Help mindat.org|Log In|Register|
Home PageMindat NewsThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusManagement TeamContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatSponsor a PageSponsored PagesTop Available PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on MindatThe Mindat Store
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryRandom MineralSearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
Keyword(s):
 
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportAdd Glossary Item
StatisticsMember ListBooks & MagazinesMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryHow to Link to MindatDevice Settings
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day Gallery

Pyromorphite

This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.
Formula:
Pb5(PO4)3Cl
System:
Hexagonal
Colour:
Green to dark green, ...
Lustre:
Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Waxy, Greasy
Hardness:
3½ - 4
Name:
Originally called Grön Blyspat and Minera plumbi viridis by Johan Gottschalk Wallerius in 1748 and, later, Mine de plumb verte in 1753. An author named "Schultze", possibly Christian Friedrich Schultze [1730-1775 of Dresden, Germany] used the descriptive terms grünbleierz and braunbleierz in 1761 onward that have been subsequently attributed to Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1791. Named pyromorphite in 1813 by Johann Friedrich Ludwig Hausmann from the Greek for "fire" and "form", because, after being melted into a globule, a sample will begin to take on a crystalline shape during cooling. Hausmann also used the name traubenblei in 1813. Additional names have been introduced for minerals that were thought to be something other than pyromorphite including: polysphaerite by August Breithaupt in 1832, nuissierite by G. Barruel in 1836, miesite by August Breithaupt in 1841, cherokine by Charles U. Shepard in 1857, plumbeine and sexagulit by August Breithaupt in 1863, and collieite by Robert Brown in 1927.
Isostructural with:
Apatite Group, Apatite Supergroup.
Mimetite-Pyromorphite Series. The phosphate analogue of Mimetite and Vanadinite.

A secondary lead mineral found in the oxidised zones of lead deposits. Typically found as green, yellowish, brownish, greyish or white barrel-shaped hexagonal prisms, in clusters or as druses on matrix. The individual crystals are often modified or etched, giving a hopper-like appearance. This lead chloride phosphate forms a complete series with Mimetite (lead chloride arsenate), and many specimens are intermediates between the two end-members.
"Ca-rich pyromorphite" may be phosphohedyphane.

Also forms a series with Hydroxylpyromorphite and probably the Unnamed (F-analogue of Pyromorphite).

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Pyromorphite.

Classification of Pyromorphite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
7/B.39-150
8.BN.05

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
B : Phosphates, etc., with additional anions, without H2O
N : With only large cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 = 0.33:1
Dana 7th ed.:
41.8.4.1
41.8.4.1

41 : ANHYDROUS PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
8 : A5(XO4)3Zq
22.2.9

22 : Phosphates, Arsenates or Vanadates with other Anions
2 : Phosphates, arsenates or vanadates with chloride
mindat.org URL:
http://www.mindat.org/min-3320.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

Type Occurrence of Pyromorphite

Year of Discovery:
1813

Occurrences of Pyromorphite

Geological Setting:
A secondary mineral found in the oxidised zones of lead ore deposits.

Physical Properties of Pyromorphite

Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Waxy, Greasy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Green to dark green, yellow, greenish-yellow or yellowish-green, orangish-yellow, shades of brown, white and colourless; colourless or faintly tinted in transmitted light.
Comment:
Colorless when pure
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
3½ - 4
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Poor/Indistinct
In traces on {1011}.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
7.04 g/cm3 (Measured)    7.109 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Pyromorphite

Crystal System:
Hexagonal
Class (H-M):
6/m - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
P63/m
Space Group Setting:
P63/m
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.987Å, c = 7.33Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 0.734
Unit Cell Volume:
V 633.15 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Crystals prismatic [0001] and usually simple, showing {1010}, {0001}, {1011}; barrel-shaped, spindle-shaped, and sometimes equant; terminations may be cavernous ("hopper" or "skeletal"); more rarely tabular {0001} or pyramidal; sometimes in branching groups of prismatic crystals in parallel positions, tapering to points; may also be globular, reniform, wart-like with sub-columnar structure, and granular. Crystals may show concentric growth patterns, probably due to P/As content variation.
Twinning:
Very rare on {1122}{1010} at Puech de Compolibat (Mills et al., 2012)

Crystallographic forms of Pyromorphite

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Pyromorphite no.6 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Pyromorphite no.7 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Pyromorphite no.12 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

Toggle
Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

View
Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

Epitaxial Relationships of Pyromorphite

Epitaxial Minerals:
Epitaxy Comments:
Galena forms thin films on the surface of Pyromorphite crystals (Blaubleierz; Plumbeine) with Galena {001} [001] parallel with Pyromorphite {0001} (1120) (1010) [0001].
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
4.13(50)
3.38(30)
3.27(40)
2.99(100)
2.96(100)
2.89(60)
2.064(30)
1.861(30)
Comments:
Data given are for synthetic material.

