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Apatite

This page kindly sponsored by Matt Zukowski
System:
Hexagonal
Hardness:
5
Name:
From the Greek the greek ἀπατάω (apatao), to deceive or to be misleading, as apatite was often confused with other minerals (e.g. beryl, milarite).
NOTE: This file incorporates all synonyms applied in the past to undifferentiated apatites, or plain old "apatite." Most "apatite" is fluorapatite.

"Apatite" crystals are short to long hexagonal prisms [0001], with {1010} and {1011} dominant; also thick tabular {0001}, frequently in the crystals of hydrothermal origin in pegmatites and veins, with {1010}, relatively large {0001}, and often also {1011} or low pyramids. Massive, coarse granular to compact. Globular or reniform at times with a sub-fibrous, scaly, or imperfectly columnar structure or as fibrous crusts; stalactitic; earthy; oolitic. May be rock-forming in beds of great extent; as nodular concretions in clays and shales; conglomeritic.

Apatite may be confused with beryl.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Apatite.

Classification of Apatite

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http://www.mindat.org/min-29229.html
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Physical Properties of Apatite

Hardness (Mohs):
5
Density:
3.1 - 3.2 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Crystallography of Apatite

Crystal System:
Hexagonal

Other Names for Apatite

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Apatite

Reference List:
Davila, M. (1767) Ordre Second. Pierres Gypseuses. 2. in Catalogue syst. et raisonné des curiosités de la nature et de l’art qui composent de cabinet de M. Davila. 3 volumes, Paris. [as La Pierre Phosphorique]

de Lisle, R. (1772) Pierreux Cristaux. Espece V. La Chrysolite. Essai de cristallographie. Paris. [as Chrysolite ordinaire]

Sage, B.G. (1777) Améthiste Basaltine. Eléméns de Minéralogie Docimastique, second edition, 2 volumes: 1: 231. [as Améthiste Basaltine]

de Lisle, R. (1783) Gemmes. Espèce VII. Chysolite ordinaire ou proprement dire. 2. Cristallographie, ou description des formes propres à tous les corps du regne minéral. 4 volumes, Paris: 2: 254, 271. [as Chrysolite ordinaire]

Gerhards, C.A. (1786) Erster Anhang. Von einigen noch nicht genau bestimmten und ganz neu entdecken Mineralien. in Grundriss des Mineralsystems, Christian Friedrich Himburg, Berlin: 281-287. [as Apatit]

Klaproth (1788) Bergmännisches Journal, Freiberg (Neues Bergmännisches Journal): 294. [as Phosphorsaurer-Kalk]

Proust (1788) Le Journal de physique et le radium, Paris: 32: 241. [as Phosphate calcaire]

Werner (1788) Bergmännisches Journal, Freiberg (Neues Bergmännisches Journal): 576. [as Apatit]

Hoffmann, C.A.S. (1789) Mineralsystem des Herrn Inspektor Werners mit dessen Erlaubnis herausgegeben von C.A.S. Hoffmann. Bergmännisches Journal: 1: 369-398. [as Apatit]

Pelletier (1790) Annales de chimie, Paris: 7.

Werner (1790) Bergmännisches Journal, Freiberg (Neues Bergmännisches Journal): 74. [as Spargelgrüne Steinkrystalle aus Spanien nähern Apatit]

Kirwan, R. (1794) Elements of Mineralogy, second edition: 1: 129. [as Phosphorite]

Abildgaard (1798) Moll’s Berg.-Hütten, Jb.: 2: 432. [as Moroxite]

Vauquelin (1798) Annales de chimie, Paris: 26: 123. [as Chaux phosphatatée]

Abildgaard (1800) Annales de chimie, Paris: 32: 195. [as Asparagolithe]

Karsten, D.L.G. (1800) Mineralogische Tabellen, Berlin. First edition: 36. [applied to all varieties except Moroxite]

Trommsdorf (1800) J. de pharm.: 8: 153. [as Sächsischer Beryll and Augustit]

Haüy, R.J. (1801) Chaux phosphatée. 1. Traité de minéralogie. First edition: in 4 volumes with atlas in fol.: 2. [all varieties, including moroxite]

Karsten, D.L.G. (1808) Mineralogische Tabellen, Berlin, second edition: 52. [as Phosphorit]

Emmons (1838) Rep. Geol., New York: 252. [as Eupyrchroite]

Hermann (1844) Journal für praktische Chemie, Leipzig: 31: 101. [as Talkapatit]

Henry, T.H. (1850) XVII. On francolite, a supposed new mineral. Philosophical Magazine Series: 3: 241, 134-135.

