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Titanite

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Formula:
CaTi(SiO
 
4
)O
System:MonoclinicColour:Colourless, brown, ...
Lustre:Adamantine, ResinousHardness:5 - 5½
Member of:Titanite Group
Name:Named in 1795 by Martin Klaproth for its titanium content. First recognized in 1787 by Marc August Pictet but only described as "nouveau substance minerale". A common synonym, sphene, was introduced in 1801 by Rene Just Haüy.
Isostructural with:Durangite, Tilasite


Titanite Group. The titanium analogue of Malayaite and Vanadomalayaite.

Forms a series with Malayaite. Often contains minor Al.
Titanite close to end-member composition has space-group symmetry P21/a, whereas titanite with significant additional constituents has A2/a symmetry.
A triclinic, Ta- and Al-bearing titanite has been described by Lussier et al. (2009).

Also known as sphene, this calcium titanium silicate forms flattened wedge-shaped crystals, commonly twinned with prominent re-entry angles; massive, compact and lamellar forms are also found. It occurs as an accessory mineral in igneous rocks; in schists, gneisses and other metamorphic rocks, and is also found as a detrital mineral in some sedimentary deposits.

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Classification of Titanite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/B.12-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.AG.15

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
G : Nesosilicates with additional anions; cations in > [6] +- [6] coordination
Dana 8th edition ID:52.4.3.1

52 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
4 : Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
Hey's CIM Ref.:14.9.6

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
9 : Silicates of Ti
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Type Occurrence of Titanite

Type Locality:Titanite occurrence, Hauzenberg, Lower Bavaria, Bavaria, Germany
Year of Discovery:1795
Associated Minerals at type locality:
QuartzMica GroupHornblendeFeldspar Group

Occurrences of Titanite

Geological Setting:Common accessory mineral in intermediate and felsic plutonic rocks, pegmatites, alpine veins. Also in some gneisses, schists and skarns.

Physical Properties of Titanite

Lustre:Adamantine, Resinous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:Colourless, brown, green, yellow, rose-red or black.
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):5 - 5½
Cleavage:Distinct/Good
Good on {110}
Parting:Due to twinning on {221}
Density (measured):3.48 - 3.6 g/cm3
Density (calculated):3.53 g/cm3

Crystallography of Titanite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:P21/b
Space Group Setting:P21/a
Cell Parameters:a = 7.057Å, b = 8.707Å, c = 6.555Å
β = 113.81°
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.81 : 1 : 0.753
Unit Cell Volume:V 368.49 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Crystals are wedge shaped, compact, massive.
Twinning:On {100}, contact and penetration, less commonly lamellar on {221}
Comment:May be metamict. Titanite close to end-member composition has space-group symmetry P21/a, whereas titanite with significant additional constituents has A2/a symmetry. Smaller unit cells indicate an Al- and F-rich composition.
Crystal Atlas:
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Titanite no.31 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Titanite no.203 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Titanite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.843 - 1.950 nβ = 1.870 - 2.034 nγ = 1.943 - 2.110
2V:Measured: 17° to 40°, Calculated: 68° to 82°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.100 - 0.160

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Dispersion:r > v extreme
Pleochroism:Visible
Comments:X= nearly colorless
Y= yellow to green
Z= red to yellow orange

Chemical Properties of Titanite

Formula:
CaTi(SiO
 
4
)O
Simplified for copy/paste:CaTi(SiO4)O
Essential elements:Ca, O, Si, Ti
All elements listed in formula:Ca, O, Si, Ti
Common Impurities:Fe,Y,Mn,Al,Ce,Sr,Na,Nb,Ta,Al,Mg,V,F,Zr,Sn

Relationship of Titanite to other Species

Member of:Titanite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Lederite (of Shepard)
Malayaite
CaSn(SiO
 
4
)O
Natrotitanite
(Na
 
0.5
Y
 
0.5
)Ti(SiO
 
4
)O
Vanadomalayaite
CaV
4+
 
(SiO
 
4
)O
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.AG.05Abswurmbachite
CuMn
3+
6
(SiO
 
