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Titanite

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Formula:
CaTi(SiO4)O
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Colourless, brown, ...
Lustre:
Adamantine, Resinous
Hardness:
5 - 5½
Member of:
Name:
Named in 1795 by Martin Klaproth for its titanium content. First recognized in 1787 by Marc August Pictet but only described as "nouveau substance minerale". A common synonym, sphene, was introduced in 1801 by Rene Just Haüy.
Isostructural with:
Titanite Group. The titanium analogue of Malayaite and Vanadomalayaite.

Forms a series with Malayaite. Often contains minor Al.
Titanite close to end-member composition has space-group symmetry P21/a, whereas titanite with significant additional constituents has A2/a symmetry.
A triclinic, Ta- and Al-bearing titanite has been described by Lussier et al. (2009).

Also known as sphene, this calcium titanium silicate forms flattened wedge-shaped crystals, commonly twinned with prominent re-entry angles; massive, compact and lamellar forms are also found. It occurs as an accessory mineral in igneous rocks; in schists, gneisses and other metamorphic rocks, and is also found as a detrital mineral in some sedimentary deposits.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Titanite.

Classification of Titanite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
9.AG.15

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
G : Nesosilicates with additional anions; cations in > [6] +- [6] coordination
52.4.3.1

52 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
4 : Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
14.9.6

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
9 : Silicates of Ti
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First Recorded Occurrence of Titanite

Year of Discovery:
1795
Associated Minerals at First Recorded Locality:

Occurrences of Titanite

Geological Setting:
Common accessory mineral in intermediate and felsic plutonic rocks, pegmatites, alpine veins. Also in some gneisses, schists and skarns.

Physical Properties of Titanite

Adamantine, Resinous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Colourless, brown, green, yellow, rose-red or black.
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
5 - 5½
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
Good on {110}
Parting:
Due to twinning on {221}
Density:
3.48 - 3.6 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.53 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Titanite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P21/b
Space Group Setting:
P21/a
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.057Å, b = 8.707Å, c = 6.555Å
β = 113.81°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.81 : 1 : 0.753
Unit Cell Volume:
V 368.49 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals are wedge shaped, compact, massive.
Twinning:
On {100}, contact and penetration, less commonly lamellar on {221}
Comment:
May be metamict. Titanite close to end-member composition has space-group symmetry P21/a, whereas titanite with significant additional constituents has A2/a symmetry. Smaller unit cells indicate an Al- and F-rich composition.

Crystallographic forms of Titanite

Crystal Atlas:
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Titanite no.31 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Titanite no.203 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Titanite

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.843 - 1.950 nβ = 1.870 - 2.034 nγ = 1.943 - 2.110
2V:
Measured: 17° to 40°, Calculated: 68° to 82°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.100 - 0.160
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
r > v extreme
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
X= nearly colorless
Y= yellow to green
Z= red to yellow orange

Chemical Properties of Titanite

Formula:
CaTi(SiO4)O
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Fe,Y,Mn,Al,Ce,Sr,Na,Nb,Ta,Al,Mg,V,F,Zr,Sn

