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Trona

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Formula:
Na
 
3
H(CO
 
3
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
System:MonoclinicColour:Colourless, gray-white, ...
Hardness:
Name:Trona is a Swedish term, deriving ultimately from the Arabic "natrum", native salt.

Classification of Trona

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:5/D.02-30
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:5.CB.15

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
C : Carbonates without additional anions, with H2O
B : With large cations (alkali and alkali-earth carbonates)
Dana 8th edition ID:13.1.4.1

13 : ACID CARBONATES
1 : Miscellaneous
Hey's CIM Ref.:11.1.6

11 : Carbonates
1 : Carbonates of the alkali metals and ammonium
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Occurrences of Trona

Geological Setting:Saline lakes and their evaporites; efflorecences on soils in arid regions.

Physical Properties of Trona

Lustre:Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Translucent
Colour:Colourless, gray-white, light yellow; colourless in transmitted light.
Hardness (Mohs):
Cleavage:Perfect
On {100} perfect; on {111} and {001} in traces.
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density (measured):2.14 g/cm3

Crystallography of Trona

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Cell Parameters:a = 20.1Å, b = 3.49Å, c = 10.33Å
β = 103.05°
Ratio:a:b:c = 5.759 : 1 : 2.96
Unit Cell Volume:V 705.92 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:Crystals elongated [010], also flattened {001}. {h0l} faces striated parallel to [010]. Fibrous or massive columnar common.
Crystal Atlas:
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Trona no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Trona no.9 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Trona

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.412 nβ = 1.492 nγ = 1.540
2V:Measured: 72° , Calculated: 70°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.128

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Dispersion:relatively strong

Chemical Properties of Trona

Formula:
Na
 
3
H(CO
 
3
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:Na3H(CO3)2·2H2O
Essential elements:C, H, Na, O
All elements listed in formula:C, H, Na, O

Relationship of Trona to other Species

Common Associates:
ThermonatriteThenarditeNatronMirabiliteHalite
GypsumGlauberite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
5.CB.05Thermonatrite
Na
 
2
CO
 
3
· H
 
2
O
5.CB.10Natron
Na
 
2
CO
 
3
· 10H
 
2
O
5.CB.20Monohydrocalcite
CaCO
 
3
· H
 
2
O
5.CB.25Ikaite
CaCO
 
3
· 6H
 
2
O
5.CB.30Pirssonite
Na
 
2
Ca(CO
 
3
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
5.CB.35Gaylussite
Na
 
2
Ca(CO
 
3
)
 
2
· 5H
 
2
O
5.CB.40Chalconatronite
Na
 
2
Cu(CO
 
3
)
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
5.CB.45Baylissite
K
 
2
Mg(CO
 
3
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
5.CB.50Tuliokite
Na
 
6
BaTh(CO
 
3
)
 
6
· 6H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
11.1.1Zabuyelite
Li
 
2
CO
 
3
11.1.2Natrite
Na
 
2
CO
 
3
11.1.3Nahcolite
NaHCO
 
3
11.1.4Wegscheiderite
Na
 
5
H
 
3
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
11.1.5Thermonatrite
Na
 
2
CO
 
3
· H
 
2
O
11.1.7Natron
Na
 
2
CO
 
3
· 10H
 
2
O
11.1.8Kalicinite
KHCO
 
3
11.1.9Shortite
Na
 
2
Ca
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
3
11.1.10Nyerereite
Na
 
2
Ca(CO
 
3
)
 
2
11.1.11Natrofairchildite
11.1.12Zemkorite
Na
 
2
Ca(CO
 
3
)
 
2
11.1.13Pirssonite
Na
 
2
Ca(CO
 
3
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
11.1.14Gaylussite
Na
 
2
Ca(CO
 
3
)
 
2
· 5H
 
2
O
11.1.15Baylissite
K
 
2
Mg(CO
 
3
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
11.1.16Fairchildite
K
 
2
Ca(CO
 
3
)
 
2
11.1.17Bütschliite
K
 
2
Ca(CO
 
3
)
 
2
11.1.18Teschemacherite
(NH
 
4
)HCO
 
3

Other Names for Trona

Synonyms:
Tronite
Other Languages:
Catalan:Trona
French:Urao
German:Trona
Ägyptisches Natrium
Natrum von Tripole
Stralige Natrum
Tronit
Italian:Trona
Latin:Alkali orientale impurum terrestre
Russian:Трона
Simplified Chinese:天然碱
Spanish:Tronita
Traditional Chinese:天然鹼

Other Information

Other Information:Soluble in water. Effervesces in acids.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Trona

Reference List:

- +
Wallerius, J.G (1747) Mineralogia, eller Mineralriket. Stockholm: 174 (as Alkali orientale impurum terrestre).

