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Zinc

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Formula:
Zn
System:HexagonalColour: White metallic
Lustre:MetallicHardness:2
Name:Named around 1526 by Swiss alchemist Paracelsus (1493-1541) after the German "Zinke", "pointy object, fork tooth, comb tooth", in allusion to its pointy habit in melting ovens.


Zinc Group

As mm-sized irregular plates with cross hatched striations and hummocky surfaces.

Classification of Zinc

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:1/A.04-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:1.AB.05

1 : ELEMENTS (Metals and intermetallic alloys; metalloids and nonmetals; carbides, silicides, nitrides, phosphides)
A : Metals and Intermetallic Alloys
B : Zinc-brass family
Dana 7th edition ID:1.1.8.1
Dana 8th edition ID:1.1.5.1

1 : NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
1 : Metals, other than the Platinum Group
Hey's CIM Ref.:1.8

1 : Elements and Alloys (including the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au)
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Type Occurrence of Zinc

Type Locality:Dulcinea de Llampos Mine, Cachiyuyo de Llampos district, Copiapó Province, Atacama Region, Chile
Year of Discovery:1651

Occurrences of Zinc

Geological Setting:In permafrost at Elsa Mine

Physical Properties of Zinc

Lustre:Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour: White metallic
Streak:Slightly greyish
Hardness (Mohs):2
Hardness Data:Measured
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
perfect on 0001
Fracture:Hackly
Density (measured):6.9 - 7.2 g/cm3
Density (calculated):7.135 g/cm3

Crystallography of Zinc

Crystal System:Hexagonal
Class (H-M):6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) - Dihexagonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:P63/mmc {P63/m 2/m 2/c}
Cell Parameters:a = 2.665Å, c = 4.947Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 1.856
Unit Cell Volume:V 30.43 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2

Chemical Properties of Zinc

Formula:
Zn
Essential elements:Zn
All elements listed in formula:Zn
Analytical Data:Combined x-ray fluorescence and spectrographic analyses on Elsa mine material gave:
Zn ~90%; Sn,Pb,Cd ~10%; Fe,Mn,B,Si,Cu,Ag,Ba,Ca trace
Empirical Formula:
Zn
Common Impurities:Sn,Pb,Cd,Fe,Mn,B,Si,Cu,Ag,Ca,Ba

Relationship of Zinc to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
1.AB.05Cadmium
Cd
1.AB.05Rhenium
Re
1.AB.05Titanium
Ti
1.AB.10bDanbaite
CuZn
 
2
1.AB.10aZhanghengite
CuZn
1.AB.10aα-Brass
Cu
 
3
Zn
1.AB.10bTongxinite
Cu
 
2
Zn
1.AB.10aZinccopperite
Cu
 
7
Zn
 
4
(?)
1.AB.10UM2003-03-E:AgAuCuZn
(Cu,Au,Ag)
 
4
Zn
1.AB.10UM1980-01-E:CuZn
Cu
 
3
Zn
1.AB.10UM1980-02-E:CuZn
Cu
 
4.45
Zn
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
1.1Copper
Cu
1.2Silver
Ag
1.5Gold
Au
1.6Auricupride
Cu
 
3
Au
1.7Tetra-auricupride
AuCu
1.9Cadmium
Cd
1.10Danbaite
CuZn
 
2
1.11Zhanghengite
CuZn
1.12Mercury
Hg
1.13Kolymite
Cu
 
7
Hg
 
6
1.14Moschellandsbergite
Ag
 
2
Hg
 
3
1.15Eugenite
Ag
 
11
Hg
 
2
1.16Schachnerite
Ag
 
1.1
Hg
 
0.9
1.17Paraschachnerite
Ag
 
3
Hg
 
2
1.18Luanheite
Ag
 
3
Hg
1.19Weishanite
(Au,Ag)
 
3
Hg
 
2
1.20Indium
In
1.21Aluminium
Al
1.22Khatyrkite
(Cu,Zn)Al
 
2
1.23Cupalite
(Cu,Zn)Al
1.24Diamond
C
1.25Graphite
C
1.26Chaoite
C
1.27Lonsdaleite
C
1.28Silicon
Si
1.29Tin
Sn
1.30Lead
Pb
1.31Anyuiite
Au(Pb,Sb)
 