Optical Data of Pyromorphite

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 2.058 nε = 2.048
Birefringence:
0.010
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.010
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Optical Extinction:
Parallel
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
Visible in tinted material in transmitted light.
Comments:
May be anomalously biaxial -, sectored.

Chemical Properties of Pyromorphite

Formula:
Pb5(PO4)3Cl
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
F,Ra,Ca,Cr,V,As

Relationship of Pyromorphite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Mimetite (see here)
Other Members of Group:
AlforsiteBa5(PO4)3Cl
BellitePb5 (AsO4,CrO4, SiO2)3Cl
Carbonate-rich FluorapatiteCa5(PO4,CO3)3(F,O)
ChlorapatiteCa5(PO4)3Cl
FluorapatiteCa2Ca3(PO4)3F
HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
Hydroxylapatite-MCa5(PO4)3OH
HydroxylpyromorphitePb5(PO4)3(OH)
JohnbaumiteCa5(AsO4)3OH
Johnbaumite-MCa5(AsO4)3OH
Manganapatite
MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
Mimetite-2M
Miyahisaite(Sr,Ca)2Ba3(PO4)3F
Mn-bearing Fluorapatite(Ca,Mn2+)5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH) or Ca5([P,Mn5+]O4)3(F,Cl,OH)
OxypyromorphitePb10(PO4)6O
PieczkaiteMn5(PO4)3Cl
StronadelphiteSr5(PO4)3F
SvabiteCa5(AsO4)3F
TurneaureiteCa5(AsO4)3Cl
Unnamed (F-analogue of Pyromorphite)Pb5(PO4)3F
Unnamed (OH-analogue of Mimetite)Pb5(AsO4)3(OH)
VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
8.BN.05AlforsiteBa5(PO4)3Cl
8.BN.05Belovite-(Ce)NaCeSr3(PO4)3F
8.BN.05Carbonate-rich FluorapatiteCa5(PO4,CO3)3(F,O)
8.BN.05Carbonate-rich HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)
8.BN.05ChlorapatiteCa5(PO4)3Cl
8.BN.05Mimetite-MPb5(AsO4)3Cl
8.BN.05Johnbaumite-MCa5(AsO4)3OH
8.BN.05FluorapatiteCa2Ca3(PO4)3F
8.BN.05HedyphanePb3Ca2(AsO4)3Cl
8.BN.05HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)
8.BN.05JohnbaumiteCa5(AsO4)3OH
8.BN.05MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
8.BN.05MorelanditeCa2Ba3(AsO4)3Cl
8.BN.05FluorstrophiteSrCaSr3(PO4)3F
8.BN.05SvabiteCa5(AsO4)3F
8.BN.05TurneaureiteCa5(AsO4)3Cl
8.BN.05VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
8.BN.05Belovite-(La)NaLaSr3(PO4)3F
8.BN.05Deloneite(Na0.5REE0.25Ca0.25)(Ca0.75REE0.25)Sr1.5(CaNa0.25REE0.25)(PO4)3F0.5(OH)0.5
8.BN.05FluorcaphiteSrCaCa3(PO4)3F
8.BN.05Kuannersuite-(Ce)NaCeBa3(PO4)3F0.5Cl0.5
8.BN.05Hydroxylapatite-MCa5(PO4)3OH
8.BN.05PhosphohedyphaneCa2Pb3(PO4)3Cl
8.BN.05StronadelphiteSr5(PO4)3F
8.BN.05FluorphosphohedyphaneCa2Pb3(PO4)3F
8.BN.05Carlgieseckeite-(Nd)NaNdCa3(PO4)3F
8.BN.05Miyahisaite(Sr,Ca)2Ba3(PO4)3F
8.BN.10ArctiteNa2Ca4(PO4)3F
22.2.1SampleiteNaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl · 5H2O
22.2.2LavendulanNaCaCu5(AsO4)4Cl · 5H2O
22.2.3ChlorapatiteCa5(PO4)3Cl
22.2.4TurneaureiteCa5(AsO4)3Cl
22.2.5ShubnikoviteCa2Cu8(AsO4)6(OH)Cl · 7H2O
22.2.6RichelsdorfiteCa2Cu5Sb(AsO4)4(OH)6Cl · 6H2O
22.2.7AlforsiteBa5(PO4)3Cl
22.2.8MorelanditeCa2Ba3(AsO4)3Cl
22.2.10MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
22.2.11Mimetite-MPb5(AsO4)3Cl
22.2.12SahlinitePb14(AsO4)2O9Cl4
22.2.13GeorgiadèsitePb4(AsO3)Cl4(OH)
22.2.14VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
22.2.15KombatitePb14(VO4)2O9Cl4
22.2.16LeningraditePbCu3(VO4)2Cl
22.2.17HedyphanePb3Ca2(AsO4)3Cl
22.2.18NealitePb4Fe2+(As3+O3)2Cl4 · 2H2O