Relationship of Titanite to other Species

Member of:
Other Members of Group:
Lederite (of Shepard)
MalayaiteCaSn(SiO4)O
Natrotitanite(Na0.5Y0.5)Ti(SiO4)O
VanadomalayaiteCaV4+(SiO4)O
9.AG.05AbswurmbachiteCuMn63+(SiO4)O8
9.AG.05BrauniteMn2+Mn63+(SiO4)O8
9.AG.05NeltneriteCaMn63+(SiO4)O8
9.AG.05Braunite-IICaMn143+(SiO4)O20
9.AG.10Långbanite(Mn2+,Ca)4(Mn3+,Fe3+)9Sb5+(SiO4)2O16
9.AG.15MalayaiteCaSn(SiO4)O
9.AG.15VanadomalayaiteCaV4+(SiO4)O
9.AG.15Natrotitanite(Na0.5Y0.5)Ti(SiO4)O
9.AG.20Cerite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)9(Mg,Fe)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
9.AG.20Cerite-(La)(La,Ce,Ca)9(Fe,Ca,Mg)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
9.AG.20Aluminocerite-(Ce)(Ce,La,Ca)9(Al,Fe3+)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3
9.AG.25Trimounsite-(Y)Y2Ti2(SiO4)O5
9.AG.25Yftisite-(Y)(Y,Dy,Er)4(Ti,Sn)(SiO4)2O(F,OH)6
9.AG.30SitinakiteKNa2Ti4(SiO4)2O5(OH) · 4H2O
9.AG.35KittatinnyiteCa2Mn2Mn(SiO4)2(OH)4 · 9H2O
9.AG.40aNatisiteNa2Ti(SiO4)O
9.AG.40bParanatisiteNa2Ti(SiO4)O
9.AG.45Törnebohmite-(Ce)(Ce,La)2Al(SiO4)2(OH)
9.AG.45Törnebohmite-(La)(La,Ce)2Al(SiO4)2(OH)
9.AG.50Kuliokite-(Y)Y4Al(SiO4)2(OH)2F5
9.AG.55ChantaliteCaAl2(SiO4)(OH)4
9.AG.60MozartiteCaMn3+(SiO4)(OH)
9.AG.60VuagnatiteCaAl(SiO4)(OH)
9.AG.65HatruriteCa3(SiO4)O
9.AG.70JasmunditeCa11(SiO4)4O2S
9.AG.75AfwilliteCa3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
9.AG.80BultfonteiniteCa2(HSiO4)F · H2O
9.AG.85ZoltaiiteBaV24+V123+(SiO4)2O19
9.AG.90Tranquillityite(Fe2+,Ca)8(Zr,Y)2Ti3(SiO4)3O4
14.9.1NatisiteNa2Ti(SiO4)O
14.9.2LorenzeniteNa2Ti2(Si2O6)O3
14.9.3LintisiteLiNa3Ti2(Si2O6)2O2 · 2H2O
14.9.4DavaniteK2TiSi6O15
14.9.5KazakoviteNa6Mn2+Ti(Si6O18)
14.9.7OhmiliteSr3(Ti,Fe3+)(Si4O12)(O,OH) · 2-3H2O
14.9.8Lamprophyllite(Sr,K,Ba)2(Na,Ti,Mn2+,Fe3+)4Ti2(Si2O7)2O(O,OH,F)
14.9.9BenitoiteBaTi(Si3O9)
14.9.10BatisiteBaNaNaTi2(Si4O12)O2
14.9.11FresnoiteBa2Ti(Si2O7)O
14.9.12Joaquinite-(Ce)NaBa2Ce2FeTi2[Si4O12]2O2(OH,F) · H2O
14.9.13Orthojoaquinite-(Ce)NaBa2Ce2FeTi2[Si4O12]2O2(O,OH) · H2O
14.9.14StrontiojoaquiniteSr2Ba2(Na,Fe)2Ti2[Si4O12]2O2(O,OH)2 · H2O
14.9.15Bario-orthojoaquinite(Ba,Sr)4Fe2Ti2[Si4O12]2O2 · H2O
14.9.16Strontio-orthojoaquinite(Na,Fe)2Sr2Ba2Ti2[Si4O12]2O2(O,OH)2 · H2O
14.9.17BafertisiteBa(Fe2+,Mn2+)2Ti(Si2O7)O(F,OH)2
14.9.18HejtmaniteBa(Mn2+,Fe2+)2Ti(Si2O7)O(OH,F)
14.9.19Delindeite(Na,K)2(Ba,Ca)2(Ti,Fe,Al)3(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2 · 2H2O
14.9.20Barytolamprophyllite(Ba,Na)2(Na,Ti,Fe3+)4Ti2(Si2O7)2O(OH,F)
14.9.21Trimounsite-(Y)Y2Ti2(SiO4)O5
14.9.22Perrierite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca,Th)4(Fe2+,Mg)Fe23+(Ti,Fe3+)2(Si2O7)2O8
14.9.23Chevkinite(Ce,Ca,Th)4(Fe,Mn)2(Ti,Fe)3[Si2O7]2O8
14.9.24Strontiochevkinite(Sr,La,Ce,Ca)4Fe2+(Ti,Zr)2Ti2(Si2O7)2O8
14.9.25TisinaliteNa3H3(Mn,Ca,Fe)TiSi6(O,OH)18 · 2H2O
14.9.26NeptuniteNa2KLi(Fe2+,Mn2+)2Ti2(Si8O24)
14.9.27ManganoneptuniteNa2KLi(Mn2+,Fe2+)2Ti2[Si8O24]
14.9.28Kupletskite(K,Na)3(Mn,Fe)7Ti2Si8O26(OH)4F
14.9.29Astrophyllite(K,Na)3(Fe,Mn)7Ti2Si8O24(O,OH)7
14.9.30Hydroastrophyllite(H3O,K,Ca)3(Fe,Mn)5-65Ti2Si8(O,OH)31
14.9.31Magnesioastrophyllite(Na,K)4Mg2(Fe,Fe,Mn)5Ti2Si8O24(O,OH,F)7
14.9.32BaratoviteKCa7(Ti,Zr)2Li3Si12O36F2
14.9.34AenigmatiteNa2Fe52+Ti(Si6O18)O2
14.9.35SchorlomiteCa3(Ti,Fe3+)2((Si,Fe3+)O4)3
14.9.36TinaksiteK2Na(Ca,Mn2+)2Ti[O|Si7O18(OH)]
14.9.37Janhaugite(Na,Ca)3(Mn2+,Fe2+)3(Ti,Zr,Nb)2(Si2O7)2O2(OH,F)2
14.9.38KoashviteNa6(Ca,Mn)(Ti,Fe)Si6O18 · H2O