2
1.31Novodneprite
AuPb
 
3
1.32Leadamalgam
Pb
 
0.7
Hg
 
0.3
1.33Arsenic
As
1.34Arsenolamprite
As
1.35Paxite
CuAs
 
2
1.36Koutekite
Cu
 
5
As
 
2
1.37Domeykite
Cu
 
3
As
1.38Algodonite
(Cu
 
1-x
As
 
x
)
1.39Novakite
Cu
 
20
AgAs
 
10
1.40Kutinaite
Ag
 
6
Cu
 
14
As
 
7
1.41Antimony
Sb
1.42Stibarsen
AsSb
1.43Paradocrasite
Sb
 
3
As
1.44Horsfordite
Cu, Sb
1.45Cuprostibite
Cu
 
2
(Sb,Tl)
1.46Allargentum
(Ag
 
1-x
Sb
 
x
)
1.47Aurostibite
AuSb
 
2
1.48Dyscrasite
Ag
 
3
Sb
1.49Bismuth
Bi
1.50Maldonite
Au
 
2
Bi
1.51Sulphur
S
 
8
1.52Rosickýite
S
1.53Selenium
Se
1.54Tellurium
Te
1.55Chromium
Cr
1.56Rhenium
Re
1.57Iron
Fe
1.58Chromferide
Fe
 
3
Cr
 
1-x
(x=0.6)
1.59Ferchromide
Cr
 
1.5
Fe
 
0.5-x
1.60Wairauite
CoFe
1.61Nickel
Ni
1.62Kamacite
(Fe,Ni)
1.63Taenite
(Fe,Ni)
1.64Tetrataenite
FeNi
1.65Awaruite
Ni
 
3
Fe
1.66Palladium
(Pd,Pt)
1.67Potarite
PdHg
1.68Paolovite
Pd
 
2
Sn
1.69Stannopalladinite
(Pd,Cu)
 
3
Sn
 
2
1.70Cabriite
Pd
 
2
CuSn
1.71Taimyrite-I
(Pd,Cu,Pt)
 
3
Sn
1.72Atokite
(Pd,Pt)
 
3
Sn
1.73Rustenburgite
(Pt,Pd)
 
3
Sn
1.74Zvyagintsevite
(Pd,Pt,Au)
 
3
(Pb,Sn)
1.75Plumbopalladinite
Pd
 
3
Pb
 
2
1.76Osmium
(Os,Ir,Ru)
1.77Iridium
(Ir,Os,Ru)
1.82Platinum
Pt
1.83Hongshiite
PtCu
1.84Niggliite
PtSn
1.85Isoferroplatinum
Pt
 
3
Fe
1.86Tetraferroplatinum
PtFe
1.87Tulameenite
Pt
 
2
CuFe
1.88Ferronickelplatinum
Pt
 
2
FeNi
1.89Rhodium
(Rh,Pt)

Other Names for Zinc

Synonyms:
Native Zinc
Other Languages:
French:Zinc
German:Zink
Italian:Zinco
Russian:Цинк
Simplified Chinese:自然锌

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:none
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:Galvanising

References for Zinc

Reference List:

- +
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Seventh edition, Volume I: 127-128.

American Mineralogist (1970): 55: 1019.

Transactions of the Philosophical Institute of Victoria: 1: 156-158.

National Bureau of Standards (U.S.) Circular 359: 11-195.

