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Betafite (of Hogarth 1977)

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System:IsometricColour:Red; greenish brown, ...
Lustre:Vitreous, Waxy, Sub-MetallicHardness:3 - 5½
Name:Named in 1912 by Antoine François Alfred Lacroix or the locality near Betafo, Madagascar. Redefined in 1977 by Hogarth and the IMA Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names sub-committee on the pyrochlore group. Further redefined in 2010 by Daniel Atencio, Marcelo B. Andrade, Andrew G. Christy, Reto GierÉ, and Pavel M. Kartashov of the IMA.
A variety of Pyrochlore Supergroup

True "Betafite" samples are structurally members of the pyrochlore group. Hogath (1977) stated that the betafite subgroup has 2Ti ≥ Nb + Ta, however the formulas of betafites do not exactly correspond to pyrochlores and that difference has delayed their classification.


Classification of Betafite (of Hogarth 1977)

IMA status:Discredited 2010
Strunz 8th edition ID:4/C.16-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:4.DH.15

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
D : Metal: Oxygen = 1:2 and similar
H : With large (+- medium-sized) cations; sheets of edge-sharing octahedra
Dana 7th edition ID:8.2.3.1
Dana 8th edition ID:8.2.3.1

8 : MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
2 : A2B2O6(O,OH,F)
Hey's CIM Ref.:18.3.3

18 : Niobates and Tantalates
3 : Niobates and tantalates containing U but not rare earths
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Type Occurrence of Betafite (of Hogarth 1977)

Type Locality:Ambolotara, Betafo Commune, Betafo District, Vakinankaratra Region, Antananarivo Province, Madagascar
Year of Discovery:1912

Occurrences of Betafite (of Hogarth 1977)

Geological Setting:Typically as a primary mineral in granite pegmatites; rare in carbonatites

Physical Properties of Betafite (of Hogarth 1977)

Lustre:Vitreous, Waxy, Sub-Metallic
Colour:Red; greenish brown, dark brown to black when metamict, commonly superficially altered yellow; almost colourless in transmitted light
Comment:Supeerficially alters to yellow.
Streak:Yellowish White
Hardness (Mohs):3 - 5½
Hardness (Vickers):VHN100=249 - 412
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:None Observed
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density (measured):3.7 - 4.9 g/cm3
Density (calculated):3.9(1) g/cm3

Crystallography of Betafite (of Hogarth 1977)

Crystal System:Isometric
Class (H-M):m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:Fd3m
Cell Parameters:a = 10.29Å
Unit Cell Volume:V 1 ų
Z:8
Morphology:Crystals commonly octahedra modified by {110}, {100}, {113}, {233} and {230}; some crystals elongated parallel to [001] or [111]
Comment:On heated material
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Betafite (of Hogarth 1977)

Type:Isotropic
RI values: n = 1.91 - 2.197
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.000 - Isotropic minerals have no birefringence
Surface Relief:Very High
Type:Isotropic
Reflectivity:
400 nmR=13.5%
420 nmR=13.2%
440 nmR=13.0%
460 nmR=12.8%
480 nmR=12.6%
500 nmR=12.4%
520 nmR=12.3%
540 nmR=12.2%
560 nmR=12.0%
580 nmR=11.9%
600 nmR=11.7%
620 nmR=11.6%
640 nmR=11.6%
660 nmR=11.6%
680 nmR=11.5%
700 nmR=11.5%


Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Peak reflectance is 13.5%.

Relationship of Betafite (of Hogarth 1977) to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
4.DH.05Brannerite
(U
4+
 
,REE,Th,Ca)(Ti,Fe
3+
 
,Nb)
 
2
(O,OH)
 
6
4.DH.05Orthobrannerite
U
4+
 
U
6+
 
Ti
 
4
O
 
12
(OH)
 
2
4.DH.05Thorutite
(Th,U,Ca)Ti
 
2
(O,OH)
 
6
4.DH.10Kassite
CaTi
 
2
O
 
4
(OH)
 
2
4.DH.10Lucasite-(Ce)
CeTi
 
2
(O,OH)
 
