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Merenskyite

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Formula:
(Pd,Pt)(Te,Bi)
 
2
System:TrigonalColour:White
Hardness:2 - 3
Name:
For Hans Merensky (1871-1952), South African geologist, prospector, scientist, conservationist and philanthropist.

Classification of Merenskyite

IMA status:Approved
Strunz 8th edition ID:2/D.28-40
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:2.EA.20

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
E : Metal Sulfides, M: S <= 1:2
A : M:S = 1:2 - With Cu, Ag, Au
Dana 8th edition ID:2.12.14.4

2 : SULFIDES
12 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:2
Hey's CIM Ref.:3.12.23

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
12 : Sulphides etc. of the platinum metals
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Type Occurrence of Merenskyite

Type Locality:Merensky Reef, Western Bushveld Complex, North West Province, South Africa
Year of Discovery:1966
Geological Setting of type material:Ultramafic intrusive

Physical Properties of Merenskyite

Lustre:Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:White
Hardness (Mohs):2 - 3
Hardness (Vickers):VHN10=82 - 128 kg/mm2
Density (calculated):8.547 g/cm3

Crystallography of Merenskyite

Crystal System:Trigonal
Class (H-M):3m - Ditrigonal Pyramidal
Space Group:P3m1
Cell Parameters:a = 3.978(1) Å, c = 5.125(2) Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 1.288
Unit Cell Volume:V 70.24 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:1
Morphology:Minute grains

Optical Data of Merenskyite

Type:Anisotropic
Anisotropism:Distinct to strong, from dark brown to light greenish gray
Colour in reflected light:White
Pleochroism:Weak
Comments:White to grayish white in air, more distinct in oil

Chemical Properties of Merenskyite

Formula:
(Pd,Pt)(Te,Bi)
 
2
Simplified for copy/paste:(Pd,Pt)(Te,Bi)2
Essential elements:Pd, Te
All elements listed in formula:Bi, Pd, Pt, Te

Relationship of Merenskyite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Melonite (see here)
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
2.EA.05Sylvanite
(Au,Ag)
 
2
Te
 
4
2.EA.10Calaverite
AuTe
 
2
2.EA.15Kostovite
CuAuTe
 
4
2.EA.15Krennerite
(Au,Ag)Te
 
2
2.EA.20Berndtite
SnS
 
2
2.EA.20Kitkaite
NiTeSe
2.EA.20Melonite
NiTe
 
2
2.EA.20Moncheite
(Pt,Pd)(Te,Bi)
 
2
2.EA.20Shuangfengite
IrTe
 
2
2.EA.20Sudovikovite
PtSe
 
2
2.EA.25Verbeekite
PdSe
 
2
2.EA.30Drysdallite
Mo(Se,S)
 
2
2.EA.30Jordisite
MoS
 
2
2.EA.30Molybdenite
MoS
 
2
2.EA.30Tungstenite
WS
 
2
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
3.12.1Seinäjokite
(Fe,Ni)(Sb,As)
 
2
3.12.2Laurite
RuS
 
2
3.12.3Ruthenarsenite
(Ru,Ni)As
3.12.4Anduoite
(Ru,Os)As
 
2
3.12.5Ruarsite
(Ru,Os)AsS
3.12.6Xingzhongite
(Pb,Cu,Fe)(Ir,Pt,Rh)
 
2
S
 
4
3.12.7Rhodplumsite
Rh
 
3
Pb
 
2
S
 
2
3.12.8Cuprorhodsite
(Cu,Fe)Rh
 
2
S
 
4
3.12.9Konderite
Cu
 
3
Pb(Rh,Pt,Ir)
 
8
S
 
16
3.12.10Bowieite
(Rh,Ir,Pt)
 
2
S
 
3
3.12.11Cherepanovite
RhAs
3.12.12Hollingworthite
(Rh,Pt,Pd)AsS
3.12.13Vysotskite
(Pd,Ni)S
3.12.14Vasilite
(Pd,Cu)
 
16
(S,Te)
 
7
3.12.15Palladseite
Pd
 
17
Se
 
15
3.12.16Oosterboschite
(Pd,Cu)
 
