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Borax

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Formula:
Na2(B4O5)(OH)4 · 8H2O
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Colourless, grey, white, ...
Hardness:
2 - 2½
Name:
From the Arabic bauraq, meaning "white", which also included niter and natron of the time.

Classification of Borax

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
6.DA.10

6 : BORATES
D : Tetraborates
A : Neso-tetraborates
26.4.1.1

26 : HYDRATED BORATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
4 : Tetraborates
9.1.9

9 : Borates
1 : Borates of the alkalis and boric acid
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First Recorded Occurrence of Borax

Year of Discovery:
1546

Occurrences of Borax

Geological Setting:
In evaporite deposits, salt lakes, playas, and efflorescences on soils in arid regions, in solution in hot springs.

Physical Properties of Borax

Vitreous, Resinous, Earthy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Translucent, Opaque
Colour:
Colourless, grey, white, yellowish, seldom bluish or greenish; colourless in transmitted light.
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
2 - 2½
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {100} perfect; on {110} less perfect; on {010} in traces.
Fracture:
Conchoidal
Density:
1.715(2) g/cm3 (Measured)    1.7 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Comment:
Measured density of the pure chemical compound

Crystallography of Borax

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
B2/b
Cell Parameters:
a = 12.2012(2) Å, b = 10.644Å, c = 11.879Å
β = 106.617(1)°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.146 : 1 : 1.116
Unit Cell Volume:
V 1,478.29 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals commonly short-prismatic [001] and often rather tabular {100}. Prominent zones [001] and [110]. Faces "m," "o," and "z" often striated parallel to [110]. Crystals often malformed through abnormal development of part of one or more zones.
Twinning:
On {100}, rare.

Crystallographic forms of Borax

Crystal Atlas:
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Borax no.8 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Borax no.11 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Borax no.28 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

Optical Data of Borax

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.447 nβ = 1.469 nγ = 1.472
2V:
Measured: 39° to 40°, Calculated: 32° to 40°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.025
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
r > v distinct

Chemical Properties of Borax

Formula:
Na2(B4O5)(OH)4 · 8H2O
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Analytical Data:
Sparingly soluble in cold water, readily soluble in boiling water; insoluble in ethanol.

Relationship of Borax to other Species

6.DA.15TincalconiteNa2(B4O7) · 5H2O
6.DA.20HungchaoiteMg(B4O7) · 9H2O
6.DA.25FedorovskiteCa2Mg2B4O7(OH)6
6.DA.25RoweiteCa2Mn22+B4O7(OH)6
6.DA.30HydrochlorboriteCa4B8O15Cl2 · 21H2O
6.DA.35UralboriteCa2[B3O3(OH)5 · OB(OH)3]
6.DA.40BorcariteCa4Mg(B4O6(OH)6)(CO3)2
6.DA.40NumanoiteCa4Cu(B4O6(OH)6)(CO3)2
6.DA.60Fontarnauite(Na,K)2(Sr,Ca) (SO4)[B5O8(OH)]·2H2O
9.1.1SassoliteH3BO3
9.1.2MetaboriteHBO2
9.1.3DiomigniteLi2[B4O7]
9.1.4BiringucciteNa2B5O8(OH) · H2O
9.1.5NasiniteNa4B10O17 · 5H2O
9.1.6KerniteNa2[B4O6(OH)2] · 3H2O
9.1.7EzcurriteNa4B10O17 · 7H2O
9.1.8TincalconiteNa2(B4O7) · 5H2O
9.1.10AmeghiniteNa(H4B3O7)
9.1.11SborgiteNa[B5O6(OH)4] · 3H2O
9.1.12AristarainiteNa2MgB12O20 · 8H2O
9.1.13SantiteK[B5O6(OH)4] · 2H2O
9.1.14Larderellite(NH4)B5O7(OH)2 · H2O
9.1.15Ammonioborite(NH4)2[B5O6(OH)4]2 · H2O
9.1.16Rhodizite(K,Cs)Al4Be4(B,Be)12O28

Other Names for Borax

Name in Other Languages:
Armenian:Buraq
Bosnian (Latin Script):Boraks
Catalan:Bòrax
Dutch:Borax
Esperanto:Borakso
Galician:Bórax
Hindi:Tinkál
Hungarian:Bórax
Indonesian:Bleng
Italian:Borace
Japanese:ホウ砂
Latin:Borras
Lithuanian:Boraksas
Persian:Būrah
Portuguese:Bórax
Romanian:Borax
Russian:Бура
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Боракс
Simplified Chinese:硼砂
Spanish:Bórax
Swedish:Borax
Traditional Chinese:硼砂
Turkish:Boraks
Ukrainian:Бура
Vietnamese:Borac

Other Information

Magnetism:
Diamagnetic
Thermal Behaviour:
Melting point: 878 °C. The melt dissolves numerous metal oxides.