6
4.DH.15Bariomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)
4.DH.15Bariopyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977)
4.DH.15Bismutomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)
4.DH.15Calciobetafite (of Mazzi & Munno)
4.DH.15Ceriopyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977)
4.DH.15Cesstibtantite
4.DH.15Jixianite
Pb(W,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
(O,OH)
 
7
4.DH.15Hydropyrochlore
(H
 
2
O,□)
 
2
Nb
 
2
(O,OH)
 
6
(H
 
2
O)
4.DH.15Natrobistantite
4.DH.15Plumbopyrochlore (of Skorobogatova et al.)
4.DH.15Plumbomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)
4.DH.15Plumbobetafite (of Hogarth 1977)
4.DH.15Stibiomicrolite (of Groat et al.)
4.DH.15Strontiopyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977)
4.DH.15Stannomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)
4.DH.15Stibiobetafite (of Černý et al.)
4.DH.15Uranpyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977)
(U,Ca,Ce)
 
2
(Nb,Ta)
 
2
O
 
6
(OH,F)
4.DH.15Yttrobetafite (of Hogarth 1977)
4.DH.15Yttropyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977)
4.DH.15Fluornatromicrolite
(Na,Ca,Bi)
 
2
Ta
 
2
O
 
6
F
4.DH.15Bismutopyrochlore (of Chukanov et al.)
4.DH.15Hydrokenoelsmoreite
 
2
W
 
2
O
 
6
(H
 
2
O)
4.DH.20Bismutostibiconite
Bi(Sb
5+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
O
 
7
4.DH.20Bindheimite
Pb
 
2
Sb
 
2
O
 
6
O
4.DH.20Monimolite
4.DH.20Cuproroméite
Cu
 
2
Sb
 
2
(O,OH)
 
7
4.DH.20Stetefeldtite
Ag
 
2
Sb
 
2
(O,OH)
 
7
4.DH.20Stibiconite
4.DH.25Rosiaite
PbSb
5+
2
O
 
6
4.DH.30Zirconolite
CaZrTi
 
2
O
 
7
4.DH.35Liandratite
U(Nb,Ta)
 
2
O
 
8
4.DH.35Petscheckite
UFe(Nb,Ta)
 
2
O
 
8
4.DH.40Ingersonite
Ca
 
3
MnSb
 
4
O
 
14
4.DH.45Pittongite
Na
 
0.22
(W,Fe
3+
 
)(O,OH)
 
3
· 0.44H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
18.3.1Liandratite
U(Nb,Ta)
 
2
O
 
8
18.3.2Uranmicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)
18.3.4Plumbobetafite (of Hogarth 1977)
18.3.5Petscheckite
UFe(Nb,Ta)
 
2
O
 
8
18.3.6Hydroxy-petscheckite
UFe
 
1/3
(Nb,Ta)
 
2
O
 
7
(O,OH)
18.3.7Oxy-petscheckite
UFe
 
2/3
(Nb,Ta)
 
2
O
 
8
18.3.8Ashanite
(Nb,Ta,U,Fe,Mn)
 
4
O
 
8

Other Names for Betafite (of Hogarth 1977)

Synonyms:
BlomstranditeMendeleeviteMendeleyeviteTantalbetafite (of Kalita & Bykova)Titanbetafite (of Hogarth 1977)
Titanobetafite (of Hogarth 1977)
Other Languages:
German:Betafit
Tantalbetafit
Titanbetafit
Russian:Бетафит
Spanish:Betafita
Tantalbetafita
Titanbetafita
Varieties:
Tangenite

Other Information

Health Warning:Contains uranium - always wash hands after handling. Avoid inhaling dust when handling or breaking. Never lick or ingest. Avoid prolonged exposure in proximity of the body. Store away from inhabited areas.

References for Betafite (of Hogarth 1977)

Reference List:

- +
Lacroix (1912), Bull. soc. min.: 35: 84, 233.

Lacroix (1914), Bull. soc. min.: 37: 101.

Niggli and Faesy (1925), Zs. Kr.: 1: 366.

Machatschki (1932), Chem. Erde: 7: 72.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 803-805.