4
)O
 
8
9.AG.05Braunite
Mn
2+
 
Mn
3+
6
(SiO
 
4
)O
 
8
9.AG.05Neltnerite
CaMn
3+
6
(SiO
 
4
)O
 
8
9.AG.05Braunite-II
CaMn
3+
14
(SiO
 
4
)O
 
20
9.AG.10Långbanite
(Mn
2+
 
,Ca)
 
4
(Mn
3+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)
 
9
Sb
5+
 
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
O
 
16
9.AG.15Malayaite
CaSn(SiO
 
4
)O
9.AG.15Vanadomalayaite
CaV
4+
 
(SiO
 
4
)O
9.AG.15Natrotitanite
(Na
 
0.5
Y
 
0.5
)Ti(SiO
 
4
)O
9.AG.20Cerite-(Ce)
(Ce,Ca)
 
9
(Mg,Fe)(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
(HSiO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
3
9.AG.20Cerite-(La)
(La,Ce,Ca)
 
9
(Fe,Ca,Mg)(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
(HSiO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
3
9.AG.20Aluminocerite-(Ce)
(Ce,La,Ca)
 
9
(Al,Fe
3+
 
)(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
(HSiO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
3
9.AG.25Trimounsite-(Y)
Y
 
2
Ti
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)O
 
5
9.AG.25Yftisite-(Y)
(Y,Dy,Er)
 
4
(Ti,Sn)(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
O(F,OH)
 
6
9.AG.30Sitinakite
KNa
 
2
Ti
 
4
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
O
 
5
(OH) · 4H
 
2
O
9.AG.35Kittatinnyite
Ca
 
2
Mn
 
2
Mn(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
· 9H
 
2
O
9.AG.40aNatisite
Na
 
2
Ti(SiO
 
4
)O
9.AG.40bParanatisite
Na
 
2
Ti(SiO
 
4
)O
9.AG.45Törnebohmite-(Ce)
(Ce,La)
 
2
Al(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
9.AG.45Törnebohmite-(La)
(La,Ce)
 
2
Al(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
9.AG.50Kuliokite-(Y)
Y
 
4
Al(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
F
 
5
9.AG.55Chantalite
CaAl
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)(OH)
 
4
9.AG.60Mozartite
CaMn
3+
 
(SiO
 
4
)(OH)
9.AG.60Vuagnatite
CaAl(SiO
 
4
)(OH)
9.AG.65Hatrurite
Ca
 
3
(SiO
 
4
)O
9.AG.70Jasmundite
Ca
 
11
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
2
S
9.AG.75Afwillite
Ca
 
3
(HSiO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
9.AG.80Bultfonteinite
Ca
 
2
(HSiO
 
4
)F · H
 
2
O
9.AG.85Zoltaiite
BaV
4+
2
V
3+
12
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
O
 
19
9.AG.90Tranquillityite
(Fe
2+
 
,Ca)
 
8
(Zr,Y)
 
2
Ti
 
3
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
O
 
4
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
14.9.1Natisite
Na
 
2
Ti(SiO
 
4
)O
14.9.2Lorenzenite
Na
 
2
Ti
 
2
(Si
 
2
O
 
6
)O
 
3
14.9.3Lintisite
LiNa
 
3
Ti
 
2
(Si
 
2
O
 
6
)
 
2
O
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
14.9.4Davanite
K
 
2
TiSi
 
6
O
 
15
14.9.5Kazakovite
Na
 
6
Mn
2+
 
Ti(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)
14.9.7Ohmilite
Sr
 
3
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)(Si
 
4
O
 
12
)(O,OH) · 2-3H
 
2
O
14.9.8Lamprophyllite
(Sr,K,Ba)
 
2
(Na,Ti,Mn
2+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)
 
4
Ti
 
2
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)
 