Loses 5 mol of water when heated to 100°C, another 4 mol when heated to 150 °C, and the last mol at 400 °C.
Other Information:
Rapidly dehydrates in air to tincalconite. Soluble in water.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
Boron ore

References for Borax

Reference List:
Agricola (1556) De re metallica: 453.

Wallerius, J.G. (1753) French edition of “Mineralogia, eller Mineralriket.” 2 volumes, Paris: 1: 346.

Haüy, R.J. (1801) Traité de minéralogie. First edition: in 4 volumes with atlas in fol., Paris: 2: 366 (as Soude boratée).

Phillips, Wm. (1818) Elementary Introduction to Mineralogy, second edition: 141 (as Borate of soda).

Haidinger, Wm. (1825) Treatise on Mineralogy, by F. Mohs; translation with considerable additions. 3 volumes, Edinburg: 2: 52 (as Prismatic borax-salt).

Naumann in: Mohs, F. (1839) Leichfassliche Anfangsgründe der Naturgeschichte des Mineralreichs. part 2 by F.X.M. Zippe: 54.

Brooke, H.J. and Miller, W.H. (1852) Introduction to Mineralogy by Wm. Phillips, London, 1823. New edition by Brooke and Miller. London: 604.

Rammelsberg (1855) Handbuch der kryst. Chemie: 171.

Hahn (1859) Archiv der Pharmacie: 99(2): 146.

Tschermak (1868) Königliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, Sitzber.: 57: II: 641.

Kohlrausch (1878) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 4: 30.

Hanks (1883) California State Mining Bureau, Third Annual Report, part II.

Dufet (1887) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 10: 218.

van't Hoff and Blasdale (1905) Akademie der Wissenschaften, Berlin (Sitzungsberichte der): 1086.

Goldschmidt, V. (1913) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 1: 214.

Becke (1921) Ak. Wien, Math.-nat. Kl., Anz., 2.

Hintze, Carl (1921) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [4A]: 155.

Mellor, J.W. (1924) A Comprehensive Treatise on Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry. 16 volumes, London: 5: 71.

Teeple (1929) The Industrial Development of Searles Lake Brines, N.Y.

Minder (1935) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 92: 301.

McIntosh and Matthews (1948) American Mineralogist: 33: 747.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 339-341.

Smith, W.C. (1966) Borax and other compounds. California Division of Mines and Geology Bulletin 191: 104-111.

Mineralogical Record (1975): 6: 74, 84.

Acta Crystallographica (1978): B34: 3502.

O.-A. Neumüller: "Römpp's Chemie-Lexikon", 8th ed., Franckh (Stuttgart), 1979

Grew, E.S., and Anovitz, L.M. (1996) BORON: Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry, second edition, as revised (2002).

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2003) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume V. Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 813pp.: 79.

Acta Crystallographica E64 (2008), i24

Internet Links for Borax

Specimens:
The following Borax specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Borax

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Antarctica
 
  • Buckley Island quadrangle
Fitzpatrick, J.J., Muhs, D.R. (1990) Antarctic Journal of the United States, 24 (5), 63-65.
Argentina
 