Bagge (1773) Svenska Vetenskapsakademien, Stockholm, Handlingar: 35: 140.

Klaproth, M.H. (1802) Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntniss der Mineralkörper. vol. 3: 83 (as Stralige Natrum).

Boussingault (1826) Annales des mines: 12: 278 (as Urao).

Zepharovich (1887) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 13: 135.

Ayres (1889) American Journal of Science: 38: 65.

Chatard (1889) American Journal of Science: 38: 59.

Chatard (1890) USGS Bulletin 60: 27.

Doelter, C. (1911) Handbuch der Mineral-chemie (in 4 volumes divided into parts): 1: 186.

Hintze, Carl (1916) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1(3A): 2759, 2770.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 146.

Walther (1922) American Mineralogist: 7: 86.

Goldschmidt, V. (1923) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 9 (1923). Heidelberg: 11.

Piazza (1931) Periodico de Mineralogia-Roma: 2: 17.

Larsen, E.S. and Berman, H. (1934) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, Second edition, USGS Bulletin 848.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 138-140.

Murdoch, Joseph (1951), Notes on California minerals: nuevite = samarskite; trona, and hanksite; Gaylussite: American Mineralogist: 36: 358-361.

Pabst, Adolf (1959), On the hydrates of sodium carbonate, a correction, and the crystallography of trona. American Mineralogist: 44: 274-281.

Acta Crystallographica (1982): B38: 2874-2876.

Internet Links for Trona

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
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    Localities for Trona

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Antarctica
     
    • Buckley Island quadrangle
    Liu, T. and Bish, D.L. (2010) MINERALOGICAL COMPOSITIONS OF THE EVAPORITES AT LEWIS CLIFF ICE TONGUE, ANTARCTICA: A POTENTIAL MARTIAN ANALOG. 41st Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2010)
    Argentina
     
    • Chubut
      • Paso de Indios Department
        • Los Altares
    Zalba, P.E., Conconi, M.S., Morosi, M., Manassero, M. & Comerio, M. (2011): Dawsonite in tuffs and litharenites of the Cerro Castaño Member, Cerro Barcino Formation, Chubut group (Cenomanian), Los Altares, Patagonia, Argentina. Canadian Mineralogist. 49. 503-520
    • Salta
    Australia
     
    • Western Australia
      • Menzies Shire
        • Menangina Station
    Mineralogical Magazine 1977 41 : 37-41; Min Mag (1979) 43, 97-98
    Bolivia
     
    • Potosí Department
      • Nor Lípez Province
        • San Juan
    Ahlfeld & Muñoz Reyes (1955) Las Especies Minerales de Bolivia (Banco Minero de Bolivia)
      • Sud Lípez Province
    USGS Bulletin # 1975, (1992)
    USGS Bulletin # 1975, (1992)
    USGS Bulletin # 1975, (1992)
    Canada
     
    • Québec
      • Montérégie
        • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
          • Mont Saint-Hilaire
    Horváth, L and Gault, R.A. (1990), The mineralogy of Mont Saint-Hilaire Quebec. Mineralogical Record: 21: 284-359.
    Chad
     
    • Lake Chad
      • Kanem Region (Khanem)
        • Eguéi Region (Eguei; Eguéï; Egai)
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 955.
    Chile
     
    • Tarapacá Region
      • Iquique Province
        • Santa Rosa-Huantajaya District
    Schlüter, J. and Pohl, D.- N. Jb. MH. 182/1. 2005, 11-14
    China
     