Frondel, C. (1958): Systematic mineralogy of uranium and thorium. U.S. Geol. Sur. Bull. 1064, 320-325.

Hogarth, D. D. (1961): A study of pyrochlore and betafite. Canadian Mineralogist 6, 610-633.

American Mineralogist (1961), 46, 1519.

Vlasov, K. A., Ed. (1966): Mineralogy of rare elements, Vol. 2, 511-519.

Hogarth, D. D. (1977): Classification and nomenclature of the pyrochlore group. American Mineralogist 62, 403-410.

Junge, W., Knoth, J. and Rath, R. (1983): Chemische und optische Untersuchungen von komplexen Titan-Niob-Tantalaten (Betafiten). Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Abhandlungen, 147, 169-183 (in German with English abstract).

Lumpkin, G. R., Ewing, R.C . and Eyal, Y. (1988): Preferential leaching and natural annealing of alpha-recoil track in metamict betafite and samarskite. Journal of Material Research 3, 357-368.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (1997) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume III. Halides, Hydroxides, Oxides. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 628pp.: 54.

Internet Links for Betafite (of Hogarth 1977)

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    Localities for Betafite (of Hogarth 1977)

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • South Australia
      • Flinders Ranges
        • North Flinders Ranges
          • Arkaroola Region (Arkaroola Station)
            • Mawson Plateau - Paralana Hot Springs area
    Coats & Blissett, 1971, Bull 43, p163, Geol. Surv. S. Australia
    Brazil
     
    • Minas Gerais
    [MinRec 2:12]
    • Paraíba
      • Borborema mineral province
        • Pedra Lavrada
    Am Min (1955) 40:55-63
    Cameroon
     
    • South Region
      • Kribi
    Cesbron et al. (1988)
    Canada
     
    • Ontario
      • Haliburton Co.
        • Cardiff Township
    GSC Report 39; G. Pouliot, J. A. Maxwell, and S. C. Robinson (1964): Cenosite from Bancroft, Ontario. Canadian Mineralogist 8, 1-10.
    Ref.: Geological Survey of Canada Miscellaneous Report 39
    Ref.: Geological Survey of Canada Miscellaneous Report 39
    Ref.: Geological Survey of Canada Miscellaneous Report 39.
    GSC misc report 39
        • Glamorgan Township
    Ref.: Geological Survey of Canada Miscellaneous Report 39
        • Monmouth Township
    geological survey of canada misc report 39; geological survey of canada economic geology report 29
      • Hastings Co.
        • Faraday Township
    [MinRec 10:153-155, 13:73, 13:76, 13:201]; Joyce, D. K. (2006) Calcite Vein-Dikes of the Grenville Geological Province, Ontario, Canada. Rocks and Minerals 81:34-42; Ontario MDI Number: MDI31E01SE00054
        • Monteagle Township
    Ref.: Geological Survey of Canada Miscellaneous Report 39.
    Ref.: Geological Survey of Canada Miscellaneous Report 39.
    Can Mineral December 1, 1961 vol. 6 no. 5 610-633
    Ref.: Geological Survey of Canada Miscellaneous Report 39.
    Ref.: Geological Survey of Canada Miscellaneous Report 39.
    GSC misc. report 39
      • Thunder Bay District
        • Killala Lake Area
    Mariano, A. N., Roeder, P. L., 1989. Wöhlerite: chemical composition, cathodoluminescence and environment of crystallization. Canadian Mineralogist, 27: 709-720.
    • Québec
      • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
        • Abitibi RCM
          • La Corne
    Anne P. Sabina, Rocks and Minerals for the Collector Miscellaneous Report 77, 2003, Geological Survey of Canada.
      • Laurentides
        • Deux-Montagnes RCM
          • Oka
            • Oka complex
    Can. Min. 42, 1159-1168
    Can. Min. 42, 1159-1168
    China
     