7
Se
 
5
3.12.17Telluropalladinite
Pd
 
9
Te
 
4
3.12.18Temagamite
Pd
 
3
HgTe
 
3
3.12.19Sopcheite
Ag
 
4
Pd
 
3
Te
 
4
3.12.20Michenerite
PdBiTe
3.12.21Kotulskite
Pd(Te,Bi)
3.12.22Telargpalite
(Pd,Ag)
 
3
(Te,Bi)
3.12.24Palladoarsenide
Pd
 
2
As
3.12.25Stillwaterite
Pd
 
8
As
 
3
3.12.26Atheneite
Pd
 
2
As
 
0.75
Hg
 
0.25
3.12.27Majakite
PdNiAs
3.12.28Palarstanide
Pd
 
8
(As,Sn)
 
3
3.12.29Arsenopalladinite
Pd
 
8
(As,Sb)
 
3
3.12.30Vincentite
Pd
 
3
As
3.12.31Palladobismutharsenide
Pd
 
2
(As,Bi)
3.12.32Stibiopalladinite
Pd
 
5
Sb
 
2
3.12.33Hexatestibiopanickelite
(Pd,Ni)(Sb,Te)
3.12.34Sudburyite
(Pd,Ni)Sb
3.12.35Testibiopalladite
PdTe(Sb,Te)
3.12.36Borovskite
Pd
 
3
SbTe
 
4
3.12.37Isomertieite
Pd
 
11
Sb
 
2
As
 
2
3.12.38Mertieite-I
Pd
 
11
(Sb,As)
 
4
3.12.39Mertieite-II
Pd
 
8
(Sb,As)
 
3
3.12.40Sobolevskite
Pd(Bi,Te)
3.12.41Froodite
α-PdBi
 
2
3.12.42Polarite
Pd(Bi,Pb)
3.12.43Urvantsevite
Pd(Bi,Pb)
 
2
3.12.44Cooperite
PtS
3.12.45Braggite
(Pt,Pd,Ni)S
3.12.46Kharaelakhite
(Cu,Pt,Pb,Fe,Ni)
 
9
S
 
8
3.12.47Malanite
Cu(Pt
3+
 
,Ir
3+
 
)
 
2
S
 
4
3.12.48Moncheite
(Pt,Pd)(Te,Bi)
 
2
3.12.49Maslovite
PtBiTe
3.12.50Sperrylite
PtAs
 
2
3.12.51Platarsite
PtAsS
3.12.52Geversite
PtSb
 
2
3.12.53Daomanite
CuPtAsS
 
2
3.12.54Genkinite
(Pt,Pd,Rh)
 
4
Sb
 
3
3.12.55Stumpflite
Pt(Sb,Bi)
3.12.56Insizwaite
Pt(Bi,Sb)
 
2
3.12.57Erlichmanite
OsS
 
2
3.12.58Omeiite
(Os,Ru)As
 
2
3.12.59Osarsite
(Os,Ru)AsS
3.12.60Kashinite
(Ir,Rh)
 
2
S
 
3
3.12.61Inaglyite
Cu
 
3
Pb(Ir,Pt)
 
8
S
 
16
3.12.62Cuproiridsite
(Cu,Fe)Ir
 
2
S
 
4
3.12.63Iridarsenite
(Ir,Ru)As
 
2
3.12.64Irarsite
(Ir,Ru,Rh,Pt)AsS
3.12.65Tolovkite
IrSbS

Other Names for Merenskyite

Synonyms:
IMA1965-016
Other Languages:
German:Merenskyit
Russian:Меренскиит
Simplified Chinese:碲钯矿
铋碲钯矿
铋碲铂把矿
Spanish:Merenskyita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Merenskyite

Reference List:

- +
Mineralogical Magazine (1966): 35: 815-834.

American Mineralogist (1967): 52: 926.

