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About SchwertmanniteHide

Udo Schwertmann
Fe3+16(OH,SO4)12-13O16 · 10-12H2O
brownish yellow
1 - 2
Crystal System:
Originally named glockerite in 1855 by Karl Friedrich Naumann in honour of Ernst Friedrich Glocker (1 May 1783 Stuttgart, Germany - 18 July 1858), professor of mineralogy at University of Breslau (University of Vratislav; Wroclaw, Poland) and author of numerous systematic mineralogical works. Renamed by J.M. Bigham, L. Carlson, E. Murad, in 1994 in honour of Udo Schwertmann (25 November 1927,Stade/Elbe, Germany - 20 January 2016), soil scientist at the University of München (Munich), Germany. He made "numerous contributions to the crystal chemistry of iron oxides and oxyhydroxides and has greatly advanced our knowledge of poorly crystalline phases that are common to weathering environments."
This page provides mineralogical data about Schwertmannite.

Classification of SchwertmanniteHide

Approval Year:
First Published:

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
D : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, with H2O
E : With only medium-sized cations; unclassified

4 : Miscellaneous

Physical Properties of SchwertmanniteHide

brownish yellow
1 - 2 on Mohs scale

Chemical Properties of SchwertmanniteHide

Fe3+16(OH,SO4)12-13O16 · 10-12H2O
IMA Formula:
Fe3+16O16(OH)9.6(SO4)3.2 · 10H2O

Crystallography of SchwertmanniteHide

Crystal System:
Cell Parameters:
a = 10.66 Å, c = 6.04 Å
a:c = 1 : 0.567
Unit Cell V:
686.36 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Tiny (2-4 nm thick, 60-90 nm long), fibrous crystals arranged in the form of pin-cushion-like aggregates.
Poorly crystalline

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
4.86 (37)
3.39 (46)
2.55 (100)
2.28 (23)
1.66 (21)
1.51 (24)
1.46 (18)
Broad peaks

Type Occurrence of SchwertmanniteHide

Bigham, J. M., Carlson, L., Murad, E. (1994) Schwertmannite, a new iron oxyhydroxysulfate from Pyhasalmi, Finland, and other localities. Mineralogical Magazine: 58: 641-664.

Synonyms of SchwertmanniteHide

Other Language Names for SchwertmanniteHide

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.DE.05MangazeiteAl2(SO4)(OH)4 · 3H2OTric.
7.DE.10CarbonatecyanotrichiteCu4Al2(CO3,SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2OOrth.
7.DE.10CyanotrichiteCu4Al2(SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2OOrth.
7.DE.10UKI-1975-(SO:AlCu)(Cu, Al, SO4, H2O)
7.DE.20TlalociteCu10Zn6(Te6+O4)2(Te4+O3)(OH)25Cl · 27H2OOrth.
7.DE.25UtahiteCu5Zn3(TeO4)4(OH)8 · 7H2OTric.
7.DE.35CoquanditeSb6+xO8+x(SO4)(OH)x(H2O)1- x (x = 0.3)Tric. 1 : P1
7.DE.40OsakaiteZn4(SO4)(OH)6 · 5H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.DE.45WilcoxiteMgAl(SO4)2F · 17H2OTric. 1 : P1
7.DE.50Stanleyite(V4+O)(SO4) · 6H2OOrth.
7.DE.55McalpineiteCu3(Te6+O6)Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Ia3
7.DE.60HydrobasaluminiteAl4(SO4)(OH)10 · 12-36H2OMon.
7.DE.62VolaschioiteFe4(SO4)O2(OH)6 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
7.DE.65ZaheriteAl12(SO4)5(OH)26 · 20H2OTric.
7.DE.70LautenthalitePbCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.DE.75CamérolaiteCu6Al3(OH)18(H2O)2[Sb(OH)6](SO4)Tric. 1 : P1

