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Schwertmannite

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Formula:
Fe
3+
16
(OH,SO
 
4
)
 
12-13
O
 
16
· 10-12H
 
2
O
System:TetragonalColour:brownish yellow
Lustre:EarthyHardness:1 - 2
Name:Originally named glockerite in 1855 by Karl Friedrich Naumann in honor of Ernst Friedrich Glocker [May 1, 1783 Stuttgart, Germany - July 18, 1858), professor of mineralogy at University of Breslau (University of Vratislav; Wroclaw, Poland) and author of numerous systematic mineralogical works. Renamed by J. M. Bigham, L. Carlson, E. Murad, in 1994 in honor of Udo Schwertmann (1922 - ), soil scientist at the University of München (Munich), Germany.
This page provides mineralogical data about Schwertmannite.

Classification of Schwertmannite

IMA status:Approved 1990
Strunz 8th edition ID:4/F.06-55
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:7.DE.15

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
D : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, with H2O
E : With only medium-sized cations; unclassified
Dana 8th edition ID:6.4.10.1

6 : HYDROXIDES AND OXIDES CONTAINING HYDROXYL
4 : Miscellaneous
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Type Occurrence of Schwertmannite

Type Locality:Pyhäsalmi Mine, Pyhäjärvi, Northern Finland Region, Finland
Year of Discovery:1990

Physical Properties of Schwertmannite

Lustre:Earthy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:brownish yellow
Streak:yellow
Hardness (Mohs):1 - 2

Crystallography of Schwertmannite

Crystal System:Tetragonal
Cell Parameters:a = 10.66Å, c = 6.04Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 0.567
Unit Cell Volume:V 686.36 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
4.86 (37)
3.39 (46)
2.55 (100)
2.28 (23)
1.66 (21)
1.51 (24)
1.46 (18)
Comments:Broad peaks

Chemical Properties of Schwertmannite

Formula:
Fe
3+
16
(OH,SO
 
4
)
 
12-13
O
 
16
· 10-12H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:Fe3+16(OH,SO4)12-13O16·10-12H2O
Essential elements:Fe, H, O
All elements listed in formula:Fe, H, O, S

Relationship of Schwertmannite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
7.DE.05Mangazeite
Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
4
· 3H
 
2
O
7.DE.10Carbonatecyanotrichite
Cu
 
4
Al
 
2
(CO
 
3
,SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
12
· 2H
 
2
O
7.DE.10Cyanotrichite
Cu
 
4
Al
 
2
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
12
· 2H
 
2
O
7.DE.10UKI-1975-(SO:AlCu)
(Cu, Al, SO
 
4
, H
 
2
O)
7.DE.20Tlalocite
Cu
 
10
Zn
 
6
(Te
6+
 
O
 
4
)
 
2
(Te
4+
 
O
 
3
)(OH)
 
25
Cl · 27H
 
2
O
7.DE.25Utahite
Cu
 
5
Zn
 
3
(TeO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
8
· 7H
 
2
O
7.DE.35Coquandite
Sb
 
6+x
O
 
8+x
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
x
(H
 
2
O)
 
1- x
(x = 0.3)
7.DE.40Osakaite
Zn
 
4
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
6
· 5H
 
2
O
7.DE.45Wilcoxite
MgAl(SO
 
4
)
 
2
F · 17H
 
2
O
7.DE.50Stanleyite
(V
4+
 
O)(SO
 
4
) · 6H
 
2
O
7.DE.55Mcalpineite
Cu
 
3
(Te
6+
 
O
 
6
) · H
 
2
O
7.DE.60Hydrobasaluminite
Al
 
4
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
10
· 12-36H
 
2
O
7.DE.62Volaschioite
Fe
 
4
(SO
 
4
)O
 
2
(OH)
 
6
· 2H
 
2
O
7.DE.65Zaherite
Al
 
12
(SO
 
4
)
 
5
(OH)
 
26
· 20H
 
2
O
7.DE.70Lautenthalite
PbCu
 
4
(SO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
· 3H
 
2
O
7.DE.75Camerolaite
Cu
 
4
Al
 
2
(HSbO
 
4
,SO
 
4
)(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
10
· 2H
 
2
O

Other Names for Schwertmannite

Synonyms:
IMA1990-006
Other Languages:
German:Schwertmannit
Spanish:Schwertmannita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Schwertmannite

Reference List:

- +
Bigham, J. M., Carlson, L., Murad, E. (1994) Schwertmannite, a new iron oxyhydroxysulfate from Pyhasalmi, Finland, and other localities. Mineralogical Magazine, 58, 641-664.