    • Hubei Province
      • Shiyan Prefecture
        • Zhushan Co.
    Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139
    • Jiangxi Province
      • Ganzhou Prefecture
        • Dayu Co.
    Guoneng Chen and Grapes, R. (2007): Granite Genesis: In-Situ Melting and Crustal Evolution. Springer Verlag, 278 pp.
    • Liaoning Province (Manchuria; Dongbei Region)
      • Dandong Prefecture
        • Fengcheng Co.
          • Saima complex
    Saima Deposit Research Group, Beijing Institute of Uranium Geology (1978): Scientia Sinica 11(3), 365-389
    • Shaanxi Province
      • Weinan Prefecture
        • Hua Co.
    Dianhao Huang, Yichang Wang, Fengjun Nie, and Xiujie Jiang (1984): Acta Geologica Sinica 63(3)
    • Sichuan Province
      • Liangshan Autonomous Prefecture
        • Dechang Co.
    Xiaoyu Li (2005): Mineral Deposits 24(2), 151-160; Shihong Tian, Zengqian Hou, Zhusen Yang, Zhiming Yang, Zhongxin Yuan, Yanbin Wang, Yuling Xie, Yingchao Liu, and Zheng Li (2008): Acta Petrologica Sinica 24(3), 544-554
        • Mianning Co.
    Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • South Bohemia Region
        • Frymburk
          • Černá v Pošumaví (Schwarzbach im Böhmerwald)
            • Bližná
    Pauliš P., Kopecký S., Černý P. 2007: Uranové minerály České Republiky a jejich naleziště. 1. část. (Kutna Hora, issue 1)]
    • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
      • Olomouc Region
        • Šumperk (Mährisch Schönberg)
          • Ruda nad Moravou
    Novák M. Gadas P. (2010) ZONED, ANORTHITE- AND GROSSULARITE-BEARING, LEUCOTONALITIC PEGMATITE FROM SERPENTINIZED LHERZOLITE AT RUDA NAD MORAVOU, STARÉ MĚSTO UNIT, CZECH REPUBLIC. Can Miner 48 (3): 629-650.
      • Vysočina Region
        • Třebíč
    Pauliš P., Kopecký S., Černý P. 2007: Uranové minerály České Republiky a jejich naleziště. 1. část. (Kutna Hora, issue 1)]
    Egypt
     
    • Red Sea Governorate
      • Eastern Desert
    Gehad M. Saleh (2007) Rare-Metal Pegmatites from the Southeastern Desert, Egypt: Geology, Geochemistry, and Petrogenesis. International Geology Review Vol. 49:824-843.
    Finland
     
    • Southern Finland Region
      • Luumäki
        • Kännätsalo
    France
     
    • Aquitaine
      • Pyrénées-Atlantiques
        • Aramits
          • Ance
    MONCHOUX P., FONTAN F., DE PARSEVAL P., MARTIN R. F., WANG R. C. (2006) - Igneous albitite dikes in orogenic lherzolithes, Western Pyrénées, France: A possible source for corundum and alkali feldspar xenocrysts in basaltic terranes. I. Mineralogical Asssociations. The Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 44, pp. 817-842.
    MONCHOUX P., FONTAN F., DE PARSEVAL P., MARTIN R. F., WANG R. C. (2006) - Igneous albitite dikes in orogenic lherzolithes, Western Pyrénées, France: A possible source for corundum and alkali feldspar xenocrysts in basaltic terranes. I. Mineralogical Asssociations. The Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 44, pp. 817-842.
    Germany
     
    • Bavaria
      • Lower Bavaria
        • Bavarian Forest
          • Hauzenberg
            • Kropfmühl
    Mineralien-Welt 18 (5) (2007) 20-26.
    • Rhineland-Palatinate
      • Eifel
        • Daun
          • Üdersdorf
    Blass, G., Graf, HW., Kolitsch, U., Neue Funde aus der Vulkaneifel - ein Rückblick auf die Sammelsaison 2002, Mineralien-Welt 5/2003
        • Laach lake volcanic complex
          • Kruft
    Blass, G., Graf, H.W., Kolitsch,U., Neue Funde und Mineralien aus der Vulkaneifel, Mineralien-Welt 13/1, 52-57, 2002
          • Mendig
            • Niedermendig
    Blass, G., Graf, H.W., Kolitsch,U., Neue Funde und Mineralien aus der Vulkaneifel, Mineralien-Welt 13/1, 52-57, 2002
    Greenland
     