Internet Links for Merenskyite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Merenskyite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Merenskyite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Argentina
     
    • La Rioja
      • Sierra de Cacho
    DE BRODTKORB, Milka K. Precious metaltellurides and other Te-bearing minerals in different paragenesis of Argentina: A review. Rev. Asoc. Geol. Argent. [online]. 2009, vol.64, n.3, pp. 365-372.; Paar, W.H., Topa, D., Sureda, R.J., Stumpfl, E. and Mühlhans, H. (2004) Merenskyita, PdTe2, en las menas de selenio, cobre y plata de la mina Las Asperezas, distrito minero Sierra de Umango, provincia de La Rioja, Argentina. 7th Congreso de Mineralogía y Metalogenia, Actas, 113-118, Buenos Aires.; Paar, W. H., Putz, H., Topa, D., de Brodtkorb, M. K., & Sureda, R. J. (2005, January). Occurrence and paragenesis of tellurium in mineral deposits of Argentina. In Mineral Deposit Research: Meeting the Global Challenge (pp. 1419-1422). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
    • San Luis
    Mineralogical Magazine 1997 61 : 861-877; DE BRODTKORB, Milka K. Precious metaltellurides and other Te-bearing minerals in different paragenesis of Argentina: A review. Rev. Asoc. Geol. Argent. [online]. 2009, vol.64, n.3, pp. 365-372.; FERRACUTTI, G.; BJERG, E. and MOGESSIE, A.. Precious and base metals in Las Águilas, Sierra de San Luis: Mineralogy, genesis and evolution. Rev. Asoc. Geol. Argent. [online]. 2007, vol.62, n.3, pp. 434-446.; Mineralogy and Petrology (2000) 68: 85-114; Paar, W. H., Putz, H., Topa, D., de Brodtkorb, M. K., & Sureda, R. J. (2005, January). Occurrence and paragenesis of tellurium in mineral deposits of Argentina. In Mineral Deposit Research: Meeting the Global Challenge (pp. 1419-1422). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
    Australia
     
    • New South Wales
      • Cunningham Co.
        • Trundle
    Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
    • Victoria
      • Baw Baw Shire
        • Walhalla
    G.W.Cochrane 1982. Copper,Lead, Zinc and Barium deposits of Victoria, Geological Survey of Victoria, Bulletin No. 61, pp. 110-118
    • Western Australia
      • Coolgardie Shire
        • Kambalda
          • Kambalda Nickel mines
    Econ Geol (1986) 81:1218-1225
      • Ngaanyatjarraku Shire
        • West Musgrave Block
          • Jamieson Community (Mantamaru)
    Mineral. Deposita 42 (2007) 551-581.
    Botswana
     
    • North-East District
      • Francistown District
    Maier, W.D., Barnes, S.-J., Chinyepi, G., Barton, Jr., J.M., Eglington, B., and Setshedi, I. (2008): Mineralium Deposita 43, 37-60.
    Brazil
     
    • Goiás
    33rd International Geological Congress (2008) session MPM-04 Platinum-group mineralogy: Diversity of Platinum group minerals (PGM) in chromitites from Brazil, preliminary results
    • Minas Gerais
    The Canadian Mineralogist; August 2007; v. 45; no. 4; p. 751-773;
    Bulgaria
     
    • Sofiya Oblast (Sofia Oblast)
      • Zlatitsa Obshtina
        • Zlatitsa
    Stribrny, B., Wellmer, F.-W., Burgath, K.-P., Oberthür, T., Tarkian, M., and Pfeiffer, T. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 260-281.; Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.; Georgiev, Georgi (2008) A genetic model of the Elatsite porphyry copper deposit, Bulgaria. GEOCHEMISTRY, MINERALOGY AND PETROLOGY • SOFIA 46, 143-160.; K. Bogdanov, A. Filipov, R. Kehayov (2005): Au-Ag-Te-Se minerals in the Elatsite porphyry-copper deposit, Bulgaria. Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Petrology, 43, 13-19.
    Canada
     