    • Henan Province
      • Nanyang Prefecture
        • Tongbai Co.
    Shangru Sun (2004): Northwestern Geology [Xibei Dizhi] 37(2), 30-35.
    Youxun Zhang (1983): Mineral Deposits 2(3), 69-71; Zhen-Qi Zhou, Qing-Shui Dong, Gang-Fu Hou, Sheng-Chuan Xu, and Chang-Sheng Miao (2006): Journal of Jilin University (Earth Science Edition) 36(6), 1001-1005
    • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
      • Alxa League (Alashan Prefecture)
        • Alxa Left Banner (Alashan Zuoqi)
    Zhenmi Liu (2000): Journal of Salt Lake Research 29(3), 21-26
      • Xilin Gol League (Xilinguole Prefecture)
        • Sonid Right Banner (Sunite Youqi)
    Yu, G., Harrison, S.P., and Xue, B. (2001): Lake status records from China: Data Base Documentation. MPI-BGC Technology Report No. 4, pp. 46-49.
    • Qinghai Province
      • Haixi Autonomous Prefecture
        • Dulan Co.
    Kamitani, M., Okumura, K., Teraoka, Y., Miyano, S., and Watanabe, Y. (2007): Mineral Resources Map of East Asia. Geological Survey of Japan.
    • Tibet Autonomous Region
      • Nagchu Prefecture (Naqu Prefecture)
        • Xainza Co. (Shenzha Co.)
    Yuan, H.R., Zheng, M.P., and Si, D.X. (2005): Abstracts of the IX. International Conference on Salt Lake Research, September 26-30, Perth, Australia.
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Karlovy Vary Region
        • Karlovy Vary (Karlsbad; Carlsbad)
    Cílek, V., Vylita, T., Filippi, M.: Mineralogie karlovarské vřídelní desky a jejího podloží. Minerál, 2006, 14, 1, 3-10.
        • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
    Jan Hloušek
    Egypt
     
    • Al Jizah Governorate (Giza Governorate)
      • Al Jizah (Giza)
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 139.
    • Western Desert
    Marchesini, M. & Barresi, A. (2009): I minerali di Wadi natrun, Deserto Occidentale, Egitto, Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2009, 228-258.
    Germany
     
    • Rhineland-Palatinate
      • Lahn valley
        • Bad Ems District
          • Braubach
    Schnorrer, G. (1993): Mineralogische Notizen VI. Aufschluss, 44, 44-58.
    Greenland
     
    • Kujalleq
      • Narsaq
        • Ilímaussaq complex
    Petersen, O.V., Giester, G., Brandstätter, F., Niedermayr, G. (2002): Nabesite, a new mineral species from the Ilimaussaq alkaline complex. Canadian Mineralogist. 40, 173-181
            • Kvanefjeld Uranium deposit
    - Petersen, O., Khomyakov, A., Soerensen, H. (2001): Natrophosphate from the Ilimaussaq alkaline complex South Greenland, South Greenland, Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin, 190, 139-141
    Petersen, O.V., Giester, G., Brandstätter, F., Niedermayr, G. (2002): Nabesite, a new mineral species from the Ilimaussaq alkaline complex. Canadian Mineralogist. 40, 173-181
    Hungary
     
    • Bács-Kiskun Co.
      • Great Hungarian Plain
    Szakáll-Gatter-Szendrei: Mineral Species of Hungary, 2006
        • Petőfiszállás
    Szakáll-Gatter-Szendrei: Mineral Species of Hungary, 2006
    Italy
     
    • Campania
      • Naples Province
        • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 139; Russo, M., 2006: I minerali di formazione fumarolica della grande eruzione vesuviana del 1906
      • Phlegrean Volcanic Complex
        • Naples Province
          • Phlegrean Fields
            • Pozzuoli
    Sinno R. – (1957) Trona, thenardite e mirabilite nei Campi Flegrei. Periodico di Mineralogia – Roma pp. 1-12.
    • Sicily
      • Catania Province
        • Etna Volcanic Complex
          • Mt Etna
    www.cse.speleo.it
    Kenya
     
    • Rift Valley Province
      • Gregory Rift
    G. Périnet, J.J. Tiercelin, C.E. Barton : "Présence de kanémite dans les sédiments récents du lac Bogoria, Rift Gregory, Kenya", Bull. Minéral., 1982, 105, 633-639.
      • South Rift Valley
    Nielsen, Joan M. (1999): East African magadi (trona): fluoride concentration and mineralogical composition. Journal of African Earth Sciences 29, 423-428.
      • Suswa Volcano
    Forti, P. et al. (2004), "Minerogenesis of volcanic caves of Kenya". Int. J. Speleol. 32, 3-18
    Libya
     