    • Qeqqata
      • Maniitsoq (Sukkertoppen)
    Petersen, O. V. and Secher, K. (1993): The minerals of Greenland, The Mineralogical Record, Vol. 24(2), 1-65
    Guyana
     
    • Barima-Waini Region
    USGS Bulletin 2062
    Italy
     
    • Campania
      • Naples Province
    Pascal, M.-L., Di Muro, A., Boudouma, O., Fointeilles, M., Principe, C. (2008): Zirconlite, calzirtite, baddeleyite, betafite, geikielite and qandilite in skarn ejecta from Vesuvius - inferences for the magma-wallrock interactions. EGU General Assembly 2008. Geophysical Research Abstract, 10, EGU2008-A-06674, 2008. ; Pascal, M.-L., Di Muro, A., Boudouma, O., Fointeilles, M., Principe, C. (2008): Zirconolite, calzirtite, baddeleyite, betafite, geikielite and qandilite in skarn ejecta from Vesuvius - inferences for the magma-wallrock interactions. EGU General Assembly 2008. Geophysical Research Abstract, 10, EGU2008-A-06674, 2008.
          • Monte Somma
            • Pollena - Trocchia area
    Russo, M., Punzo, I. (2004): I Minerali del Somma-Vesuvio, AMI
    • Latium
      • Viterbo Province
    Camara, F., Oberti, R., Ottolini, L., Ventura, G. D., Bellatreccia, F. (2008): The crystal chemistry of Li in gadolinite. American Mineralogist, 93, 996-1004.
          • Vetralla
    http://www.gminromano.it/Cercapietre/rivista04/testo/04A04.html; Cámara,F., Williams,C.T., Della Ventura,G., Oberto,R. & Caprilli,E. (2004): Non-metamict betafite from Le Carcarelle (Vico volcanic complex, Italy): occurrence and crystal structure, Mineralogical Magazine, 68, 939-950.
    AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
    Carlini, R., Signoretti, E., 2003. Località minori del vulcano Vicano: Villa S.Giovanni in Tuscia e Mazzocchio. Il Cercapietre. Not. del Gruppo Mineralogico Romano, 1-2: 33-41
    • Lombardy
      • Brescia Province
        • Adamello-Brenta Natural Park
          • Adamello Massif
            • Mt. Foppa
    Pezzotta, Federico and Guastoni, Alessandro, The New Discovery of a LCT Pegmatite in the Adamello Massif, Central Southern Alps, Italy; Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Milan, Italy.
      • Sondrio Province
        • Valchiavenna
          • Novate Mezzola
    AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
    Ghizzoni, S. & Mazzoleni, G. (2005): Itinerari mineralogici in val Codera. Geologia Insubrica, Ed., Milano, 316 pp.
    Ghizzoni, S. & Mazzoleni, G. (2005): Itinerari mineralogici in val Codera. Geologia Insubrica, Ed., Milano, 316 pp.
        • Valtellina
    AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
    • Piedmont
      • Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Province
        • Ossola Valley
          • Domodossola
            • Cosasca
    Daniele Ravagnani - I giacimenti uraniferi italiani - Gruppo Min. Lombardo - Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano, 1974
          • Vigezzo Valley
            • Craveggia
    Daniele Ravagnani - I giacimenti uraniferi italiani - Gruppo Min. Lombardo - Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano, 1974
            • Druogno
              • Orcesco
    Daniele Ravagnani - I giacimenti uraniferi italiani - Gruppo Min. Lombardo - Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano, 1974
            • Trontano
    Mattioli V. (1987) - Novità mineralogiche in Val d'Ossola - Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, Milano, fasc. 1, pp.1-11
    Madagascar
     