    • Manitoba
      • Flin Flon District
        • Bear Lake
    Olivo & Theyer (2004) CM 42, 667
      • Thompson Nickel Belt
        • Moab-Setting Lakes area
    Y. Chen, M. E. Fleet and Y. Pan (1993) Platinum-group minerals and gold in Arsenic-rich ore at the Thompson mine, Thompson Nickel Belt, Manitoba, Canada. Mineralogy and Petrology 49:127-146
    • Ontario
      • Kenora District
        • Kapkichi Lake Area
    Can Mineral 1984 22: 13-21
      • Nipissing District
        • Phyllis Township
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copperfield%27s_Mine; Canadian Mineralogist (1973): 12: 193-198
      • Sudbury District
        • Blezard Township
    ; Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
        • Creighton-Davies Township
    Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
        • Denison Township
    Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
    Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
    Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
    Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., (2003), Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
          • Fraser mine
    Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., (2003), Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
    Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., (2003), Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
    Sarah A. S. Dare, Sarah-Jane Barnes, Hazel M. Prichard und Peter C. Fisher (2011): Chalcophile and platinum-group element (PGE) concentrations in the sulfide minerals from the McCreedy East deposit, Sudbury, Canada, and the origin of PGE in pyrite. Mineralium Deposita 46, 381-407.; Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., (2003), Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
    Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
    R. C. Smith, II, SEM, 5/24/10
    Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
        • MacLennan Township
    Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., (2003), Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
        • McKim Township
    Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
        • Norman Township
    Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., (2003), Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
    Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
        • Rathbun Township
    Econ Geol (1988) 83:492-510; Econ Geol (1986) 81:1272-1277
        • Wisner Township
    Econ. Geol. 103 (2008) 1005-1028.
    Robert C. Smith, II Pennsylvania Geological Survey, 10-03-10
      • Thunder Bay District
    Mulja & Mitchell (1990)
        • Hagey Township
    Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 16, pp. 659-663 (1978)
        • Lac des Iles Area
    CanMin 22:233-237
    Canadian Mineralogist, Vol.22, pp. 125-136 (1984); D. H. Watkinson and G. Dunning v(1979) Geology and platinum-group mineralization, Lac-des-Iles Complex, northwestern Ontario. Can Mineral 17:453-462
        • O'Neill Township
    Can. Min. 30, 121; 5th International Platinum Symposium Bulletin of The Geological Society of Finland Number 61, Part 1,1989,1-64
        • Seeley Lake Area
    Mulja, T. & Mitchell, R.H. (1990) Platinum-group minerals and tellurides from the Geordi Lake intrusion, Coldwell complex, Northwestern Ontario. Canadian Mineralogist 28, 489-501.
      • Timiskaming District
        • Boston Township
    Econ Geol (1993) 88:817-836; CM 30, 109; STONE, W.E., FLEET, M.E.,CROCKET, J.H. & KINGSTON, D.M. (1992) Platinum group minerals in pyroxenite from the Boston Creek Flow basaltic komatite, Abitibi greenstone belt, Ontario. Canadian Mineralogist 30, 109-119.
    • Québec
      • Nord-du-Québec
        • Nunavik
    5th International Platinum Symposium Bulletin of The Geological Society of Finland Number 61, Part 1,1989,1-64
            • Raglan nickel-copper mine
    Charlie L. Seabrook, Hazel M. Prichard and Peter C. Fisher (2004) Platinum-group minerals in the Raglan Ni-Cu-(PGE) sulfide deposit, Cape Smith, Quebec, Canada (in Platinum-group elements; petrology, geochemistry, mineralogy) The Canadian Mineralogist 42:485-497
          • Ungava
    Econ Geol (1986) 81:1147-1158
    Charlie L. Seabrook, Hazel M. Prichard and Peter C. Fisher (2004) Platinum-group minerals in the Raglan Ni-Cu-(PGE) sulfide deposit, Cape Smith, Quebec, Canada (in Platinum-group elements; petrology, geochemistry, mineralogy) The Canadian Mineralogist 42:485-497
    • Yukon Territory
      • Whitehorse Mining District
        • Kluane District
    Barkov, A.Y., Laflamme, J.H.G., Cabri, L.J., and Martin, R.F. (2002) Platinum-group minerals from the Wellgreen Cu-Ni-PGE deposit, Yukon, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist: 40: 651-669.; 5th International Platinum Symposium Bulletin of The Geological Society of Finland Number 61, Part 1,1989,1-64
    China
     
