translucent, Opaque
Colour:Colourless, grey, white, yellowish, seldom bluish or greenish; colourless in transmitted light.
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):2 - 2½
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
On {100} perfect; on {110} less perfect; on {010} in traces.
Fracture:Conchoidal
Density (measured):1.715(2) g/cm3
Density (calculated):1.7 g/cm3
Comment:Measured density of the pure chemical compound

Crystallography of Borax

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:B2/b
Cell Parameters:a = 12.2012(2) Å, b = 10.644Å, c = 11.879Å
β = 106.617(1)°
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.146 : 1 : 1.116
Unit Cell Volume:V 1,478.29 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Crystals commonly short-prismatic [001] and often rather tabular {100}. Prominent zones [001] and [110]. Faces "m," "o," and "z" often striated parallel to [110]. Crystals often malformed through abnormal development of part of one or more zones.
Twinning:On {100}, rare.
Crystal Atlas:
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Borax no.8 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Borax no.11 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Borax no.28 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Optical Data of Borax

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.447 nβ = 1.469 nγ = 1.472
2V:Measured: 39° to 40°, Calculated: 32° to 40°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.025

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Dispersion:r > v distinct

Chemical Properties of Borax

Formula:
Na
 
2
(B
 
4
O
 
5
)(OH)
 
4
· 8H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:Na2(B4O5)(OH)4·8H2O
Essential elements:B, H, Na, O
All elements listed in formula:B, H, Na, O
Analytical Data:Sparingly soluble in cold water, readily soluble in boiling water; insoluble in ethanol.

Relationship of Borax to other Species

Common Associates:
UlexiteTronaThénarditeNitratineHanksite
HaliteGypsumGlauberiteGaylussiteCalcite
Aphthitalite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
6.DA.15Tincalconite
Na
 
2
(B
 
4
O
 
7
) · 5H
 
2
O
6.DA.20Hungchaoite
Mg(B
 
4
O
 
7
) · 9H
 
2
O
6.DA.25Fedorovskite
Ca
 
2
Mg
 
2
B
 
4
O
 
7
(OH)
 
6
6.DA.25Roweite
Ca
 
2
Mn
2+
2
B
 
4
O
 
7
(OH)
 
6
6.DA.30Hydrochlorborite
Ca
 
4
B
 
8
O
 
15
Cl
 
2
· 21H
 
2
O
6.DA.35Uralborite
Ca
 
2
[B
 
3
O
 
3
(OH)
 
5
· OB(OH)
 
3
]
6.DA.40Borcarite
Ca
 
4
Mg(B
 
4
O
 
6
(OH)
 
6
)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
6.DA.40Numanoite
Ca
 
4
Cu(B
 
4
O
 
6
(OH)
 
6
)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
6.DA.60Fontarnauite
(Na,K)
 
2
(Sr,Ca)B
 
4
SH
 
8
O
 
15
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
9.1.1Sassolite
H
 
3
BO
 
3
9.1.2Metaborite
HBO
 
2
9.1.3Diomignite
Li
 
2
[B
 
4
O
 
7
]
9.1.4Biringuccite
Na
 
2
B
 
5
O
 
8
(OH) · H
 
2
O
9.1.5Nasinite
Na
 
4
B
 
10
O
 
17
· 5H
 
2
O
9.1.6Kernite
Na
 
2
[B
 
4
O
 
6
(OH)
 
2
] · 3H
 
2
O
9.1.7Ezcurrite
Na
 
4
B
 
10
O
 
17
· 7H
 
2
O
9.1.8Tincalconite
Na
 
2
(B
 
4
O
 
7
) · 5H
 
2
O
9.1.10Ameghinite
Na(H
 
4
B
 
3
O
 
7
)
9.1.11Sborgite
Na[B
 
5
O
 
6
(OH)
 
4
] · 3H
 
2
O
9.1.12Aristarainite
Na
 
2
MgB
 
12
O
 
20
· 8H
 
2
O
9.1.13Santite
K[B
 
5
O
 
6
(OH)
 