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for SchwertmanniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Bigham, J.M., Carlson, L., Murad, E. (1994) Schwertmannite, a new iron oxyhydroxysulfate from Pyhasalmi, Finland, and other localities. Mineralogical Magazine: 58: 641-664.
Jambor, J.L., Pertsev, N.N., Roberts, A.C. (1995) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 80: 845-850.
European Journal of Mineralogy (1995) 7: 547-552.
Schwertmann, U. & Fojt, B. (1996): Schwertmannit – ein neues Mineral und seine Geschichte. Lapis 21(5), 33-34.
New Minerals (1997) New Minerals 1990-1994.
Mazzetti, L., Thistlethwaite, P.J. (2002) Raman spectra and thermal transformation of ferrihydrite and schwertmannite. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy: 33: 104-111.
Frankel, R.B., Bazylinski, D.A. (2003) Biologically induced mineralization by bacteria. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry: 54: 95-114.
Fernandez-Martinez, A., Timon, V., Roman-Ross, G., Cuello, G.J., Daniels, J.E., Ayora, C. (2010) The structure of schwertmannite, a nanocrystalline iron oxyhydroxysulfate. American Mineralogist: 95: 1312-1322.
French, R.A., Caraballo, M.A., Kim, B., Rimstidt, J.D., Murayama, M., Hochella, M.F. (2012) The enigmatic iron oxyhydroxysulfate nanomineral schwertmannite: Morphology, structure, and composition. American Mineralogist: 97: 1469-1482.
Rebecca A. French, Niven Monsegue, Mitsuhiro Murayama, Michael F. Hochella, Jr. (2014) The structure and transformation of the nanomineral schwertmannite: a synthetic analog representative of field samples. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 41: 237-246.
Santofimia, E., López-Pamo, E., Montero, E. (2015) Selective precipitation of schwertmannite in a stratified acidic pit lake of Iberian Pyrite Belt. Mineralogical Magazine: 79: 497-513.
Bishop, J.L., Murad, E., Dyar, M.D. (2015) Akaganéite and schwertmannite: spectral properties and geochemical implications of their possible presence on Mars. American Mineralogist: 100: 738-746.
Sestu, M., Navarra, G., Carrero, S., Valvidares, S.M., Aquilanti, G., Pérez-Lopez, R., Fernández-Martinez, A. (2017) Whole‐nanoparticle atomistic modeling of the schwertmannite structure from total scattering data. Journal of Applied Crystallography: 50: 1617–1626.