Bromeis (1851) Ann. Chem. Pharm.: 79. [as Osteolith]

Dana, J.D. (1854) V. Phosphates, Arsenates, Antimonates, Nitrates. 1. Anhydrous. 1. Apatite Group. 1. in A System of Mineralogy Forth Edition, George P. Putnam and Co., New York and London: 396-399.

Shepard (1856) American Journal of Science: 22: 96. [as Pyroguanite, Glaubapatite]

Nordenskiöld (1857) Moskovskoe Obshchestvo Ispytatelei Prirody (Société impériale des naturalists de Moscou): 30: 217, 224. [as Lazur-apatit]

Rammelsberg, C.F. (1860) Apatit. in Handbuch der Mineralchemie, Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig: 351-355.

Phipson (1862) Journal of the Chemical Society, London: 15: 277. [as Sombrerite]

Dana, J.D., Brush, G.J. (1869) Apatite. in A System of Mineralogy, Fifth Edition, John Wiley and Son, New York: 530-535.

Roscoe and Schorlemmer (1877) Treat. on Chem: 1: 459. [as Estramadurite]

Viola (1905) Rendus comitato geologico d’Italia, Rome, Bollettino: 6: 106. [optical anomalies]

Chirvinsky (1907) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie, Stuttgart: 279. [optical anomalies]

Lacroix, A. (1910) Minéralogie de la France et des ses colonies, Paris. 5 volumes: vol. 4: 558 [optical anomalies], 561. [phosphate rock deps.]

Doelter, C. (1911-1931) Handbuch der Mineral-chemie (in 4 volumes divided into parts): 3, [1]: 333, 354.

Brauns (1916) Jb. Min., Beil.-Bd.: 41: 73. [optical anomalies]

Bellucci and Grassi (1919) Gazzetta chimica italiana, Rome: 49: 232.

Ramdohr, P. (1919) Jb. Preuss. Geol. Landesanst.: 40: 284.

Simpson (1920) Mineralogical Magazine: 19: 29.

Zambonini (1923) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 58: 226.

Bornemann-Starinkevitch (1924) Comptes rendus de l’académie des sciences de l’U.R.S.S., n.s.: 39.

Fersman (1924) Comptes rendus de l’académie des sciences de l’U.R.S.S., n.s.: 42.

Hintze, C. (1924) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [4A]: 562.

Shannon and Larsen (1925) American Journal of Science: 9: 250.

Fersman (1928) Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Beilage.-Bd.: 55: 40. [as Cerapatite]

Simpson (1929) Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia: 15: 99.

Alfani (1932) Periodico de Mineralogia-Roma: 3: 220.

Dittler and Hueber (1932) Annalen des naturhistorischen Staats-Museum: 46: 185.

Simpson (1933) Journal of the Royal Society of Western Australia: 20: 47.

Foshag, W.F. (1936) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 21: 269-272.

Gruner and McConnell (1937) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 97: 208.

McConnell (1937) American Mineralogist: 22: 977.

Borneman-Starinkevitch (1938) Comptes rendus de l’académie des sciences de l’U.R.S.S., n.s.: 19: 253.

Deans (1938) Mineralogical Magazine: 25: 135.

McConnell, Duncan (1938), A structural investigation of the isomorphism of the apatite group. American Mineralogist: 23: 1-19.

Belov (1939) Comptes rendus de l’académie des sciences de l’U.R.S.S., n.s.: 22: 89.

Thewlis (1939) Transactions of the Faraday Society: 35: 358.

Mansfield (1940) American Journal of Science: 238: 863. [phosphate rock deps.]

McConnell and Gruner (1940) American Mineralogist: 25: 157.

Mason (1941) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 63: 383.

Minguzzi (1941) Periodico de Mineralogia-Roma: 12: 343.

Sahama (1941) Bull. Comm.. géol. Finlande: no. 126: 50.

Dihn and Klement (1942) Zeitschrift für Elektrochemie und angewandte physikalische Chemie, Halle a.S.: 48: 331.

McConnell (1943) Geological Society of America Bulletin: 54: 707. [phosphate rock deps.]

Volodchenkova and Melentiev (1943) Comptes rendus de l’académie des sciences de l’U.R.S.S., n.s.: 39: 34.

Gordon (1944) Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences, Philadelphia: 96: 333.

Hudson, Cherkes, and Buchwald (1945) Journal of Urology: 53: 654. [sulfatian in urinary tracts]

Jolibois and Hébert (1946) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 222: 569.