2
O(O,OH,F)
14.9.9Benitoite
BaTi(Si
 
3
O
 
9
)
14.9.10Batisite
BaNaNaTi
 
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
12
)O
 
2
14.9.11Fresnoite
Ba
 
2
Ti(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)O
14.9.12Joaquinite-(Ce)
NaBa
 
2
Ce
 
2
FeTi
 
2
[Si
 
4
O
 
12
]
 
2
O
 
2
(OH,F) · H
 
2
O
14.9.13Orthojoaquinite-(Ce)
NaBa
 
2
Ce
 
2
FeTi
 
2
[Si
 
4
O
 
12
]
 
2
O
 
2
(O,OH) · H
 
2
O
14.9.14Strontiojoaquinite
Sr
 
2
Ba
 
2
(Na,Fe)
 
2
Ti
 
2
[Si
 
4
O
 
12
]
 
2
O
 
2
(O,OH)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
14.9.15Bario-orthojoaquinite
(Ba,Sr)
 
4
Fe
 
2
Ti
 
2
[Si
 
4
O
 
12
]
 
2
O
 
2
· H
 
2
O
14.9.16Strontio-orthojoaquinite
(Na,Fe)
 
2
Sr
 
2
Ba
 
2
Ti
 
2
[Si
 
4
O
 
12
]
 
2
O
 
2
(O,OH)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
14.9.17Bafertisite
Ba(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
Ti(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)O(F,OH)
 
2
14.9.18Hejtmanite
Ba(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
Ti(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)O(OH,F)
14.9.19Delindeite
(Na,K)
 
2
(Ba,Ca)
 
2
(Ti,Fe,Al)
 
3
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)
 
2
O
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
14.9.20Barytolamprophyllite
(Ba,Na)
 
2
(Na,Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
4
Ti
 
2
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)
 
2
O(OH,F)
14.9.21Trimounsite-(Y)
Y
 
2
Ti
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)O
 
5
14.9.22Perrierite-(Ce)
(Ce,Ca,Th)
 
4
(Fe
2+
 
,Mg)Fe
3+
2
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)
 
2
O
 
8
14.9.23Chevkinite
(Ce,Ca,Th)
 
4
(Fe,Mn)
 
2
(Ti,Fe)
 
3
[Si
 
2
O
 
7
]
 
2
O
 
8
14.9.24Strontiochevkinite
(Sr,La,Ce,Ca)
 
4
Fe
2+
 
(Ti,Zr)
 
2
Ti
 
2
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)
 
2
O
 
8
14.9.25Tisinalite
Na
 
3
H
 
3
(Mn,Ca,Fe)TiSi
 
6
(O,OH)
 
18
· 2H
 
2
O
14.9.26Neptunite
Na
 
2
KLi(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
Ti
 
2
(Si
 
8
O
 
24
)
14.9.27Manganoneptunite
Na
 
2
KLi(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
Ti
 
2
[Si
 
8
O
 
24
]
14.9.28Kupletskite
(K,Na)
 
3
(Mn,Fe)
 
7
Ti
 
2
Si
 
8
O
 
26
(OH)
 
4
F
14.9.29Astrophyllite
(K,Na)
 
3
(Fe,Mn)
 
7
Ti
 
2
Si
 
8
O
 
24
(O,OH)
 
7
14.9.30Hydroastrophyllite
(H
 
3
O,K,Ca)
 
3
(Fe,Mn)
 
5-65
Ti
 
2
Si
 
8
(O,OH)
 
31
14.9.31Magnesioastrophyllite
(Na,K)
 
4
Mg
 
2
(Fe,Fe,Mn)
 
5
Ti
 
2
Si
 
8
O
 
24
(O,OH,F)
 
7
14.9.32Baratovite
KCa
 
7
(Ti,Zr)
 
2
Li
 
3
Si
 
12
O
 
36
F
 
2
14.9.34Aenigmatite
Na
 
2
Fe
2+
5
Ti(Si
 
6
O
 
18
)O
 
2
14.9.35Schorlomite
Ca
 
3
(Ti,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
((Si,Fe
3+
 
)O
 
4
)
 