    • Fezzan
    Piazza M. (1931): Trona del Lago Mandara (Fezzan). Periodico di Mineralogia - Roma, pp. 17-23.
    Namibia
     
    • Kunene Region
    Foshag, Wm. F. (1933) Sulfohalite and Other Minerals from the Otjiwalundo Salt Pan, South West Africa. American Mineralogist: 18: 431-434; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 549.
    Russia
     
    • Northern Region
      • Murmanskaja Oblast'
        • Kola Peninsula
          • Khibiny Massif
    PEKOV, I.V. & NIKOLAEV, A.P. (2013) Minerals of the pegmatites and hydrothermal assemblages of the Koashva deposit (Khibiny, Kola Peninsula, Russia). Mineralogical Almanac 189(2), 7-65.
            • Kukisvumchorr Mt
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
          • Lovozero Massif
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
              • Umbozero mine (Umbozerskii mine)
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow; Pekov, I.V. (2000): Lovozero Massif. Moscow, Ocean Pictures Ltd, 480 pp.
    South Africa
     
    • Gauteng Province
      • Pretoria
    Minerals of South Africa
    Sudan
     
    • North Darfur Wilayah (Shamal Darfur Wilayah)
    Nielsen, Joan M. (1999): East African magadi (trona): fluoride concentration and mineralogical composition. Journal of African Earth Sciences 29, 423-428.
    Switzerland
     
    • Vaud (Waadt)
      • Bex
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 413.
    • Wallis (Valais)
      • Martigny
        • Mont Chemin
    Tanzania
     
    • Arusha Region
    Nielsen, Joan M. (1999): East African magadi (trona): fluoride concentration and mineralogical composition. Journal of African Earth Sciences 29, 423-428.
    Mitchell, R.H. (2006) Mineralogy of stalactites formed by subaerial weathering of natrocarbonatite hornitos at Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania. Mineralogical Magazine: 70: 437-444
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 139.
    Turkey
     
    • Central Anatolia Region
      • Ankara Province
    Helvaci, C., Mordogan, H., Çolak, M., & Gündogan, I. (2004). Presence and distribution of lithium in borate deposits and some recent lake waters of west-central Turkey. International Geology Review, 46(2), 177-190.
      • Konya Province
        • Great Konya Basin
    Lideke Vergouwen (1979) Two New Occurrences and the Gibbs Energy of Burkeite. Mineralogical Magazine 43:341-345.
    • Marmara Region
      • Balikesir Province
        • Biga peninsula
    Uganda
     
    • Kasese District
    Nielsen, Joan M. (1999): East African magadi (trona): fluoride concentration and mineralogical composition. Journal of African Earth Sciences 29, 423-428.; Mineralogical Recoed 8:396
    UK
     
    • England
      • Co. Durham
        • Billingham
    Mineralogical Magazine 1959 32 : 172-175.
      • Devon
        • East Devon
          • Budleigh Salterton
    Brian Craik-Smith collection
    Ukraine
     
    • Crimea Oblast'
      • Crimea peninsula
        • Kerch peninsula (Kertch peninsula)
          • Bondarenkovo Village area
    Deyak M.A. Modern water-chemogenic formations of mud volcanoes of Kerch Peninsula. Dissertation to Scientific Candidate Degree in Geological Sciences in speciality 04.00.21 – lithology. –Department of marine geology and sedimentary ore formation of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. – Kyiv, 2010.
      • Simferopol area
        • Chistenkoye village
    Geologiya SSSR (The geology of USSR) (1969) - Nedra (Moscou), 1969, vol. VIII, 575 p.
    USA
     