Internet Links for Zinc

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
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  • Rare and Unusual minerals at Mineralogical Research Company
  • Lapis Mineral Magazin
  • Localities for Zinc

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Atlantic Ocean
     
    • Mid-Atlantic Ridge complex
      • Sierra Leone fracture zone
        • Markov Deep
    Sharkov, E.V., Abramov, S.S., Simonov, V.A., Krinov, D.I., Skolotnev, S.G., Bel’tenev, V.E., and Bortnikov, N.S. (2007): Geology of Ore Deposits 49(6), 467-486.
    Australia
     
    • Tasmania
      • Rosebery district
    Bottrill & Baker in press - Catalogue of Minerals of Tasmania
    • Victoria
      • Brunswick
    Aust Jnl Mineralogy 7(1) 2001
    • Western Australia
      • Meekatharra Shire
        • Peak Hill Goldfield
    Thompson, 2012. Min Soc WA Newsletter
    Austria
     
    • Tyrol
      • North Tyrol
        • Inn valley
          • Brixlegg - Schwaz area
            • Brixlegg - Rattenberg
              • St Gertraudi
    Lapis 19 (7/8):69 (1994)
    • Upper Austria
      • Kirchdorf an der Krems
    - O.M.Friedrich, in: Zur Erzlagerstättenkarte der Ostalpen (mit Karte 1:500.000). Radex - Rundschau, 7 / 8, Radenthein 1953, Seite 371 – 407.
    Belgium
     
    • Liège Province
      • Verviers
        • Plombières-Vieille Montagne District (Plombières-Altenberg)
          • Plombières (Bleyberg)
    Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995b): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
    • Limburg Province
      • Dilsen-Stokkem
    Canada
     
    • Newfoundland and Labrador
      • Newfoundland
        • Baie Verte Peninsula
    Christian Bracke Collection
    • Yukon Territory
      • Mayo Mining District
    Sabina (1992) gsc mr 50, 80-84
          • Elsa
    Boyle, R. W. (1961): Native zinc at Keno Hill. Can. Mineral. 6, 692-694.
    Sabina (1992) GSC MP 50, 80-84
    Chile
     
    • Atacama Region
      • Copiapó Province
        • Cachiyuyo de Llampos district
    Am Min 55:5-6 pp 1019-1021
    China
     
    • Guizhou Province
      • Qianxi'nan Autonomous Prefecture
        • Anlong Co.
    Peters, S.G., Huang Jiazhan, Li Zhiping, and Jing Chenggui (2007): Ore Geology Reviews 31, 170-204.
    • Hebei Province
      • Chengde Prefecture
        • Luan River valley (Luanhe valley)
    Shao Dianxin, Zhou Jianxiong, Zhang Jianhong, and Bao Daxi (1984): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 4, 97-101.
    • Henan Province
      • Nanyang Prefecture
        • Xichuan Co.
    Zexian Xu, Runji Zhang, Zhenyun Liu, and Xingtu Sheng (1987): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 6(4), 351-357
      • Pingdingshan Prefecture
        • Wugang Co.
          • Wugang Fe ore field
            • Batai Mine
    Xingjie Jia, Huaiqian Li, and Honglu Zheng (2012): Gold Science and Technology 20(2), 25-31
    • Tibet Autonomous Region
      • Shannan Prefecture (Lhokha Prefecture; Lhoka Prefecture)
        • Qusum Co. (Qusong Co.)
    Wenji Bai, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Binggan Yan, and Zhongming Zhang (2001): Earth Science Frontiers 8(3), 111-121
    • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
      • Yili Hasake Autonomous Prefecture (Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture)
        • Aletai Prefecture (Altay Prefecture)
          • Fuyun Co. (Koktokay Co.)
    Minqing Cheng, Yuchun Yang, Fuyi Jia, Qingshan Yang, Guifang Zhao, Cunchang Wang, and Sen Huang (1993): Geology and Prospecting 29(7), 35-39
    • Yunnan Province
      • Lijiang Prefecture
        • Gucheng District
    Zhaochong Zhang, Jingwen Mao, Fusheng Wang, and Pirajno, F. (2006): American Mineralogist 91(7), 1178-1183.
    Georgia
    Am.Min. 66,439(1981)
    Germany
     
