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Unnamed (Uric Acid Dihydrate)

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C5H4N4O3 · 2H2O
A synonym of Tinnunculite
A naturally occurring dihydrate of uricite (uric acid) to which it is visually very similar.

Well-known rare component of urinary and other stones.

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Ringertz, H. (1965): Optical and crystallographic data of uric acid and its dihydrate. Acta Crystallogr. 19, 286-287.
Lonsdale, K. & Mason, P. (1966): Uric acid, uric acid dihydrate, and urates in urinary calculi, ancient and modern. Science 152, 1511-1512.
Shirley, R. (1966): Uric acid dihydrate: Crystallography and identification. Science 152, 1512-1513.
Lonsdale, K. & Sutor, D. J. (1971): Uric acid dihydrate in bird urine. Science 172, 958-959.
Hesse, A.; Schneider, H. J.; Berg, W.; Hienzsch, E. (1975): Uric acid dihydrate as urinary calculus component. Investigative Urology 12, 405-409.
Yong Go, K.; Boerner, R. H.; Berg, W.; Schneider, H. J. (1980): Stabilization factors for uric acid dihydrate - a contribution to urine stone formation. Jenaer Harnsteinsymposium 6, 71-74 (in German).
Dosch, W. (1981): New urates (II): uric acid and uric acid dihydrate. Fortschritte der Urologie und Nephrologie 17, 254-264 (in German).
Boistelle, R. & Rinaudo, C. (1981): Phase transition and epitaxies between hydrated orthorhombic and anhydrous monoclinic uric acid crystals. Journal of Crystal Growth 53, 1-9.
Babic-Ivancic, V., Furedi-Milhofer, H., Brown, W. E. & Gregory, T. M. (1987): Precipitation diagrams and solubility of uric acid dihydrate. Journal of Crystal Growth 83, 581-587.
Artioli, G., Galli, E. & Ferrari, M. (1993): Uric acid dihydrate - a new mineral? Rivista Mineralogica Italiana (4), 261-264 (in Italian).
Artioli, G., Masciocchi, N. and Galli, E. (1997): The elusive crystal structure of uric acid dihydrate: implication for epitaxial growth during biomineralization. Acta Crystallogr. B53, 498-503.
Parkin, S. & Hope, H. (1998): Uric acid dihydrate revisited. Acta Crystallogr. B54, 339-344.
Zellelow, A. Z., Kim, K.-H., Sours, R. E. & Swift, J. A. (2010): Solid-state dehydration of uric acid dihydrate. Cryst. Growth Des., 10, 418-425.
Kolitsch, U. & Raade, G. (2011): Uric acid dihydrate: occurrences in Austria and Norway. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift. 46: 25-29 [http://www.nags.net/Mineralsymposium/2011/2011-Kolitsch_&_Raade.pdf]

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