  • Catamarca
    • Antofagasta de la Sierra Department
Raúl Jorge Tauber Larry
Dirección Provincial de Geología y Minería de la Provincia de Catamarca (1970). Padrón de Minas.
  • Jujuy
    • Cochinoca Department
Saravia, T.S. (1960) Geografia de la Provincia de Jujuy. (Jujuy provincial government, publications advisory commission, No. 3)
Saravia, T.S. (1960) Geografia de la Provincia de Jujuy. (Jujuy provincial government, publications advisory commission, No. 3)
    • Susques Department
      • Coranzuli
Smith, G.I. and Medrano, M.D. (2002) in: Boron, Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry, p 275 (Mineralogical Society of America).; Alonso, R. N. (1999). On the origin of La Puna borates. Acta geológica hispánica, 34(2), 141-166.; CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 9:1-27.
  • Salta
    • Campo Quijano
Mining Annual Review(1985):337.
    • Salar Cauchari
Alonso, R. N. (1999). On the origin of La Puna borates. Acta geológica hispánica, 34(2), 141-166.
    • Salar Del Hombre Muerto
Am Min 58:308-313; Alonso, R. N. (1999). On the origin of La Puna borates. Acta geológica hispánica, 34(2), 141-166.; CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, 9:1-27.
Bolivia
 
  • Potosí Department
    • Sud Lípez Province
USGS Bulletin # 1975, p. 254 (1992)
China
 
Kezao Chen (1992): Quaternary Sciences 3(8), 193-202
  • Qinghai Province
    • Haixi Autonomous Prefecture
      • Da Qaidam Co. (Dachaidan Co.)
Dapeng Sun, Zhanghong Gao, and Kejun Wang (1984): Acta Sedimentologica Sinica 2(4); Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10; Xiyu Zheng (1994): Journal of Lake Sciences 6(3), 267-275; Garrett, D.E. (1998): Borates: Handbook of deposits, processing, properties, and use. Academic Press (San Diego, London), 491 pp.
      • Lenghu Co.
Zhen Nie, Lingzhong Bu, and Mianping Zheng (2010): Acta Geoscientica Sinica 31(1), 95-101
  • Tibet Autonomous Region
    • Nagchu Prefecture (Naqu Prefecture)
      • Baingoin Co. (Bange Co.)
Xiyu Zheng and Shengsong Yu (1981): Scientia Geographica Sinica 1(1), 66-76; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10; Xiyu Zheng (1994): Journal of Lake Sciences 6(3), 267-275
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 340.
      • Nyima Co. (Nima Co.)
Qian Wu, Mianping Zheng, Zhen Nie, and Lingzhong Bu (2013): Chinese Journal of Inorganic Chemistry 29(1), 36-44
Xifang Liu and Mianping Zheng (2010): Acta Geologica Sinica 89(11), 1601-1612
Xiyu Zheng and Shengsong Yu (1981): Scientia Geographica Sinica 1(1), 66-76; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10; Xiyu Zheng (1994): Journal of Lake Sciences 6(3), 267-275
      • Shuanghu Co.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 340.
Xiyu Zheng and Shengsong Yu (1981): Scientia Geographica Sinica 1(1), 66-76; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
    • Ngari Prefecture
      • Gar Co. (Ga'er Co.)
Xiyu Zheng and Shengsong Yu (1981): Scientia Geographica Sinica 1(1), 66-76; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
      • Gê'gyai Co. (Geji Co.)
Xiyu Zheng and Shengsong Yu (1981): Scientia Geographica Sinica 1(1), 66-76
Xiyu Zheng and Shengsong Yu (1981): Scientia Geographica Sinica 1(1), 66-76; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
      • Gêrzê Co. (Gaize Co.)
Lejun Wei, Mianping Zheng, Keqin Cai, and Wensheng Ge (2002): Earth Science Frontiers 9(1), 129-135; Lejun Wei, Mianping Zheng, Xifang Liu, Keqin Cai, and Zhen Nie (2002): Acta Geologica Sinica 76(3), 271-282
      • Rutog Co. (Ritu Co.)
Junfeng Yang, Xiaofeng Cui, Shuwei Lu, and Qiusheng Li (2005): Xinjiang Geology 23(1), 59-63
    • Shannan Prefecture (Lhokha Prefecture; Lhoka Prefecture)
      • Nagarzê Co. (Langkazi Co.; Langkamu Co.)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 340.
    • Xigazê Prefecture (Rikaze Prefecture; Shigatse Prefecture)
      • Zhongba Co.
Xiyu Zheng and Shengsong Yu (1981): Scientia Geographica Sinica 1(1), 66-76; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10; Xiyu Zheng (1994): Journal of Lake Sciences 6(3), 267-275; Wen Qi and Mianping Zheng (1995): Journal of Lake Sciences 7(2), 133-140; Yu, G., Harrison, S.P., and Xue, B. (2001): MPI-BGC Technology Report No. 4, pp. 183-190; Mianping Zheng, Heran Yuan, Junying Liu, Yanhe Li, Zhibang Ma, and Qing Sun (2007): Acta Geologica Sinica 81(12), 1608-1617
Minghui Li, Shichang Kang, Mianping Zheng, and Lingzhong Bu (2007): Geological Journal of China Universities 13(1), 35-42; Minghui Li, Shichang Kang, Lingzhong Bu, and Mianping Zheng (2007): Acta Sedimentologica Sinica 25(4), 619-625
  • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
    • Tulufan Prefecture (Turfan Prefecture; Turpan Prefecture)
      • Tulufan Co. (Turfan Co.; Turpan Co.)
        • Turfan basin (Turpan basin)
Bingxiao Li (1992): Journal of Lake Sciences 4(1), 48-55
India
 