    • Antananarivo Province
      • Analamanga Region
        • Ankazobe Pegmatite Field
          • Ankazobe District
    Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
    Pezzotta, F.(1999): Madagaskar. Das Paradies der Mineralien und Edelsteine. ExtraLapis nr 17, p. 44 (in german, short notice)
      • Itasy Region
        • Soavinandriana District
    Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
          • Ankisabe Commune
    Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
    Besairie H. (1966): Les Gites Minéraux de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar, Tananarive, 34, 92p
          • Mahavelona Commune
    Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
    Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
          • Tamponala Commune
    Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 54; Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
    Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
      • Vakinankaratra Region
        • Antsirabé 2 District
          • Sahanivotry Manandona Commune
    Besairie H. (1966): Les Gites Minéraux de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar, Tananarive. 34, p. 71
    t Edvard Larsen collection (MM-2228)
    Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
          • Ambohimanambola Commune
            • Anjanabonoina pegmatites
    De Vito et al (2006): Nb-Ti-Ta oxides in the gem-mineralized and "hybrid" Anjanabonoina granitic pegmatite, central Madagascar: A record of magmatic and postmagmatic events. Canadian Mineralogist. 44: 87-103.
    Besairie, H. (1966): Les Gites Minéraux de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar, Tananarive, 34, p 390
    Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
    Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
          • Andrembesoa Commune
    Behier, J. (1963): Carte minéralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
          • Betafo Commune
    C.R.Acad.Sci. Paris (1912) 154, 1042/ . Lacroix, A. (1922): Mineralogie de Madagascar, Tome I. Géologie-Minéralogie descriptive. A.Challamel (Éditeur), Paris. 624p , p 379
    Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
          • Fidirana Commune
    Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 54/ Lacroix, A. (1922): Mineralogie de Madagascar, Tome I. Géologie-Minéralogie descriptive. A.Challamel (Éditeur), Paris. p 379
    Lacroix, A. (1922): Mineralogie de Madagascar, Tome I. Géologie-Minéralogie descriptive. A.Challamel (Éditeur), Paris.p 379
    Knut Edvard Larsen collection (MM-3974)
    Lacroix, A. (1912): Sur un groupe de niobotantalates cubiques, radioactifs, des pegmatites du Vakinankaratra . Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie, Paris 35 , 85-92
        • Faratsiho District
    Lacroix, A. (1922): Mineralogie de Madagascar, Tome I. Géologie-Minéralogie descriptive. A.Challamel (Éditeur), Paris. p 379
    Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Gélogique Madagascar. A 1871
    Lacroix, A. (1922): Mineralogie de Madagascar, Tome I. Géologie-Minéralogie descriptive. A.Challamel (Éditeur), Paris. p 379
    Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
        • Sahatany Pegmatite Field (Mt Ibity area)
          • Sahatany Valley
    Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
    Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
    Behier, J (1953): Les mineraux de la pegmatite de Manjaka, Vallee de la Sahatany. Archive Service Gélogique Madagascar. A.581
    • Fianarantsoa Province
      • Matsiatra Region
        • Ikalamavony Pegmatite Field
          • Ikalamavony District
    Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Gélogique Madagascar. A 1871
    • Mahajanga Province (Majunga)
      • Betsiboka Region
        • Tsaratanàna District
          • Berere Pegmatite Field
    Besaire, H. (1966): Gites mineraux de Madagascar. Annales Geologique de Madagascar, Tananarive, Fascicule XXXIV,p 59
    • Tuléar Province (Toliara)
      • Menabe Region
        • Miandrivazo District
    Behier, J. (1963): Carte mineralogique de Madagascar. Archive Service Géologique Madagascar. A 1871
    Malawi
     
    • Chitipa District
      • Songwe Complex
    Orris, G.J., and Grauch, R.I. (2002): USGS Open-File Report 02-189.; Eby, G. N., Woolley, A. R., Din, V., & Platt, G. (1998). Geochemistry and petrogenesis of nepheline syenites: Kasungu–Chipala, Ilomba, and Ulindi nepheline syenite intrusions, North Nyasa alkaline province, Malawi. Journal of Petrology, 39(8), 1405-1424.
    Mexico
     
    • Oaxaca
      • Mun. de San Francisco Telixtlahuaca
        • San Francisco Telixtlahuaca
    Panczner(1987):112.
    Mozambique
     