4
] · 2H
 
2
O
9.1.14Larderellite
(NH
 
4
)B
 
5
O
 
7
(OH)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
9.1.15Ammonioborite
(NH
 
4
)
 
2
[B
 
5
O
 
6
(OH)
 
4
]
 
2
· H
 
2
O
9.1.16Rhodizite
(K,Cs)Al
 
4
Be
 
4
(B,Be)
 
12
O
 
28

Other Names for Borax

Synonyms:
BauraciaBorate of sodaChrysocolla (of Agricola)Prismatic borax-saltTincal
Tinkar
Other Languages:
Arabic:بورق
Albaurach
Baurach
Baurak
Bauraq
Armenian:Buraq
Bengali:বোরাক্স
Bosnian (Latin Script):Boraks
Catalan:Bòrax
Czech:Tetraboritan sodný
Dutch:Borax
Esperanto:Borakso
French:Borax
Soude boratée
Galician:Bórax
German:Borax
Tinkal
Hindi:Tinkál
Hungarian:Bórax
Indonesian:Bleng
Italian:Borace
Japanese:ホウ砂
Latin:Borras
Lithuanian:Boraksas
Persian:Būrah
Polish:Boraks rodzimy
Portuguese:Bórax
Romanian:Borax
Russian:Бура
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Боракс
Simplified Chinese:硼砂
Spanish:Bórax
Swedish:Borax
Turkish:Boraks
Ukrainian:Бура
Vietnamese:Borac

Other Information

Magnetism:Diamagnetic
Thermal Behaviour:Melting point: 878 °C. The melt dissolves numerous metal oxides.

Loses 5 mol of water when heated to 100°C, another 4 mol when heated to 150 °C, and the last mol at 400 °C.
Other Information:Rapidly dehydrates in air to tincalconite. Soluble in water.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:Boron ore

References for Borax

Reference List:

- +
Agricola (1556) De re metallica: 453.

Wallerius, J.G. (1753) French edition of “Mineralogia, eller Mineralriket.” 2 volumes, Paris: 1: 346.

Haüy, R.J. (1801) Traité de minéralogie. First edition: in 4 volumes with atlas in fol., Paris: 2: 366 (as Soude boratée).

Phillips, Wm. (1818) Elementary Introduction to Mineralogy, second edition: 141 (as Borate of soda).

Haidinger, Wm. (1825) Treatise on Mineralogy, by F. Mohs; translation with considerable additions. 3 volumes, Edinburg: 2: 52 (as Prismatic borax-salt).

Naumann in: Mohs, F. (1839) Leichfassliche Anfangsgründe der Naturgeschichte des Mineralreichs. part 2 by F.X.M. Zippe: 54.

Brooke, H.J. and Miller, W.H. (1852) Introduction to Mineralogy by Wm. Phillips, London, 1823. New edition by Brooke and Miller. London: 604.

Rammelsberg (1855) Handbuch der kryst. Chemie: 171.

Hahn (1859) Archiv der Pharmacie: 99(2): 146.

Tschermak (1868) Königliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, Sitzber.: 57: II: 641.

Kohlrausch (1878) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 4: 30.

Hanks (1883) California State Mining Bureau, Third Annual Report, part II.

Dufet (1887) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 10: 218.

van't Hoff and Blasdale (1905) Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin (Sitzungsberichte der): 1086.

Goldschmidt, V. (1913) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 1: 214.

Becke (1921) Ak. Wien, Math.-nat. Kl., Anz., 2.

Hintze, Carl (1921) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [4A]: 155.

Mellor, J.W. (1924) A Comprehensive Treatise on Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry. 16 volumes, London: 5: 71.

Teeple (1929) The Industrial Development of Searles Lake Brines, N.Y.

Minder (1935) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 92: 301.

McIntosh and Matthews (1948) American Mineralogist: 33: 747.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 339-341.