Internet Links for SchwertmanniteHide

Localities for SchwertmanniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • South Australia
    • Murray Basin
      • Murray Riverlands
Rob Fitzpatrick, Paul Shand, Mark Raven and Stuart McClure, 2010, Occurrence and environmental significance of sideronatrite and other mineral precipitates in Acid Sulfate Soils. 19th World Congress of Soil Science, Soil Solutions for a Changing World
  • Tyrol
    • North Tyrol
      • Zillertal
        • Zamser Grund (Zams valley)
          • Pfitsch pass
            • Rotbachlspitze (Rote Wand)
Schwertmann, U. & Fojt, B. (1996): Schwertmannit – ein neues Mineral und seine Geschichte. Lapis 21(5), 33-34.
  • British Columbia
    • Atlin Mining Division
      • Whitewater Mts
        • Mount Eaton
Gunnar Färber
  • Manitoba
    • Sherridon District
MONCUR , M.C, PTACEK, C.J., BLOWES, D.W. & PETERSON, R.C. (2015) The occurrence and implications of efflorescent sulfate minerals at the former Sherritt–Gordon Zn–Cu mine, Sherridon, Manitoba, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 53, 961-977
Czech Republic
  • Karlovy Vary Region
    • Karlovy Vary District
Lapis 2002(7/8), 63-65
  • Olomouc Region
    • Jeseník District
Petr Paulis (2001): Die interessanten mineralogische Fundstellen in Mahren und Schlesien; Kuttna, Kutná Hora p69-73
Pauliš, P.: Die interessanten mineralogische Fundstellen in Mähren und Schlesien. Kutná Hora: Kuttna, 2001.
  • Greenland
    • Avannaata
      • Saviksoah Peninsula
Finland (TL)
  • North Ostrobothnia
    • Pyhäjärvi
Mineralogical Magazine(1994) 58, 641-648
  • Thuringia
    • Saalfeld-Rudolstadt
      • Saalfeld
        • Garnsdorf
XRD analysis (T. Witzke)
Ullrich, B. & Ullrich, B. (2010): Der Aufschluss 61, 75-79. Ullrich, B. (2018). Zur Mineralogie anthropogen induzierter Alterationsprozesse – Sekundärminerale des historischen Alaunschieferbergbaus von Saalfeld und Schmiedefeld im Thüringischen Schiefergebirge. Geologica Saxonica 64, 67-79. []
  • Heves County
    • Mátra Mts
      • Gyöngyösoroszi
Király,ELTE,2008; Farkas, I. M. & Weiszburg, T. G. (2009): Mitt. Österr. Mineral. Ges. 155, 57. (Abs.)
      • Mátraszentimre
  • Pest County
    • Szob District
Collection of NHM, Vienna
  • Liguria
    • Genoa
      • Sestri Levante
Carbone, C. (2005): Seminar on “Minerali di neo-formazione nei processi di acid-rock drainage”. Genova, Italy, 17/01/2005.; Carbone, C. (2008). Crystallochemical and minerogenetic study of oxide and oxy-hydroxides related to AMD (acid mine drainage) processes in Libiola mine (Sestri Levante). Plinius No. 34
  • Gunma
Nakamura & Akai (1999) Koubutsu-Gakkai Kou’en-Youshi, 131
New Zealand
  • Waikato Region
    • Taupo District
      • Orakeikorako Thermal Area (Orakei Korako; The Hidden Valley)
Rodgers, KA, Hamlin, KA, Browne, P.R.L., Campbell, K.A. and Martin, R. (2000) The steam condensate mineralogy of Ruatapu Cave, Orakei Korako geothermal field, Taupo Volcanic Zone, New Zealand. Mineralogical Magazine. 64(1), 125-142.
  • Pasco
    • Pasco province
      • Cerro de Pasco
Smuda, Jochen; Dold, Bernhard; Friese, Kurt; Morgenstern, Peter; Glaesser, Walter (2007): Mineralogical and geochemical study of element mobility at the sulfide-​rich Excelsior waste rock dump from the polymetallic Zn-​Pb-​(Ag-​Bi-​Cu) ore deposit, Cerro de Pasco, Peru. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 92, 97-110.
  • Tacna
    • Jorge Basadre Province
Diaby, N., Dold, B., Buselli, E., & Vicetti, R. (2006). EFFECTS ON ELEMENT MOBILITY BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF A WETLAND ON THE MARINE SHORE PORPHYRY COPPER TAILINGS DEPOSIT, BAHÍA DE ITE, PERU. In 7th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (ICARD), March (pp. 26-30).
  • Lower Silesian Voivodeship
    • Jawor Co.
      • Gmina Bolków
        • Radzimowice
Siuda, R.: Minerały siarczanowe ze Starej Góry. Otoczak, 2004, nr. 31, p. 52-57. ; Parafiniuk, J., & Siuda, R. (2010). Schwertmannite precipitated from acid mine drainage in the Western Sudetes (SW Poland) and its arsenate sorption capacity. Geological Quarterly, 50(4), 475-486.
1. R. Siuda, 2001 : New sulphate minerals from the Stara Góra oxidised zone, Radzimowice, Kaczawskie Mts., Mineralogical Society of Poland, Special Papers, vol 18, 186-188