    • Zambezia Province
      • Alto Ligonha District
    Martins da Pedra.
    Dias, M. Bettencourt and Wilson, W. E., 2000, Mineralogical Record, 31:459-497.
    Dias, M. Bettencourt and Wilson, W. E., 2000, Mineralogical Record, 31:459-497.
    Dias, M. Bettencourt and Wilson, W. E., 2000, Mineralogical Record, 31:459-497.
    Dias, M. Bettencourt and Wilson, W. E., 2000, Mineralogical Record, 31:459-497.
    Dias, M. Bettencourt and Wilson, W. E., 2000, Mineralogical Record, 31:459-497.
    Namibia
     
    • Erongo Region
      • Swakopmund District
        • Arandis
    Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2007): Namibia. Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag, Haltern, 343 pp. (in English); USGS Open File Report 81-1666; Irene M. Abraham (2009): Geology and spatial distribution of uranium mineralisation in the SK anomaly area, Rossing area, Namibia, Master thesis University of the Witwatersrand.
    North Korea
     
    • Kangwon Province
      • Pyonggang-gun
    Pavel M. Kartashov data
    Norway
     
    • Aust-Agder
      • Evje og Hornnes
        • Landsverk
    Bjørlykke, H. (1931): Ein Betafitmineral von Tangen bei Kragerø. Norsk Gelogisk Tidsskrift.12 73-99
      • Iveland
        • Ljosland
    Pedersen, R. (ed) (2007): Iveland V: Gruvedrift. Iveland Bygdesogenemd, p. 339
    Bjørlykke, H.( 1934): The Mineral Paragenesis and Classification of the Granite Pegmatites of Iveland, Setesdal, Southern Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 14, 211-311 ; Bjørlykke, H. (1934): The Mineral Paragenesis and Classification of the Granite Pegmatites of Iveland, Setesdal, Southern Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 14, 211-311
    Hansen, G. H. (2001): Mineralene i Evje - Iveland. Published by Froland Mineral Center. p.23 / Pedersen, R. (ed) (2007): Iveland V: Gruvedrift. Iveland Bygdesogenemd.
    • Telemark
      • Kragerø
    Bjørlykke, H. (1931): Ein betafitmineral von Tangen bei Kragerö. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift. 12, 73-88
    Bjørlykke, H. (1931): Ein betafitmineral von Tangen bei Kragerö. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift. 12, 73-88; Oftedal,I.(1940): On the occurence of tin in Norwegian minerals. Norsk Geologisk Tidskrift. 19, 314-325; Rocks & Min.: 15:77.
    Poland
     
    • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
      • Ząbkowice District
        • Ząbkowice (Frankenstein)
          • Szklary (Gläsendorf)
    Pieczka A. 2006: An unusual manganoan apatite from the Szklary pegmatite (Lower Silesia, Poland). Mineralogia Polonica - Special Papers, vol. 28, 178-180
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
        • Irkutskaya Oblast'
          • Lake Baikal area
    Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 54
      • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
    [World of Stones 12:49]
      • Transbaikalia (Zabaykalye)
        • Chitinskaya Oblast'
          • Krasnyi Chikoy
    Badanina, E.V., Gordienko, V.V., Wiechowski, A., and Friedrich, G. (2008): Geology of ore Deposits 50(8), 772-781.; Fialova, D., Kremplova, M., Hynek, D., Konecna, M., Kaiser, J., Malina, R., ... & Adam, V. (2013). Sosedka Pegmatite Metal Ions Composition Determined by Voltammetry. Int. J. Electrochem. Sci, 8, 7853-7867.
      • Tuva Republic
        • Sangilen Upland
    Kapustin, Y. L., & Bykova, A. V. (1965). First find of hiortdahlite in the USSR. Doklady Akad. Nauk SSSR, 161, 121-124.
    Kapustin Yu.L. (1989) Cerite and ternebohmite from fenites of alkaline massifs of Tuva, - Zapiski VMO, 118(4), p. 47-56 (in Rus.)
    • Northern Region
      • Murmanskaja Oblast'
        • Kola Peninsula
          • Afrikanda
    Chakhmouradian A.R., Zaitsev A.N. (1999): Calcite–amphibole–clinopyroxene rock from the Afrikanda complex, Kola Peninsula, Russia: mineralogy and a possible link to carbonatites. I. Oxide minerals. - Can. Miner., Vol.37,pp. 177-198.
    www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/khib.htm; Mitchell, R. H., & Chakhmouradian, A. R. (1998). Th-rich loparite from the Khibina alkaline complex, Kola Peninsula: isomorphism and paragenesis. Mineralogical Magazine, 62(3), 341-353.
    www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/lovo.htm
          • Turii Cape
    www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/tury.htm
    Saudi Arabia
     