Other Names for Titanite

Name in Other Languages:
Croatian:Titanit
Czech:Titanit
Dutch:Titaniet
Estonian:Titaniit
French:Titanite
Hungarian:Titanit
Italian:Titanite
Polish:Tytanit
Portuguese:Titanita
Romanian:Titanit
Simplified Chinese:榍石
Slovak:Titanit
Slovenian:Titanit
Swedish:Titanit

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Titanite

Reference List:
Klaproth M.H. (1795): Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntnis der Mineralkörper, Teil 1, XV. Untersuchung eines neuen Fossils (Titanit) aus dem Passauischen, 245-252, Rottmann Berlin

Jaffe, H.W. (1947), Re-examination of sphene, American Mineralogist: 32: 637-642.

Speer, J.A. & Gibbs, G.V. (1976): The crystal structure of the synthetic titanite CaOTiOSiO4, and the domain textures of natural titanites. Am. Mineral., 61, 238-247.

Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1984): 251-256.

European Journal of Mineralogy (1992): 4: 307.

Urusov, V.S., Eremin, N.N., Yakubovich, O.V. (1995): Electron-density distribution in Ca{TiO[SiO4]} titanite. Crystallogr. Reports, 40, 442-448.

Hammer, V.M.F., Beran, A., Endisch, D., and Rauch, F. (1996) OH concentrations in natural titanites determined by FTIR spectroscopy and nuclear reaction aalysis. European Journal of Mineralogy: 8: 281-288.

Della Ventura, G., Bellatreccia, F., and Williams, C.T. (1999) Zr- and LREE-rich titanite from Tre Croci, Vico Volcanic complex (Latium, Italy). Mineralogical Magazine: 63: 123-130.

Jonckheere, R. and Wagner, G. (2000) On the occurrence of anomalous fission tracks in apatite and titanite. American Mineralogist: 85: 1744-1753.

F. Colombo and E. V. Pannunzio Miner (2009): Synthesis and crystal structure refinement by the Rietveld method of antimony-bearing titanite Ca(Ti0.6Al0.2Sb0.2)OSiO4. Powder Diffraction 24, 221-227.

Lussier, A.J., Cooper, M.A., Hawthorne, F.C., Kristiansen, R. (2009): Triclinic titanite from the Heftetjern granitic pegmatite, Tordal, southern Norway. Mineralogical Magazine, 73, 709-722.

Internet Links for Titanite

Specimens:
The following Titanite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Titanite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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