Smith, W.C. (1966) Borax and other compounds. California Division of Mines and Geology Bulletin 191: 104-111.

Mineralogical Record (1975): 6: 74, 84.

Acta Crystallographica (1978): B34: 3502.

O.-A. Neumüller: "Römpp's Chemie-Lexikon", 8th ed., Franckh (Stuttgart), 1979

Grew, E.S., and Anovitz, L.M. (1996) BORON: Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry, second edition, as revised (2002).

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2003) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume V. Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 813pp.: 79.

Acta Crystallographica E64 (2008), i24

Best Localities for Borax

Best of Species:Borax

Internet Links for Borax

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
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  • Borax details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Specimens:The following Borax specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Borax

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Antarctica
     
    • Buckley Island quadrangle
    Fitzpatrick, J.J., Muhs, D.R. (1990) Antarctic Journal of the United States, 24 (5), 63-65.
    Argentina
     
    • Catamarca
      • Antofagasta de la Sierra Department
    Raúl Jorge Tauber Larry
    Dirección Provincial de Geología y Minería de la Provincia de Catamarca (1970). Padrón de Minas.
    • Jujuy
      • Cochinoca Department
    Saravia, T.S. (1960) Geografia de la Provincia de Jujuy. (Jujuy provincial government, publications advisory commission, No. 3)
    Saravia, T.S. (1960) Geografia de la Provincia de Jujuy. (Jujuy provincial government, publications advisory commission, No. 3)
      • Susques Department
        • Coranzuli
    Smith, G.I. and Medrano, M.D. (2002) in: Boron, Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry, p 275 (Mineralogical Society of America).; Alonso, R. N. (1999). On the origin of La Puna borates. Acta geológica hispánica, 34(2), 141-166.; CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 9:1-27.
    • Salta
      • Campo Quijano
    Mining Annual Review(1985):337.
      • Salar Cauchari
    Alonso, R. N. (1999). On the origin of La Puna borates. Acta geológica hispánica, 34(2), 141-166.
      • Salar Del Hombre Muerto
    Am Min 58:308-313; Alonso, R. N. (1999). On the origin of La Puna borates. Acta geológica hispánica, 34(2), 141-166.; CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 9:1-27.
    Bolivia
     
    • Potosí Department
      • Sud Lípez Province
    USGS Bulletin # 1975, p. 254 (1992)
    China
     
    • Qinghai Province
      • Haixi Autonomous Prefecture
        • Da Qaidam Co. (Dachaidan Co.)
    Garrett, D.E. (1998): Borates: Handbook of deposits, processing, properties, and use. Academic Press (San Diego, London), 491 pp.; Dapeng Sun, Zhanghong Gao, and Kejun Wang (1984): Acta Sedimentologica Sinica 2(4)
    • Tibet Autonomous Region
      • Nagchu Prefecture (Naqu Prefecture)
        • Baingoin Co. (Bange Co.)
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 340.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 340.
        • Xainza Co. (Shenzha Co.)
    http://www.mineralmundi.com/dujiali-lake-10055350.htm
      • Ngari Prefecture
        • Gê'gyai Co. (Geji Co.)
    http://www.mineralmundi.com/chalaka-10055348.htm
        • Gêrzê Co. (Gaize Co.)
    Lejun Wei, Mianping Zheng, Xifang Liu, Keqin Cai, and Zhen Nie (2002): Acta Geologica Sinica 76(3), 271-282
      • Shannan Prefecture (Lhokha Prefecture; Lhoka Prefecture)
        • Nagarzê Co. (Langkazi Co.; Langkamu Co.)
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 340.
      • Xigazê Prefecture (Rikaze Prefecture; Shigatse Prefecture)
        • Zhongba Co.
    Yu, G., Harrison, S.P., and Xue, B. (2001): MPI-BGC Technology Report No. 4, pp. 183-190.
    India
     