    • Mintaqah 'Asir
    Küster, D. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 68-86.
    Slovakia
     
    • Banská Bystrica Region
      • Banská Bystrica Co.
        • Brusno
    Uher, P. ,Černý, P., 1998 : Vzácnoprvková mineralizácia v granitových pegmatitoch Nízkych Tatier. Mineralia Slovaca, 30, 2,93 – 94
    South Africa
     
    • Free State Province
    Minerals of South Africa
    • North West Province
      • Western Bushveld Complex
        • Pilanesberg Alkaline Complex
    Minerals of South Africa
    • Northern Cape Province
      • Namakwa District (Namaqualand)
        • Gordonia District
    Minerals of South Africa
      • ZF Mgcawu District
        • Kenhardt
    Minerals of South Africa
    Tajikistan
     
    • Region of Republican Subordination
      • Tien Shan Mtn
        • Alai Range (Alayskiy)
    http://www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/dara.htm
    Thailand
     
    • Phuket Province
    Econ Geol (1995) 90:603-615
    USA
     
    • Alaska
      • Yukon-Koyukuk Borough
        • Hughes District
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
    • Arkansas
      • Pulaski Co.
        • Little Rock
    Rocks and Minerals, (1988) 63:104-125
    Henry Barwood - unpublished (2010)
    • California
      • San Bernardino Co.
        • Cady Mts
          • Hector
    Hewett, Donnel Foster & Jewell Jeannette Glass (1953), Two uranium-bearing pegmatite bodies in San Bernardino County, California American Mineralogist: 38: 1048; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 104, 166, 392; Seaman, A.E. (1976), Pegmatite Minerals of the World.
        • Mojave National Preserve
          • Marl Spring area
    Hewett, Donnel Foster, Stone, J., and Stieff, L.R. (1969) The ages of three uranium minerals, Mojave Desert, California. USGS Prof. Paper 650-B: 85; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 179.
    • Colorado
      • Gunnison Co.
        • Quartz Creek Pegmatite District
    Meeves, H., et al (1966), Reconnaissance of beryllium-bearing pegmatite deposits in six western states, US Bur. Mines Info. Circ. 8298: 26 (Table A-1); Pearl, 1958. Colorado Gem Trails & Mineral Guide, p.61. Minerals of Colorado; USGS Prof. Paper 227
    Hanley, J. B, Heinrich, E. W., ans Page, L., 1950, Pegmatite Investigations in Colorado, Wyoming, and Ytah, 1942-1944, US Geological Survey Professional Paper 227. pp 125.; USGS Proffesional Paper 265
      • Jefferson Co.
        • Indian Hills
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
      • Lake Co.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
          • Climax
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
    • Montana
      • Hill Co.
    www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens
    Chakhmouradian A.R. & Mitchell R.H. (1999) Primary, agpaitic and deuteric stages in the evolution of Accessory Sr, REE, Ba and Nb-mineralization in nepheline-syenite pegmatites at Pegmatite Peak, Bearpaw Mts., Montana, Mineral. Petrol., 67: 85-110.
    • Nevada
      • Mineral Co.
        • Fitting District
          • Gillis Range
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • New Mexico
      • Mora Co.
        • Rociada District
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    • New York
      • St. Lawrence Co.
        • De Kalb Township
    R.W. Munschauer II and D.G. Bailey (2009) The 36th Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, April 23-26, programme abstracts, 27-28.
    • Virginia
      • Amherst Co.
    Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
      • Bedford Co.
        • Moneta-Forest
          • Otter Hill
    Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
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