  • Jammu and Kashmir
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 340.
      • Chang Tang
RAVI SHANKER,A. ABSAR, G.C. SRIVASTAVAAND I.P. BAJPAI (2000) A CASE STUDYOF PUGA GEOTHERMALSYSTEM, Ladakh, INDIA. New Zealand Geothermal Workshop.
Italy
 
  • Tuscany
    • Pisa Province
      • Pomarance
NANNONI R., SAMMARTINO F., "Guida ai minerali dei Monti Livornesi" CALDERINI, Bologna, 1977
Kazakhstan
 
  • Atyrau Province (Atyrau Oblysy; Atyrau Oblast')
    • Atyrau (Gur'yev)
Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30; Pekov, I. V. & Abramov, D. V. (1993): Boron deposit of the Inder and its minerals. World of Stones, 1, 23-30.
Mexico
 
  • Hidalgo
    • Mun. de Pachuca
      • Pachuca de Soto (Pachuca)
Panczner(1987):117-369.
Turkey
 
  • Central Anatolia Region
    • Eskişehir Province
      • Kirka
García-Veigas, J., & Helvacı, C. (2013). Mineralogy and sedimentology of the Miocene Göcenoluk borate deposit, Kırka district, western Anatolia, Turkey. Sedimentary Geology, 290, 85-96.
CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 1-27; http://www.mineralienatlas.de/lexikon/index.php/T%FCrkei/Eskisehir/Kirka/Sarikaya; Baysal, O. (1972) : A mineralogical study and genesis of Sarıkaya (Kırka) borate deposits. Hacettepe University, Ankara.
  • Marmara Region
    • Balikesir Province
      • Biga peninsula
Ukraine
 
  • Crimea Oblast'
    • Crimea peninsula
      • Kerch peninsula (Kertch peninsula)
        • Bondarenkovo Village area
Deyak M.A. Modern water-chemogenic formations of mud volcanoes of Kerch Peninsula. Dissertation to Scientific Candidate Degree in Geological Sciences in speciality 04.00.21 – lithology. –Department of marine geology and sedimentary ore formation of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. – Kyiv, 2010.
        • Novoselovka Village area
Deyak M.A. Modern water-chemogenic formations of mud volcanoes of Kerch Peninsula. Dissertation to Scientific Candidate Degree in Geological Sciences in speciality 04.00.21 – lithology. –Department of marine geology and sedimentary ore formation of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. – Kyiv, 2010.
        • Vulcanovka Village area
Deyak M.A. Modern water-chemogenic formations of mud volcanoes of Kerch Peninsula. Dissertation to Scientific Candidate Degree in Geological Sciences in speciality 04.00.21 – lithology. –Department of marine geology and sedimentary ore formation of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. – Kyiv, 2010.
USA
 