    • Hesse
      • Frankfurt
    Blessing,C. & Pock,R. (1991). Mineralbildungen in Schlacken auf dem Gelände der ehemaligen Kupferwerke in Frankfurt/M-Heddernheim. Aufschluss, Jg.42, Nr.6, S.339-57
    • Lower Saxony
      • Harz
    Schnorrer-Köhler, G. (1988): Mineralogische Notizen IV. Der Aufschluss, 39, 153-168.
    • North Rhine-Westphalia
      • Aachen
        • Stolberg
    Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
      • Sauerland
        • Arnsberg
          • Hüsten
    D. Pawlowski: "Mineralfundstellen im Sauerland", Weise (Munich), 1991
    Guinea
     
    • Bafing river
    P.M. Kartashov data
    Italy
     
    • Trentino-Alto Adige
      • Trento Province
        • Lagorai Group
          • Telve
    Exel, R. (1987): Guida mineralogica del Trentino e del Sudtirolo. Athesia, Bolzano, 204 pp.
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Kanto Region
        • Kanagawa Prefecture
    Nishida, et al (1994) Naturwissenschaften, 81, 498-502.
    • Tokyo Prefecture
      • Izu Archipelago
    Nishida, et al (1994) Naturwissenschaften, 81, 498-502.
    Kazakhstan
    No reference listed
    • Southern Kazakhstan Province (Ongtüstik Qazaqstan Oblysy; Yuzhno-Kazakhstanskaya Oblast')
    Tony Nikischer; Tony Nikischer
    Mongolia
     
    • Hovd Aimag (Khovd Aimag)
      • Altai Mts
    P.M. Kartashov data
    Norway
     
    • Sør-Trøndelag
      • Rissa
    Selbekk R.S. (2010): Norges mineraler. En revidert utgave av Norges mineraler (Neumann 1985).Tapir-NGU-NHM. 552p. (p.25)
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
    Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
        • Vilyui River Basin (Vilui River Basin; Wilui River Basin)
          • Lower Khann'ya River
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    • Far-Eastern Region
      • Kamchatka Oblast'
        • Bezymyannyi Volcano
    No reference listed
    Karpov, G. A., & Mokhov, A. V. (2010). Microparticles of native metals, sulfides, and oxides in andesitic ashes of Karymskii Volcano. Journal of Volcanology and Seismology, 4(3), 164-179.
        • Koryak Mts
    [MinRec 31:201]
    Active Volcanoes of Kamchatka, vol 2, p 140, S.A. Fedotov
      • Magadanskaya Oblast'
        • Kolyma River Basin
          • Ducat District
            • Omsukchan
    Filimonova, L.G., and Trubkin, N.V. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(2), 135-144.
    Geologiya Rudnykh Mestorozhdenii, 2008, Vol. 50, No. 2, pp. 153–163.
    • Northern Caucasus Region
      • Kabardino-Balkarian Republic
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
    • Urals Region
      • Southern Urals
        • Bashkortostan Republic (Bashkiria Republic)
          • Uchaly
    http://forum.catalogmineralov.ru/index.php/topic,23795.75.html
    The Moon
     
    • Mare Crisium
    Mokhov A.V., Kartashov P.M., Bogatikov O.A. (2007) Moon under a microscope, - Moscow, Nauka, p.128 (in Rus.).
    USA
     
    • California
      • Shasta Co.
        • Klamath Mts
          • East Shasta Copper - Zinc District
            • Round Mountain
    Fairbanks, Harold W. (1893), Geology and mineralogy of Shasta County, California: California Mining Bureau. Report 11: 30; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 391.
    • Colorado
      • Hinsdale Co.
        • Lake City District (Lake District)
    The Williamson Southern Group Holdings
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