    • Gansu Province
      • Jinchang Prefecture
        • Jinchuan District
    Enhuan Jia (1986): Mineral Deposits 5(1), 27-38; Wenfeng Zhu and Youbin Liang (2000): Geology and Prospecting 36(1), 26-28; Yang, X.-Z., Ishihara, S., and Zhao, D.-H. (2006): Mineralogy and Petrology 86 (1/2), 109-128; Yang, Xuan-Zhu;Matsueda, Hiroharu;Yui, Shunzo;Dong, Xian-Yang (1992) : Chemical Compositions and Paragenesis of the Platinum-group Element Minerals in the Jinchuan Sulfide Deposit, Gansu Province, China. Journal of the Faculty of Science, Hokkaido University. Series 4, Geology and mineralogy;Vol.XXIII, No.2
    • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
      • Hohhot League (Huhehaote Prefecture)
        • Wuchuan Co.
    Youbin Liang (1981): Geology and Prospecting 17(12), 18-21
    Chen Keqiao, Yang Huifang, Ma Letian, and Peng Zhizhong (1981): Dizhi Lunping [Geological Review] 27(2), 108-115.
    • Jiangxi Province
      • Shangrao Prefecture
        • Dexing Co.
    Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
    • Jilin Province (Manchuria; Dongbei Region)
      • Tonghua Prefecture
        • Tonghua Co.
    Xiangwen Wang (2002): Mineral Deposits 21(suppl.), 689-692
    • Sichuan Province
      • Liangshan Autonomous Prefecture
        • Huili Co.
    Hangxin Cheng, Chuandong Zhao, Guangmin Zhuang, Yinhan Liu, Haifeng Nie, and Lu Qi (2007): Geology and Prospecting 43(4), 56-60
      • Panzhihua Prefecture
        • Eastern District
        • Miyi Co.
    Yao, Y., and Viljoen, M.J. (2003): Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts 2003, A560
      • Ya'an Prefecture
        • Shimian Co.
    Yao, Y., and Viljoen, M.J. (2003): Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts 2003, A560
    • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
      • Yili Hasake Autonomous Prefecture (Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture)
        • Aletai Prefecture (Altay Prefecture)
          • Fuyun Co. (Koktokay Co.)
    Minqing Cheng, Yuchun Yang, Fuyi Jia, Qingshan Yang, Guifang Zhao, Cunchang Wang, and Sen Huang (1993): Geology and Prospecting 29(7), 35-39
    • Yunnan Province
      • Dali Autonomous Prefecture
        • Midu Co.
    Huanbin Song, Mingqin He, Shangzhong Zhang, and Fenghuang Yi (2008): Chinese Journal of Geochemistry 27, 104-108.; Bilun Luo (1979): Geology and Prospecting 15(3), 11-15; Shengwei Wang, Xiaoming Sun, Zhenwen Liao, Bangguo Zhou, Maojin Luo, Yang Guo, Xiaofang Jiang, Huaping Zhu, Dong Ma, and Zhanwu Shen (2012): Mineral Deposits 31(6), 1259-1276
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Central Bohemia Region
    Johan, Z., Merenskyite, Pd(Te,Se) (sub 2) , and the low-temperature selenide association from the Predborice uranium deposit, Czechoslovakia. Neues Jahrbuch fuer Mineralogie. Monatshefte, vol.1989, no.4, pp.179-191, 1989.; Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
    Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
     
    • Katanga (Shaba)
      • Katanga Copper Crescent
        • Kolwezi District
          • Kolwezi
    www.ulb.ac.be/sciences/katangapgm/CAP.pdf.
        • Shinkolobwe
    www.ulb.ac.be/sciences/katangapgm/CAP.pdf.
    Egypt
     
    • Red Sea Governorate
      • Eastern Desert
    Helmy, H.M., and Mogessie, A. (2001): Mineralium Deposita 36, 58-71.
        • Wadi Haimur
    Helmy, H.M., and Mogessie, A. (2001): Mineralium Deposita 36, 58-71.
    Finland
     