European Journal of Mineralogy (1995): 7: 547-552.

Lapis (1996): 21(5): 33-34.

New Minerals (1997), New Minerals 1990-1994.

Fernandez-Martinez, A., Timon, V., Roman-Ross, G., Cuello, G.J., Daniels, J.E., Ayora, C. (2010): The structure of schwertmannite, a nanocrystalline iron oxyhydroxysulfate. American Mineralogist 95, 1312-1322.

French, R.A., Caraballo, M.A., Kim, B., Rimstidt, J.D., Murayama, M., Hochella, M.F. (2012): The enigmatic iron oxyhydroxysulfate nanomineral schwertmannite: Morphology, structure, and composition. American Mineralogist 97, 1469-1482.

Rebecca A. French, Niven Monsegue, Mitsuhiro Murayama, Michael F. Hochella, Jr. (2014): The structure and transformation of the nanomineral schwertmannite: a synthetic analog representative of field samples. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 41, 237-246.

Internet Links for Schwertmannite

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  • External Links:
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  • Look for Schwertmannite on Wikipedia
  • Look for Schwertmannite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Schwertmannite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Schwertmannite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • South Australia
      • Murray Basin
        • Murray Riverlands
    Rob Fitzpatrick, Paul Shand, Mark Raven and Stuart McClure, 2010, Occurrence and environmental significance of sideronatrite and other mineral precipitates in Acid Sulfate Soils. 19th World Congress of Soil Science, Soil Solutions for a Changing World
    Canada
     
    • British Columbia
      • Stikine Mining Division
        • Whitewater Mts
          • Mount Eaton
    Gunnar Farber
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Karlovy Vary Region
        • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
          • Jáchymov District (St Joachimsthal)
    Lapis 2002(7/8), 63-65
    • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
      • Olomouc Region
    Petr Paulis (2001): Die interessanten mineralogische Fundstellen in Mahren und Schlesien; Kuttna, Kutná Hora p69-73
    Pauliš, P.: Die interessanten mineralogische Fundstellen in Mähren und Schlesien. Kutná Hora: Kuttna, 2001.
    Finland
     
    • Northern Finland Region
      • Pyhäjärvi
    Min.Mag.(1994) 58, 641-648
    Germany
     
    • Thuringia
      • Saalfeld
        • Garnsdorf
    XRD analysis (T. Witzke)
      • Thuringian Forest
        • Schmiedefeld
    Ullrich, B. & Ullrich, B. (2010): Der Aufschluss 61, 75-79.
    Greenland
     
    • Qaasuitsup
      • Saviksoah Peninsula
    T. P. Pedersen, SCHWERTMANNITE AND AWARUITE AS ALTERATION PRODUCTS IN IRON METEORITES. 62nd Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting
    Hungary
     
    • Heves Co.
      • Mátra Mtns
        • Gyöngyösoroszi
    Király,ELTE,2008; Farkas, I. M. & Weiszburg, T. G. (2009): Mitt. Österr. Mineral. Ges. 155, 57. (Abs.)
        • Mátraszentimre
    Király,ELTE,2008
    • Pest Co.
      • Börzsöny Mtns
    Collection of NHM, Vienna
    Italy
     
    • Liguria
      • Genova Province
        • Sestri Levante
    Carbone, C. (2005): Seminar on “Minerali di neo-formazione nei processi di acid-rock drainage”. Genova, Italy, 17/01/2005.
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Kanto Region
        • Gunma Prefecture
    Nakamura & Akai (1999) Koubutsu-Gakkai Kou’en-Youshi, 131
    Poland
     
    • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
      • Kaczawskie Mts
        • Radzimowice
          • Stara Góra
    Siuda, R.: Minerały siarczanowe ze Starej Góry. Otoczak, 2004, nr. 31, p. 52-57.
    1. R. Siuda, 2001 : New sulphate minerals from the Stara Góra oxidised zone, Radzimowice, Kaczawskie Mts., Mineralogical Society of Poland, Special Papers, vol 18, 186-188
    Slovakia
     
    • Banská Bystrica Region
      • Banská Bystrica Co.
    Pauliš P., Ďuďa R., 2002: Nejzajimavejší mineralogická nalezište Slovenska. Kuttna, Kutná Hora, 134p.
    Ďuďa R.,Kotuľak P., Káňa R., 1993: Bergbau und Mineralien von Banská Štiavnica (Schemnitz), Slowakei. Emser Hefte, 14, 3, 1-70, Haltern
      • Žiar nad Hronom Co.
    Ďuďa R., 1993 : Die mineralien der Gold und Silber - lagersttäte von Kremnitz ( Kremnica) in der Slowakei. Mineralien Welt /Haltern,Nemecko/,5, s. 20 - 32
    • Bratislava Region
      • Pezinok Co.
    - Trtíková S., Kušnierová M. Chovan, M., 1999: Precipitation and chemical composition of iron ochres in the pyrite and stibnite deposits in The Malé Karpaty Mts. Slov. Geol. Magaz. 5, 3, 179-186. - Trtíková S., 2001: Nové sekundárne minerály pyritových a Sb-Au ložísk okolia Pezinka. Minerál, 9, 1, 21-22. (in Slovak)
    • Košice Region
      • Spišská Nová Ves Co.
    Ďuďa R., Peterec D., 1995 : Die Mineralien der siderit - baryt lagersttäte von Rudňany ( Kotterbach ) in der Slowakei. Mineralien Welt /Haltern/, 1, s.20 - 31
    • Prešov Region
      • Prešov Co.
        • Červenica
          • Dubník
    Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590
    Duda et. all.,1981:Minerály severnej časti Slanských vrchov. Min.Slovca,Monografia 2,Bratislava, 98 p
    Taiwan
     
    • Taiwan Province
      • New Taipei City
        • Ruifang District
    James Huang
    USA
     
    • Alabama
      • De Kalb Co.
    T. P. Pedersen, SCHWERTMANNITE AND AWARUITE AS ALTERATION PRODUCTS IN IRON METEORITES. 62nd Annual Meteoritical Society Meeting
    • Colorado
      • San Juan Co.
    Desborough, G. A., Smith, K. S., Lowers, H. A., Swayze, G. A., Hammarstrom, J. M., Diehl, S. F., Leinz, R. W. and Driscoll, R. L. (2010): Mineralogical and chemical characteristics of some natural jarosites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 74, 1041-1056.
    • Massachusetts
      • Franklin Co.
        • Rowe
    Cerato, Amy (2003): Mineralogical Study of Davis Mine, Rowe, MA, Using X-Ray Diffraction Techniques.
    • North Carolina
      • Swain Co.
    Hammarstrom,Jane M. Meier,Allen L. Seal II,Robert R. and Jackson,John C.(2003)Weathering of Sulfidic Shale and Copper Mine Waste:Secondary Minerals and Metal Cycling in Great Smoky Mountains National Park,Tennessee,and North Carolina,USA,U.S Geological Survey
        • Swain County Copper District (Fontana District)
    Hammarstrum,Jane M. Meier,Allen L. Seal II,Robert R. and Jackson,John C.(2003)Weathering of Sulfidic Shale and Copper Mine Waste:Secondary Minerals and Metal Cycling in Great Smoky Mountains National Park,Tennessee and North Carolina,USA, U.S Geological Survey
    • Pennsylvania
      • Centre Co.
        • State College
          • Skytop
    U.S. Geological Survey/ U.s. Department of the Interior
    • Tennessee
      • Sevier Co.
        • Great Smoky Mountains National Park
    Coskren, T. D. & Lauf, R. J. (2000): The Minerals of Alum Cave Bluff, Great Smoky Mountains, Tennessee. Mineralogical Record, 31, 163-175.
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