    • Jammu and Kashmir
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 340.
        • Chang Tang
    RAVI SHANKER,A. ABSAR, G.C. SRIVASTAVAAND I.P. BAJPAI (2000) A CASE STUDYOF PUGA GEOTHERMALSYSTEM, Ladakh, INDIA. New Zealand Geothermal Workshop.
    Italy
     
    • Tuscany
      • Pisa Province
        • Pomarance
    NANNONI R., SAMMARTINO F., "Guida ai minerali dei Monti Livornesi" CALDERINI, Bologna, 1977
    Kazakhstan
     
    • Atyrau Province (Atyrau Oblysy; Atyrau Oblast')
      • Atyrau (Gur'yev)
    Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30; Pekov, I. V. & Abramov, D. V. (1993): Boron deposit of the Inder and its minerals. World of Stones, 1, 23-30.
    Mexico
     
    • Hidalgo
      • Mun. de Pachuca
        • Pachuca de Soto (Pachuca)
    Panczner(1987):117-369.
    Turkey
     
    • Central Anatolia Region
      • Eskişehir Province
        • Kirka
    García-Veigas, J., & Helvacı, C. (2013). Mineralogy and sedimentology of the Miocene Göcenoluk borate deposit, Kırka district, western Anatolia, Turkey. Sedimentary Geology, 290, 85-96.
    CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 1-27; http://www.mineralienatlas.de/lexikon/index.php/T%FCrkei/Eskisehir/Kirka/Sarikaya; Baysal, O. (1972) : A mineralogical study and genesis of Sarıkaya (Kırka) borate deposits. Hacettepe University, Ankara.
    • Marmara Region
      • Balikesir Province
        • Biga peninsula
    Ukraine
     
    • Crimea Oblast'
      • Crimea peninsula
        • Kerch peninsula (Kertch peninsula)
          • Bondarenkovo Village area
    Deyak M.A. Modern water-chemogenic formations of mud volcanoes of Kerch Peninsula. Dissertation to Scientific Candidate Degree in Geological Sciences in speciality 04.00.21 – lithology. –Department of marine geology and sedimentary ore formation of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. – Kyiv, 2010.
          • Novoselovka Village area
    Deyak M.A. Modern water-chemogenic formations of mud volcanoes of Kerch Peninsula. Dissertation to Scientific Candidate Degree in Geological Sciences in speciality 04.00.21 – lithology. –Department of marine geology and sedimentary ore formation of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. – Kyiv, 2010.
          • Vulcanovka Village area
    Deyak M.A. Modern water-chemogenic formations of mud volcanoes of Kerch Peninsula. Dissertation to Scientific Candidate Degree in Geological Sciences in speciality 04.00.21 – lithology. –Department of marine geology and sedimentary ore formation of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. – Kyiv, 2010.
    USA
     