    • Eastern Finland Region
      • Outokumpu Cu-Co-Zn-Ni-Ag-Au ore field
    GEOLOGIAN TUTKIMUSKESKUKSEN ETELÄ-SUOMEN PLATINATUTKIMUS V. 1989 90.
    • Lapland Region
      • Koillismaa Complex
    Kojonen, K. and Iljina, M. 2001. Platinum-Group Minerals in the Early Proterozoic Kuusijärvi Marginal Series, Koillismaa Layered Igneous Complex, Northeastern Finland. In A. Piestrzynski et al. (eds). Proceedings of the sixth Biennial SGA-SEG meeting, Balkema Publishers, Lisse, pp 653-656
      • Penikat complex
    Econ Geol (1986) 81:1126-1136
    Econ Geol (1986) 81:1126-1136; Huhtelin, T. A., Alapieti, T. T., & Lahtinen, J. J. (1990). The Paasivaara PGE reef in the Penikat layered intrusion, northern Finland. Mineralogy and Petrology, 42(1-4), 57-70.; 5th International Platinum Symposium Bulletin of The Geological Society of Finland Number 61, Part 1,1989,1-64
      • Sodankylä
    Lamberg, P., Välimaa, J., Parkkinen, J., & Kojonen, K. (2005). Structural, geochemical and magmatic modelling of the early Proterozoic Keivitsa Ni-Cu-PGE deposit in Sodankylä, northern Finland. Extended Abstract. In 10th International Platinum Symposium, Abstract volume.; Gervilla, F., Kojonen, K. and Merkle, R.K.W., 2005. Platinum-group minerals in the Proterozoic Keivitsa mafic-ultramafic intrusion, Sodankylä, northern Finland. Extended Abstract, 10th International Platinum Symposium, Abstract volume
    Gervilla, F., & Kojonen, K. (2002). The platinum-group minerals in the upper section of the Keivitsansarvi Ni–Cu–PGE deposit, northern Finland. The Canadian Mineralogist, 40(2), 377-394.; Lips, ALW (2006) A review of non-ferrous mineral deposits in Europe - Finalised initial database BRGM/RP -54957 - FR
    Geological Survey of Finland 2008 Pahtavaara - Gold Database
    • Northern Finland Region
      • Pudasjärvi
    Karinen, Tuomo 2010. The Koillismaa intrusion northeasten Finland - evidence for PGE reef forming processes in the layered series. Geological Survey of Finland Bulletin 404
    Greece
     
    • Macedonia Department
      • Chalkidiki Prefecture
        • Cassandra Mines
    M. Tarkian et al., N. Jb. Miner. Mh. H12 (1991) 529-537
    India
     
    • Orissa
    CanMin 40:277-309
    Italy
     
    • Piedmont
      • Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Province
        • Different Municipalities
    AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
      • Vercelli Province
        • Mastallone Valley
          • Rimella
    Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
        • Sesia Valley
          • Scopello
    Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.; Econ Geol (1986) 81:113-1217
          • Varallo Sesia
    Econ Geol (1986) 81:113-1217
    Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
    Morocco
     
    • Souss-Massa-Draâ Region
      • Ouarzazate Province
        • Tazenakht
          • Bou Azer District (Bou Azzer District)
            • Bleida
    El Ghorfi, M., Oberthür, T., Melcher, F., Lüders, V., El Boukhari, A., Maacha, L., Ziadi, R., and Baoutoul, H. (2006): Mineralium Deposita 41, 549-564.
    Norway
     
    • Nord-Trøndelag
      • Grong
        • Grong ore field
    Grønlie, A. (1988): Platinum-group minerals in the Lillefjellklumpen nickel-copper deposit, Nord-Trøndelag, Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 68, 65-72
    Nilsson, L. P. & Larsen, R. B. (1998): Edle mineraler i mafiske og ultramafiske bergarter- en oppsummering av platina-gruppe mineraler (PGM) funnet i Norge i de senere år. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift 14: 40-49
    Papua New Guinea
     