    • California
      • Inyo Co.
    Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 374.
        • Deep Springs Valley
    Jones, Blair Francis (1961), Zoning of saline minerals at Deep Spring Lake, California: USGS PP 424-B, Article 83: B200; Jones, Blair Francis (1963), Layer sequence of saline minerals at Deep Spring Lake, California (abstract): Geological Society of America Program, New York Meeting: 88A; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 207.
        • Owens Valley
          • Olancha
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 139.; Mineralogical Record (2001) 32: 245; Clarke, F.W. (1910), Analyses of rocks and minerals from the laboratory of the United States Geological Survey, 1880-1908; USGS Bulletin 419: 256; Chatard, T.M. (1890a), On urao: American Journal of Science, 3rd. series: 38: 59; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 374; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 205.
      • Lake Co.
        • Sulphur Creek District (Sulfur Creek District; Wilbur Springs District)
          • Clear Lake
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
          • Clear Lake Oaks
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 139, 235, 373; Vonsen, Magnus (1935), The discovery of borates in California: Mineralogist: 3(12): 22, 24; Vonsen, Magnus & G.D. Hanna (1936), Borax Lake, California: California Division Mines Report 32: 103; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 280, 289; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 208.
      • Mono Co.
    Murdoch, Joseph (1951c), Notes on California minerals: nuevite = samarskite; trona, and hanksite; Gaylussite: American Mineralogist: 36: 358; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 214.
    Murdoch, Joseph (1951c), Notes on California minerals: nuevite = samarskite; trona, and hanksite; Gaylussite: American Mineralogist: 36: 358; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 374; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 207, 283.
      • San Bernardino Co.
        • Fort Irwin area
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    Ayers, Edward F. (1889b), Notes on the crystallization of trona (urao): American Journal of Science, 3rd. series: 38: 65-66; Pabst, Adolf & Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 102; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 294; Foshag, William Frederick (1935), Burkeite, a new mineral species from Searles Lake, California: American Mineralogist: 20: 51; Dwight L. Sawyer, Jr. (1948), Tincalconite crystals from Searles Lake, San Bernardino County, California: American Mineralogist: 33: 472; Smith, George Irving & W.P. Pratt (1957), Core logs from Owens, China, Searles and Panamint Basins, California: USGS Bulletin 1045-A: 27; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 139, 340, 629; Mineralogical Record (2007): 38: 212.; American Mineralogist 50:281; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Mineralogy of the Searles Lake deposits in Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 296-308
    Smith, George Irving & W.P. Pratt (1957), Core logs from Owens, China, Searles and Panamint Basins, California: USGS Bulletin 1045-A: 27; Smith, George Irving & D.V. Haines (1964), Character and distribution of nonclastic minerals in the Searles Lake evaporite deposit, California: USGS Bulletin 1181-P: 9; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 116.
    • Colorado
      • Alamosa Co.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
      • Chaffee Co.
        • Chalk Creek District
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
      • Costilla Co.
        • San Luis Valley
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
      • Mesa Co.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
      • Rio Blanco Co.
        • Piceance Basin
          • Green River Formation
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
      • Saguache Co.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    • Michigan
      • Marquette Co.
        • Marquette iron range
          • Palmer
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
    • Nevada
      • Churchill Co.
        • Ragtown
          • Carson Sink
    USBM Inf Circ 7093 (1939)
    USBM Inf Circ 7093 (1939)
      • Mineral Co.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 139; NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada.
    NBMG Bull 58 Geology and Mineral Resources of Mineral County, Nevada
    NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada; American Mineralogist,Vol.49:1366-1387
      • Nye Co.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 139; NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada.
    • New Mexico
      • Cibola Co.
    10th Annual New Mexico Mineral Symposium
      • Colfax Co.
        • Springer
          • Point of Rocks Mesa (Pecks Mesa)
    Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd. rev. ed. (1996)
      • McKinley Co.
        • Valle de San Miguel
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
      • Otero Co.
    2008 New Mexico Mineral Symposium abstracts
    • Oregon
      • Lake Co.
    Am.Min.54:1034
    • Utah
      • Duchesne Co.
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2002AM/finalprogram/abstract_45510.htm.
    Am Min 58:211-217; U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Open-File Report 96-0729
    • Washington
      • Grant Co.
        • Moses Lake
    Cannon, B. (1975): Minerals of Washington, p.63
    www.dnr.wa.gov/geology/okanogan.htm.
    • Wyoming
      • Albany Co.
        • Laramie
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 139.
    [Clark, 1993 - "Hey's Mineral Index"]
        • Green River Basin
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    USGS Professional Paper 474E; Tony Nickischer
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 139, 279.
    Am Min 48:400-403
    Am Min 26:646-650
    Am Min 48:400-403
    Am Min 48:400-403
    Am Min 46:420-429
    Am Min 49:778-781
    Venezuela
     
    • Zulia
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 139.
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