Other Names for Pyromorphite

Other Information

May be yellow to orange in SW and LW
Electrical:
Piezoelectric if biaxial.
Other Information:
Soluble in HNO3 and KOH. Slightly soluble in carbonated water.

Forms pseudomorphs after Galena and Cerussite (common).

Galena frequently occurs as more or less complete pseudomorphs after pyromorphite. Other pseudomorphs include Apatite after Pyromorphite and Plumbogummite encrusted on, and replacing, Pyromorphite.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Pyromorphite

Reference List:
Michaelis, J.M. (1693) Museum Spenerianum sive Catalogus Rerum … Das Spenerische Kabinet Oder Kurtze Beschreibung Aller Sowol künstlich als natürlicher / alter / als neuer / fremder als einheimischer curiösen Sachen / Welche Herr Johann Jacob Spener Seel. Phys. & Math. P.P. auf der Academie zu Halle mit unermüdetem Fleiß colligiret. Leipzig, 222 p. (p. 96, 144-146, as Grün-Bley-Ertz, minera saturni viridis, and minera plumbi virides, from Zschopau/Saxony)

Richter, G.G. (1719) Gazophylacium sive Catalogus Rerum Mineralium et Metallicarum ut et tam domesticorum quam exoticorum, varia rudera urbium fructicum, quo praesentantium una cum quibusdam petrifactis, et lapidibus, ad regnum minerale spectantibus, quas summa industria et labore collegit / Mineralien-Cabinet Oder Beschreibung der fürnehmsten Ertze / darunter / viele in Sachsen befindlich / wie auch andere Ausländische / ingleichen unterschiedene in Stein verwandelte Sachen, Welche Mit großer Mühe / Fleiß / und Unkosten / zusammen getragen. Freiberg, 58 p. (p. 26-27, as Grün Bley-Ertz)

Woodward, J. (1725/1727) An Addition to the Catalogue of the Foreign Native Fossils in the Collection of J. Woodward M.D., London, 21 p. (p. 17, as minera plumbi viridis, from Zschopau)

Minerophilo Freibergensi [this is probably J.C. Zeisig] (1743) Neues und wohleingerichtetes Mineral- und Bergwercks-Lexicon. Chemnitz, 2nd ed., 621 p. (p. 278, as Grün Bley-Ertz)

Cramer, J.A. (1744) Elementa Artis Docimasticae, Dubous Tomis comprehensa, Quorum Prior Theoriam, pesterior Praxin, Ex vera Fossilium indole deductas, atque indubitatæ Experimentorum, summa cum accuratione institutorum, fide firmatas, ordine naturali & doctrina apertissima exhibet. Lugduni Batavorum [= Leiden], 366 p. (p. 273, as minera plumbi viridis, first quantitative analysis of the lead content)

Wallerius, J.G (1748) Mineralogia, eller Mineralriket. Stockholm: 296 (as Grön Blyspat & Minera plumbi viridis).