    • Western Province (Fly Province)
      • Star Mts
        • Mount Fubilan
    Stribrny, B., Wellmer, F.-W., Burgath, K.-P., Oberthür, T., Tarkian, M., and Pfeiffer, T. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 260-281.
    Philippines
     
    • Luzon
      • Cordillera Administrative Region
        • Benguet Province
          • Baguio District
    Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
    Poland
     
    • Podlaskie
      • Suwałki District
    Nejbert K. 2008: Mineralogy of sulphides in mafic rocks of the Suwałki Anorthosite Massif, NE Poland. Mineralogia - Special Papers, vol. 32, p. 116
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Taymyrskiy Autonomous Okrug
        • Taimyr Peninsula
          • Putoran Plateau
    Econ Geol (1986) 81:1203-1212
      • Transbaikalia (Zabaykalye)
        • Chitinskaya Oblast'
          • Chiney massif
    Seltmann, R., Soloviev, S., Shatov, V., Pirajno, F., Naumov, E., & Cherkasov, S. (2010). Metallogeny of Siberia: tectonic, geologic and metallogenic settings of selected significant deposits*. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 57(6), 655-706
      • Tuva Republic
    Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
        • Sayan Mts
          • Eastern Sayan
    Alexander V. Dedeev et al (2002) The PGE-Bearing Sulphide Ores of the Kingash Mafic-Ultramafic Differentiated Intrusion and Ore Processing Characteristics, East Sajan, Russia. 9th annual platinum symposium
    • Northern Region
      • Karelia Republic
        • Northern Karelia
          • Oulanka plutonic complex
            • Olanga River (Oulanka River)
    Grishaenko, M. V. P., & Federation, R. (2007). Independent Report on the Shalozerskoe (Burakovsky), Lukkulaisvaara and Tsipringa Platinum, Palladium, Copper, Nickel Deposits in the Autonomous Republic of Karelia Russian Federation
    Can Min (2002) 40, (2), 679-692; Mineralogical Magazine 1996 60 : 973-978.
    Grishaenko, M. V. P., & Federation, R. (2007). Independent Report on the Shalozerskoe (Burakovsky), Lukkulaisvaara and Tsipringa Platinum, Palladium, Copper, Nickel Deposits in the Autonomous Republic of Karelia Russian Federation
      • Murmanskaja Oblast'
        • Kola Peninsula
    Gabov, D. A. (2010). PGE and Au minerals from the low-sulfide ore of the Pana Tundra Pluton, Kola Peninsula. Geology of Ore Deposits, 52(7), 624-629.
    33rd International Geological Congress (2008) session MPM-04 Platinum-group mineralogy: Platinum-group minerals in the PGE deposit of the Fedorovo-Pansky layered intrusion, Kola Peninsula
    33rd International Geological Congress (2008) session MPM-04 Platinum-group mineralogy: Platinum-group minerals in the PGE deposit of the Fedorovo-Pansky layered intrusion, Kola Peninsula
    33rd International Geological Congress (2008) session MPM-04 Platinum-group mineralogy: Platinum-group minerals in the PGE deposit of the Fedorovo-Pansky layered intrusion, Kola Peninsula
    33rd International Geological Congress (2008) session MPM-04 Platinum-group mineralogy: Platinum-group minerals in the PGE deposit of the Fedorovo-Pansky layered intrusion, Kola Peninsula
          • Monche-Tundra
    http://www.duke.edu/~boudreau/9thPtSymposium/Grokhovskaya_Abstract.pdf
    Yury L. Voytekhovsky, Yury N. Neradovsky (2008) The Cu-Ni-PGE and Cr deposits of the Monchegorsk area, the Kola Peninsula, Russia. 33 IGC excursion No 48, August 15 – 21, 2008
              • Monchegorsk Cu-Ni Deposit
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    33 IGC excursion No 48, August 15 – 21, 2008
    http://www4.geology.utoronto.ca/faculty/mungall/Website/igcp479northasia/dp803.html.
    Chashchin, V. V., & Petrov, S. V. (2013). Low-sulfide PGE ore in the Volchetundra gabbro-anorthosite pluton, Kola Peninsula, Russia. Geology of Ore Deposits, 55(5), 357-382.
    Abzalov, M.Z., and Both, R.A. (1997): Mineralogy and Petrology 61, 119-143.
    Serbia
     