3
14.9.36Tinaksite
K
 
2
Na(Ca,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
Ti[O|Si
 
7
O
 
18
(OH)]
14.9.37Janhaugite
(Na,Ca)
 
3
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)
 
3
(Ti,Zr,Nb)
 
2
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)
 
2
O
 
2
(OH,F)
 
2
14.9.38Koashvite
Na
 
6
(Ca,Mn)(Ti,Fe)Si
 
6
O
 
18
· H
 
2
O

Other Names for Titanite

Synonyms:
AspideliteCastelliteLiguriteMenakerzSphen
SpheneTitanite (of Klaproth)
Other Languages:
Croatian:Titanit
Czech:Titanit
Dutch:Titaniet
Estonian:Titaniit
French:Titanite
German:Titanit
Aspidelit
Braunmenakerz
Gelbmenakerz
Ligurit
Semelin
Spinellin
Hebrew:טיטניט
Hungarian:Titanit
Italian:Titanite
Japanese:チタン石
くさび石
Polish:Tytanit
Portuguese:Titanita
Romanian:Titanit
Russian:Титанит
Simplified Chinese:榍石
Slovak:Titanit
Slovenian:Titanit
Spanish:Titanita
Aspidelita
Ligurita
Swedish:Titanit
Varieties:
Chromian TitaniteEucolite-TitaniteGreenoviteGrothiteKeilhauite
Lederite (of Shepard)Stanniferous TitaniteYttrian Titanite

Other Information

Special Storage/
Display Requirements from:
Saint-Jovite fluorapatite occurrence,..., Laurentides, Québec, CanadaNo specific storage requirements
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Titanite

Reference List:

- +
Klaproth M.H. (1795): Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntnis der Mineralkörper, Teil 1, XV. Untersuchung eines neuen Fossils (Titanit) aus dem Passauischen, 245-252, Rottmann Berlin

Jaffe, H.W. (1947), Re-examination of sphene, American Mineralogist: 32: 637-642.

Speer, J.A. & Gibbs, G.V. (1976): The crystal structure of the synthetic titanite CaOTiOSiO4, and the domain textures of natural titanites. Am. Mineral., 61, 238-247.

Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1984): 251-256.

European Journal of Mineralogy (1992): 4: 307.

Urusov, V.S., Eremin, N.N., Yakubovich, O.V. (1995): Electron-density distribution in Ca{TiO[SiO4]} titanite. Crystallogr. Reports, 40, 442-448.

Hammer, V.M.F., Beran, A., Endisch, D., and Rauch, F. (1996) OH concentrations in natural titanites determined by FTIR spectroscopy and nuclear reaction aalysis. European Journal of Mineralogy: 8: 281-288.

Della Ventura, G., Bellatreccia, F., and Williams, C.T. (1999) Zr- and LREE-rich titanite from Tre Croci, Vico Volcanic complex (Latium, Italy). Mineralogical Magazine: 63: 123-130.

Jonckheere, R. and Wagner, G. (2000) On the occurrence of anomalous fission tracks in apatite and titanite. American Mineralogist: 85: 1744-1753.

F. Colombo and E. V. Pannunzio Miner (2009): Synthesis and crystal structure refinement by the Rietveld method of antimony-bearing titanite Ca(Ti0.6Al0.2Sb0.2)OSiO4. Powder Diffraction 24, 221-227.

Lussier, A.J., Cooper, M.A., Hawthorne, F.C., Kristiansen, R. (2009): Triclinic titanite from the Heftetjern granitic pegmatite, Tordal, southern Norway. Mineralogical Magazine, 73, 709-722.

Mindat.org articles about Titanite

Article entries:
The Huonville Sphene PitTrevor Dart
Titanite at Variante quarry, Poggio Corbolone, Livorno (Tuscany, Italy).Giuliano Bettini

Best Localities for Titanite

Best of Species:Titanite

Internet Links for Titanite

Search Engines:
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  • External Links:
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  • Look for Titanite on Wikipedia
  • Look for Titanite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Titanite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
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  • Specimens:The following Titanite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Titanite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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