    • Kamienna Góra Co.
      • Gmina Marciszów
Mochnacka, K., Oberc-Dziedzic, T., Mayer, W., Pieczka, A. (2012) Ore mineralization in the Miedzianka area (Karkonosze-Izera Massif, the Sudetes, Poland): new information. Mineralogia Polonica, 43:(3-4), 155-178.
          • Colourful Lakelets
Mochnacka, K., Oberc-Dziedzic, T., Mayer, W., & Pieczka, A. (2015). Ore mineralization related to geological evolution of the Karkonosze–Izera Massif (the Sudetes, Poland)—Towards a model. Ore Geology Reviews, 64, 215-238.
    • Ząbkowice Śląskie Co.
      • Gmina Złoty Stok
Siuda, R. (2014): Secondary arsenic minerals from old adits in the Złoty Stok area (Sudetes, Poland). Mineralogia Special Papers: 42: 104-105
  • Beja
    • Aljustrel
      • Aljustrel
        • Aljustrel Mine
Bobos, I.; Duraes, N.; Noronha, F. (2006): Mineralogy and geochemistry of mill tailings impoundments from Algares (Aljustrel), Portugal: Implications for acid sulfate mine waters formation. Journal of Geochemical Exploration 88, 1-5.
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Banská Bystrica Co.
Pauliš P., Ďuďa R., 2002: Nejzajimavejší mineralogická nalezište Slovenska. Kuttna, Kutná Hora, 134p.
Ďuďa R.,Kotuľak P., Káňa R., 1993: Bergbau und Mineralien von Banská Štiavnica (Schemnitz), Slowakei. Emser Hefte, 14, 3, 1-70, Haltern
    • Žiar nad Hronom Co.
Ďuďa R., 1993 : Die mineralien der Gold und Silber - lagersttäte von Kremnitz ( Kremnica) in der Slowakei. Mineralien Welt /Haltern,Nemecko/,5, s. 20 - 32
  • Bratislava Region
    • Pezinok Co.
- Trtíková S., Kušnierová M. Chovan, M., 1999: Precipitation and chemical composition of iron ochres in the pyrite and stibnite deposits in The Malé Karpaty Mts. Slov. Geol. Magaz. 5, 3, 179-186. - Trtíková S., 2001: Nové sekundárne minerály pyritových a Sb-Au ložísk okolia Pezinka. Minerál, 9, 1, 21-22. (in Slovak)
  • Košice Region
    • Spišská Nová Ves Co.
Ďuďa R., Peterec D., 1995 : Die Mineralien der siderit - baryt lagersttäte von Rudňany ( Kotterbach ) in der Slowakei. Mineralien Welt /Haltern/, 1, s.20 - 31
  • Prešov Region
    • Prešov Co.
      • Červenica
        • Dubník
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590
Duda et. all.,1981:Minerály severnej časti Slanských vrchov. Min.Slovca,Monografia 2,Bratislava, 98 p
  • Taiwan Province
    • New Taipei City
      • Ruifang District
James Huang
  • Alabama
    • De Kalb Co.
  • Arizona
    • Greenlee Co.
      • Shannon Mts
        • Copper Mountain Mining District (Clifton-Morenci Mining District)
          • Morenci
Walder, I. F., Carr, D., Lee, J. S., & Williamson, A. (2004) Similarities in hydrogeochemical processes between ore deposition formation and acid mine drainage. Example near a porphyry copper mine. Proceedings 2004 - International Mine Water Association
  • Colorado
    • San Juan Co.
Desborough, G. A., Smith, K. S., Lowers, H. A., Swayze, G. A., Hammarstrom, J. M., Diehl, S. F., Leinz, R. W. and Driscoll, R. L. (2010): Mineralogical and chemical characteristics of some natural jarosites. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 74, 1041-1056.
  • Massachusetts
    • Franklin Co.
      • Rowe
Cerato, Amy (2003): Mineralogical Study of Davis Mine, Rowe, MA, Using X-Ray Diffraction Techniques.
  • North Carolina
    • Swain Co.
Hammarstrom,Jane M. Meier,Allen L. Seal II,Robert R. and Jackson,John C.(2003)Weathering of Sulfidic Shale and Copper Mine Waste:Secondary Minerals and Metal Cycling in Great Smoky Mountains National Park,Tennessee,and North Carolina,USA,U.S Geological Survey
      • Swain County Copper Mining District (Fontana Mining District)
Hammarstrum,Jane M. Meier,Allen L. Seal II,Robert R. and Jackson,John C.(2003)Weathering of Sulfidic Shale and Copper Mine Waste:Secondary Minerals and Metal Cycling in Great Smoky Mountains National Park,Tennessee and North Carolina,USA, U.S Geological Survey
  • Pennsylvania
    • Centre Co.
      • State College
        • Skytop
U.S. Geological Survey/ U.s. Department of the Interior
  • Tennessee
    • Sevier Co.
Coskren, T. D. & Lauf, R. J. (2000): The Minerals of Alum Cave Bluff, Great Smoky Mountains, Tennessee. Mineralogical Record, 31, 163-175.
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