    • Bor District
      • Bor-Majdanpek mining district
    Stribrny, B., Wellmer, F.-W., Burgath, K.-P., Oberthür, T., Tarkian, M., and Pfeiffer, T. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 260-281.
    South Africa
     
    • Limpopo Province
      • Bushveld Complex
        • Burgersfort
    Minerals of South Africa
          • Sekhukhuneland
    Minerals of South Africa
        • Waterberg District
          • Mokopane (Potgietersrus)
    Minerals of South Africa
    Holwell, D. A., McDonald, I., & Armitage, P. E. B. (2006). Platinum-group mineral assemblages in the Platreef at the Sandsloot Mine, northern Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 70(1), 83-101.
    Minerals of South Africa
    • Mpumalanga Province
      • Nkangala District
        • Waterval
    http://www.minsoc.org.za/pubs/BaseMetals2003.pdf
    H.F.J. Theart and C.D. de Nooy (2001) The Platinum Group Minerals in two parts of the Massive Sulphide Body of the Uitkomst Complex, Mpumalanga, South Africa. SOUTH AFRICAN JOURNAL OF GEOLOGY, VOLUME 104, PAGE 287-300
    • North West Province
      • Western Bushveld Complex
    http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/merenskyite.pdf
        • Rustenburg (Rustenburg District)
    Minerals of South Africa
    Minerals of South Africa
    Minerals of South Africa
    Minerals of South Africa
    Spain
     
    • Extremadura
      • Badajoz
        • Monesterio
    Suárez, S. et al. (2010): Mineralium Deposita 45, 331-350.
    Sweden
     
    • Härjedalen
      • Berg
        • Storsjö
    • Lappland
      • Vittangi
    No reference listed
    UK
     
    • Scotland
      • Dumfries & Galloway (Wigtownshire)
        • Newton Stewart
    MinMag 68(2):395-411
      • North West Highlands (Inverness-shire)
        • Isle of Rum
    Power, M.R., Pirrie, D., Andersen, J.C.O., and Butcher, A.R. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 762-775.
    USA
     
    • Montana
      • Stillwater Co.
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 17, pp. 589-594 (1979)
    • Nevada
      • Clark Co.
        • Bunkerville District
          • Whitney Pocket Basin
    Rocks & Minerals, Nov. 1999.
    • Wyoming
      • Albany Co.
        • Lake Owen Complex
    5th International Platinum Symposium Bulletin of The Geological Society of Finland Number 61, Part 1,1989,1-64
        • New Rambler District
    R.R. Loucks, M.E. McCallum (1980) Platinum-group minerals in the New Rambler copper-nickel deposit, Wyoming: A preliminary report. ft Sulphosalts, Platinum Minerals and Ore Microscopy, 200-218. Proc. XI IMA Meet., Novosibirsk.(Am Min 74:1217); Econ Geol (1988) 83:492-510
    Zimbabwe
     
    • Masvingo
      • Chiredzi Mining District (Hartley Mining District)
        • Chiredzi
    Chusi Li, Ripley, E.M., Oberthür, T., Miller, Jr., J.D., and Joslin, G.D. (2008): Mineralium Deposita 43, 97-110.; Economic Geology (1990) 85:556-584; Allan H. Wilson and Martin D. Prendergast (2001) Platinum-Group Element Mineralisation in the Great Dyke, Zimbabwe, and its Relationship to Magma Evolution and Magma Chamber Structure. South African Journal of Geology, 104:319-342
    • Midlands
      • Zvishavane District
        • Zvishavane (Shabani; Shabanie; Shavani)
    Allan H. Wilson and Martin D. Prendergast (2001) Platinum-Group Element Mineralisation in the Great Dyke, Zimbabwe, and its Relationship to Magma Evolution and Magma Chamber Structure. South African Journal of Geology, 104:319-342; Nashwa, Velaphi Moses. "The flotation of high talc-containing ore from the Great Dyke of Zimbabwe." (2008). MS Thesis
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