    • California
      • Inyo Co.
        • Ash Meadows
    Yale, Charles G. (1904), Borax: Mineral Resources U.S., 1903: 1022; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 109.
    USGS
          • Furnace Creek
    Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 109.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 340.
        • Laws
          • Fish Slough
    Engineering and Mining Journal (Engineering & Mining Journal) (1871), Quoting from the Inyo Independent: 11: 183; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 109.
        • Nopah Range
          • Upper Noonday Camp
    Hanks, Henry Garber (1883), Report on borax deposits: California Mining Bureau. Report 3, part 2, 111 pp.: 36, 37; Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 48, 49; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 109; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 340.
        • Owens Valley
          • Big Pine
    Yale, Charles G. (1904), Borax: Mineral Resources U.S., 1903: 1023; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 109.
          • Dirty Socks Spring
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    Fleming, E.L. (1891), California borax: Chem. News: 63: 248; Waring, Clarence A. & E. Huguenin (1919), Inyo County: California Mining Bureau. Report 15: 62; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 109.
      • Kern Co.
        • China Lake [town]
          • China Lake
    Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 50; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 109.
        • Indian Wells
    Silliman, Benjamin, Jr. (1873b), Mineralogical notes on Utah, California, and Nevada, with a description of priceite a new borate of lime: American Journal of Science, 3rd. series: 6; Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 50; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 109.
        • Kramer District
    www.mineralsocal.org
    Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1927), Kernite, a new sodium borate: American Mineralogist: 12: 24; Eakle, Arthur Starr (1929), Probertite, a new borate: American Mineralogist: 14: 427; Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22: 147; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 137, 259.
              • Baker Mine
    Am Min (1958) 43:169-170
    No reference listed
    Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22: 147; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 137; Tschernich, R. (1992): Zeolites of the World, 64, 311; Have collected them in the mine-Rock Currier; Clays and Clay Minerals, Vol. 36, No. 2, 131-136, 1988.
            • West Baker
    Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1930), Borate minerals from the Kramer district, Mohave Desert, California: USGS PP 158-I: 164; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 109.
    Yale, Charles G. & Hoyt S. Gale (1913), Borax: Mineral Resources U.S., 1912, part 2: 840; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 109.
      • Lake Co.
        • Sulphur Creek District (Sulfur Creek District; Wilbur Springs District)
          • Clear Lake
    Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 52; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geol. Bulletin 189: 109, 356.
          • Clear Lake Oaks
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 340; Harris, R.P. (1864), On borax in California: American Philosophical Society Proceedings: 9: 450; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 109.
    Emmons and Becker (1885) Statistics and Technology of the precious Metals. Census reports Tenth census. June 1, 1880, Volume 13 By United States. Census office. 10th census, 1880, United States. Census Office
      • Los Angeles Co.
        • Lang
          • Tick Canyon
            • Tick Canyon Borate deposit
    www.mineralsocal.org
      • San Bernardino Co.
        • Baker
          • Soda Lake
    Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 62; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 109.
        • Calico Mts (Calico Hills)
          • Calico District (Daggett District)
    Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 56; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 109.
    Pabst, Adolf & Dwight L. Sawyer, Jr. (1948), Tincalconite crystals from Searles Lake, San Bernardino County, California: American Mineralogist: 33: 472; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 340, 402, 629; Mineralogical Record (2007): 38: 213.; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Mineralogy of the Searles Lake deposits in Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 296-308
    Smith, George Irving & W.P. Pratt (1957), Core logs from Owens, China, Searles and Panamint Basins, California: USGS Bulletin 1045-A: 27; Smith, George Irving & D.V. Haines (1964), Character and distribution of nonclastic minerals in the Searles Lake evaporite deposit, California: USGS Bulletin 1181-P: 9; Foshag, William Frederick (1920c), Apthitalite (glaserite) from Searles Lake, California: American Journal of Science, 4th. Series: 49: 367-368; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 80.
        • Twenty-Nine Palms
    Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 62; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 109.
      • Siskiyou Co.
        • Bray
    Trask, John Boardman (1856), Report on the geology of northern and southern California: California Legislature, 7th. session, Ap. to Jour. S. Doc. 14, 66 pp.: 22; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 110.
      • Tehama Co.
        • Bend
    Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 109.
    • Nevada
      • Churchill Co.
        • Leete District
    USBM Inf Circ 7093 (1939)
        • Soda Lake District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Esmeralda Co.
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada; Nevada Bureau of Mines & Geology (1983), "A Mineral Inventory of the Esmeralda-Stateline Resource Area, Las Vegas District, Nevada," NBMG Open File Report 83-11
    NBMG Bull 78 Geology and Mineral Deposits of Esmeralda County, Nevada
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 340.
      • Mineral Co.
    Smith, G.I. and Medrano, M.D. (2002) in: Boron, Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry, p 275 (Mineralogical Society of America).
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 340; Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology Bull. 58, Geology and Mineral Resources of Mineral County, Nevada.
    • New Mexico
      • Doña Ana Co.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 340.
    • Oregon
      • Harney Co.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
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