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
      • Ash Meadows
Yale, Charles G. (1904), Borax: Mineral Resources U.S., 1903: 1022; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 109.
USGS
        • Furnace Creek
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 109.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 340.
      • Laws
        • Fish Slough
Engineering and Mining Journal (Engineering & Mining Journal) (1871), Quoting from the Inyo Independent: 11: 183; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 109.
      • Nopah Range
        • Upper Noonday Camp
Hanks, Henry Garber (1883), Report on borax deposits: California Mining Bureau. Report 3, part 2, 111 pp.: 36, 37; Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 48, 49; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 109; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 340.
      • Owens Valley
        • Big Pine
Yale, Charles G. (1904), Borax: Mineral Resources U.S., 1903: 1023; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 109.
        • Dirty Socks Spring
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Fleming, E.L. (1891), California borax: Chem. News: 63: 248; Waring, Clarence A. & E. Huguenin (1919), Inyo County: California Mining Bureau. Report 15: 62; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 109.
    • Kern Co.
      • China Lake [town]
        • China Lake
Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 50; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 109.
      • Indian Wells
Silliman, Benjamin, Jr. (1873b), Mineralogical notes on Utah, California, and Nevada, with a description of priceite a new borate of lime: American Journal of Science, 3rd. series: 6; Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 50; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 109.
      • Kramer District
www.mineralsocal.org
Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1927), Kernite, a new sodium borate: American Mineralogist: 12: 24; Eakle, Arthur Starr (1929), Probertite, a new borate: American Mineralogist: 14: 427; Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22: 147; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 137, 259.
            • Baker Mine
Am Min (1958) 43:169-170
No reference listed
Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22: 147; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 137; Tschernich, R. (1992): Zeolites of the World, 64, 311; Have collected them in the mine-Rock Currier; Clays and Clay Minerals, Vol. 36, No. 2, 131-136, 1988.
          • West Baker
Schaller, Waldemar Theodore (1930), Borate minerals from the Kramer district, Mohave Desert, California: USGS PP 158-I: 164; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 109.
Yale, Charles G. & Hoyt S. Gale (1913), Borax: Mineral Resources U.S., 1912, part 2: 840; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 109.
    • Lake Co.
      • Sulphur Creek District (Sulfur Creek District; Wilbur Springs District)
        • Clear Lake
Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 52; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geol. Bulletin 189: 109, 356.
        • Clear Lake Oaks
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 340; Harris, R.P. (1864), On borax in California: American Philosophical Society Proceedings: 9: 450; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 109.
Emmons and Becker (1885) Statistics and Technology of the precious Metals. Census reports Tenth census. June 1, 1880, Volume 13 By United States. Census office. 10th census, 1880, United States. Census Office
    • Los Angeles Co.
      • Lang
        • Tick Canyon
          • Tick Canyon Borate deposit
www.mineralsocal.org
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Baker
        • Soda Lake
Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 62; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 109.
      • Calico Mts (Calico Hills)
        • Calico District (Daggett District)
Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 56; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 109.
Pabst, Adolf & Dwight L. Sawyer, Jr. (1948), Tincalconite crystals from Searles Lake, San Bernardino County, California: American Mineralogist: 33: 472; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 340, 402, 629; Mineralogical Record (2007): 38: 213.; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Mineralogy of the Searles Lake deposits in Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 296-308
Smith, George Irving & W.P. Pratt (1957), Core logs from Owens, China, Searles and Panamint Basins, California: USGS Bulletin 1045-A: 27; Smith, George Irving & D.V. Haines (1964), Character and distribution of nonclastic minerals in the Searles Lake evaporite deposit, California: USGS Bulletin 1181-P: 9; Foshag, William Frederick (1920c), Apthitalite (glaserite) from Searles Lake, California: American Journal of Science, 4th. Series: 49: 367-368; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 80.
      • Twenty-Nine Palms
Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 62; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 109.
    • Siskiyou Co.
      • Bray
Trask, John Boardman (1856), Report on the geology of northern and southern California: California Legislature, 7th. session, Ap. to Jour. S. Doc. 14, 66 pp.: 22; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 110.
    • Tehama Co.
      • Bend
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 109.
  • Nevada
    • Churchill Co.
      • Leete District
USBM Inf Circ 7093 (1939)
      • Soda Lake District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Esmeralda Co.
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada; Nevada Bureau of Mines & Geology (1983), "A Mineral Inventory of the Esmeralda-Stateline Resource Area, Las Vegas District, Nevada," NBMG Open File Report 83-11
NBMG Bull 78 Geology and Mineral Deposits of Esmeralda County, Nevada
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 340.
    • Mineral Co.
Smith, G.I. and Medrano, M.D. (2002) in: Boron, Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry, p 275 (Mineralogical Society of America).
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 340; Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology Bull. 58, Geology and Mineral Resources of Mineral County, Nevada.
  • New Mexico
    • Doña Ana Co.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 340.
  • Oregon
    • Harney Co.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
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