Wallerius, J.G. (1753) French edition of “Mineralogia, eller Mineralriket.” 2 volumes, Paris: 1: 536 (as Mine de Plomb verte).

Schultze, S. (1761) Sachsens vorzügliche Reichthümer und Seltenheiten des Mineralreichs. Dresdnisches Magazin: 2: 70 (as Grünbleierz, Braunbleierz).

Schultze, S. (1765) Beyträge zur sächsischen Naturhistorie. Dresdnisches Magazin 2: 467 (as Grünbleierz, Braunbleierz).

Klaproth (1784) Crell’s Chemical Journal, London: 1: 394 (as Grün Bleyerz & Phosphorsäurehaltig Blei).

Hausmann, J.F.L. (1813) Handbuch der Mineralogie 3 volumes, Göttingen: 1089 &/or 1090 (as Polychrom & Pyromorphit).

Haidinger, Wm. (1825) Treatise on Mineralogy, by F. Mohs; translation with considerable additions. 3 volumes, Edinburg: 2: 134.

Breithaupt, A. (1832) Vollständige Characteristik etc., 2nd. Edition: 54 (as Polysphaerit).

Igelström (1865) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 22: 229.

Bischoff, G. (1866) Lehrbuch der chemischen und physikalischen Geologie, second edition, 3 volumes, 8vo, Bonn: 3: 742.

Baumhauer (1876) Jb. Min.: 411.

Bertrand (1881) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 4: 35.

Jannettaz (1881) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 4: 39.

Jannettaz and Michel (1881) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 4: 196.

Haege (1888) Min. Siegerland: 36.

Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 770.

Klein (1902) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 748.

Bowman (1903) Mineralogical Magazine: 13: 324.

Mügge (1903) Jb. Min., Beil.-Bd.: 16: 350.

Bowles (1909) American Journal of Science: 24: 40.

Goldschmidt and Schroeder (1912) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 51: 362.

Amadori (1916) 1st. Lombardo, Rend.: [2], 49, 137.

Goldschmidt, V. (1922) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 7: 4.

Hintze, Carl (1924) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [4A]: 572, 590, 603.

Carobbi (1926) Reale accademia delle scienze fisiche e matematiche, Naples, Rend.: [3], 32, 54.

Drescher (1926) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 257.

Shannon, Earl V. (1926) “The Minerals of Idaho,” U.S. National Museum Bulletin 131: 418.

Aminoff and Parsons (1927) Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 49: 438.

Zambonini and Ferrari (1928) Reale accademia nazionale dei Lincei, Rome, Atti.: [6], 7, 283.

Lietz (1931) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 77: 437.

Mehmel (1931) Zeitschrift für Physikalische Chemie, Leipzig, Berlin: 15A: 223.

Hendricks, Jefferson, and Mosley (1932) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 81: 352

Schouten (1934) Economic Geology: 29: 611.

Chirva (1935) Trav. inst. Lomonossov, ac. Sc. U.R.S.S., no.: 5: 86.

Mélon (1943) Société géologique de Belgique, Liége, Annales: 66: B56.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 889-895.

Baker, W. E. (1966) An X-ray diffraction study of synthetic members of the pyromorphite series. American Mineralogist 51, 1712-1721.

Canadian Mineralogist (1989) 27: 189.

Gaines, Richard V., H. Catherine, W. Skinner, Eugene E. Foord, Brian Mason, Abraham Rosenzweig (1997) Dana's New Mineralogy : The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana: 865.

Zeitschrift für Kristallographie (1998) 213: 585-590.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2000) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume IV. Arsenates, Phosphates, Vanadates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 680pp.: 482.

Mills, S.J., Ferraris, G., Kampf, A.R. & Favreau, G. (2012) Twinning in pyromorphite: The first documented occurrence of twinning by merohedry in the apatite supergroup. American Mineralogist, 97, 415–418.

Internet Links for Pyromorphite

Specimens:
The following Pyromorphite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Pyromorphite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
Mindat.org is an outreach project of the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy, a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization.
Copyright © mindat.org and the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy 1993-2015, except where stated. Mindat.org relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters.
Privacy Policy - Terms & Conditions - Contact Us Current server date and time: July 1, 2015 06:04:31 Page generated: June 25, 2015 06:41:45