Pieruccini (1947) Att. Soc. tosc.: 54.

Afanasev (1948) Comptes rendus de l’académie des sciences de l’U.R.S.S., n.s: 62: 677.

Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 878.

Kay, M.I., Young, R.A., Posner, A.S. (1964) Crystal structure of hydroxyapatite. Nature: 204: 1050-1052.

Portnov, A.M., Gorobets, B.S. (1969) Luminescence of apatite fro different rock types. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR: 184: 110-113.

McConnell, D. (1973) Apatite, its Crystal Chemistry, Mineralogy, Utilization, and Geologic and Biologic Occurrences. Springer-Verlag, New York, N.Y.

Lang, A.R., Walmsley, J.C. (1983) Apatite inclusions in natural diamond coat. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 9: 6-8.

Farver, J.R., Gletti, B.J. (1989) Oxygen and strontium diffusion kinetics in apatite and potential application to thermal history determinations. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 53: 1621-1631.

Hogarth, D.D. (1989) Pyrochlore, apatite and amphibole: distinctive minerals in carbonatite. In K. Bell, Ed., Carbonatites: Genesis and Evolution: 105-148. Unwin Hyman Ltd., London.

Hughes, J.M., Cameron, M., Crowley, K.D. (1989) Structural variations in natural F, OH, and Cl apatites. American Mineralogist: 74: 870-876.

Hughes, J.M., Cameron, M., Crowley, K.D. (1990) Crystal structures of natural ternary apatites: Solid solution in the Ca5(PO4)3X (X=F, OH, Cl) system. American Mineralogist: 75: 295-304.

Elliott, J.C. (1994): Structure and chemistry of the apatites and other calcium orthophosphates. Elservier, Amsterdam, 389 pp.

Fleet, M.E., Pan, Y. (1997) Rare earth elements in apatite: uptake from H2O-bearing phosphate-fluoride melts and role of volatile components. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 61: 4645-4760.

Jonckheere, R., Wagner, G. (2000) On the occurrence of anomalous fission tracks in apatite and titanite American Mineralogist: 85: 1744-1753.

Hughes, J.M., Rakovan, J. (2002) The crystal structure of apatite, Ca5(PO4)3(F,OH,Cl). In Phosphates - Geochemical, Geobiological, and Materials Importance (M.L. Kohn, J. Rakovan, and J.M. Hughes, Eds.). Rev. Mineral. Geochem.: 48: 1-12.

Pan, Y., Fleet, M.E. (2002) Compositions of the apatite group minerals: substitution mechanisms ansd controlling factors. In Phosphates. Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry (M.J. Kohn, J. Rakovan and J.M. Hughes, Eds.) Reviews in Mineralogy: 48: 13-49.

Waychunas, G. (2002) Apatite luminescence. Reviews in Mineralogy and geochemistry: 48: 701-742.

Flora, N.J., Yoder, C.H., Jenkins, H.D.B. (2003) Lattice energies of apatites and estimation of ΔH1°(PO3- 4 g). Inorganic Chemistry: 34: 499-517.

Pasero, M., Kampf, A.R., Ferraris, C., Pekov, I.V., Rakovan, J.R., White, T.J. (2010) Nomenclature of the apatite supergroup minerals. European Journal of Mineralogy: 22: 163-179.

Hovis, G.L., Scott, B.T., Altomare, C.M., Leaman, A.R., Morris, M.D., Tomaino, G.P., McCubbin, F.M. (2014) Thermal expansion of fluorapatite-hydroxylapatite crystalline solutions. American Mineralogist: 99: 2171-2175.

Hughes, J.M., Heffernan, K.M., Goldoff, B., Nekvasil, H. (2014) Cl-rich fluorapatite, devoid of OH, from the Three Peaks Area, Utah: the first reported structure of natural Cl-rich fluorapatite. The Canadian Mineralogist: 52: 643-651.

Hughes, J.M. (2015) The many facets of apatite. American Mineralogist: 100: 1033-1039.

Hughes, J.M., Rakovan, J.F. (2015). Structurally robust, chemically diverse: apatite and apatite supergroup minerals. Elements 11, 165-170.

Teiber, H., Marks, M.A.W., Arzamastsev, A.A., Wenzel, T., Markl, G. (2015) Compositional variation in apatite from various host rocks: clues with regards to source composition and crystallization conditions. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen: 192: 151-167.

Internet Links for Apatite

Specimens:
The following Apatite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Apatite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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