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Trona

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Formula:
Na3H(CO3)2 · 2H2O
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
Colourless, gray-white, ...
Hardness:
Name:
Trona is a Swedish term, deriving ultimately from the Arabic "natrum", native salt.

Classification of Trona

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
5.CB.15

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
C : Carbonates without additional anions, with H2O
B : With large cations (alkali and alkali-earth carbonates)
13.1.4.1

13 : ACID CARBONATES
1 : Miscellaneous
11.1.6

11 : Carbonates
1 : Carbonates of the alkali metals and ammonium
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http://www.mindat.org/min-4031.html
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Occurrences of Trona

Geological Setting:
Saline lakes and their evaporites; efflorecences on soils in arid regions.

Physical Properties of Trona

Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Translucent
Colour:
Colourless, gray-white, light yellow; colourless in transmitted light.
Hardness (Mohs):
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {100} perfect; on {111} and {001} in traces.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
2.14 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Crystallography of Trona

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Cell Parameters:
a = 20.1Å, b = 3.49Å, c = 10.33Å
β = 103.05°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 5.759 : 1 : 2.96
Unit Cell Volume:
V 705.92 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Crystals elongated [010], also flattened {001}. {h0l} faces striated parallel to [010]. Fibrous or massive columnar common.

Crystallographic forms of Trona

Crystal Atlas:
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Trona no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Trona no.9 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

Toggle
Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

View
Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Trona

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.412 nβ = 1.492 nγ = 1.540
2V:
Measured: 72° , Calculated: 70°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.128
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
relatively strong

Chemical Properties of Trona

Formula:
Na3H(CO3)2 · 2H2O
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Trona to other Species

5.CB.05ThermonatriteNa2CO3 · H2O
5.CB.10NatronNa2CO3 · 10H2O
5.CB.20MonohydrocalciteCaCO3 · H2O
5.CB.25IkaiteCaCO3 · 6H2O
5.CB.30PirssoniteNa2Ca(CO3)2 · 2H2O
5.CB.35GaylussiteNa2Ca(CO3)2 · 5H2O
5.CB.40ChalconatroniteNa2Cu(CO3)2 · 3H2O
5.CB.45BaylissiteK2Mg(CO3)2 · 4H2O
5.CB.50TuliokiteNa6BaTh(CO3)6 · 6H2O
11.1.1ZabuyeliteLi2CO3
11.1.2NatriteNa2CO3
11.1.3NahcoliteNaHCO3
11.1.4WegscheideriteNa5H3(CO3)4
11.1.5ThermonatriteNa2CO3 · H2O
11.1.7NatronNa2CO3 · 10H2O
11.1.8KaliciniteKHCO3
11.1.9ShortiteNa2Ca2(CO3)3
11.1.10NyerereiteNa2Ca(CO3)2
11.1.11Natrofairchildite
11.1.12ZemkoriteNa2Ca(CO3)2
11.1.13PirssoniteNa2Ca(CO3)2 · 2H2O
11.1.14GaylussiteNa2Ca(CO3)2 · 5H2O
11.1.15BaylissiteK2Mg(CO3)2 · 4H2O
11.1.16FairchilditeK2Ca(CO3)2
11.1.17BütschliiteK2Ca(CO3)2
11.1.18Teschemacherite(NH4)HCO3

Other Names for Trona

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Other Information:
Soluble in water. Effervesces in acids.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Trona

Reference List:
Wallerius, J.G (1747) Mineralogia, eller Mineralriket. Stockholm: 174 (as Alkali orientale impurum terrestre).

Bagge (1773) Svenska Vetenskapsakademien, Stockholm, Handlingar: 35: 140.

Klaproth, M.H. (1802) Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntniss der Mineralkörper. vol. 3: 83 (as Stralige Natrum).

Boussingault (1826) Annales des mines: 12: 278 (as Urao).

Zepharovich (1887) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 13: 135.

Ayres (1889) American Journal of Science: 38: 65.

Chatard (1889) American Journal of Science: 38: 59.

Chatard (1890) USGS Bulletin 60: 27.

Doelter, C. (1911) Handbuch der Mineral-chemie (in 4 volumes divided into parts): 1: 186.

Hintze, Carl (1916) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1(3A): 2759, 2770.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 146.

Walther (1922) American Mineralogist: 7: 86.

Goldschmidt, V. (1923) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 9 (1923). Heidelberg: 11.

Piazza (1931) Periodico de Mineralogia-Roma: 2: 17.

Larsen, E.S. and Berman, H. (1934) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, Second edition, USGS Bulletin 848.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 138-140.

Murdoch, Joseph (1951), Notes on California minerals: nuevite = samarskite; trona, and hanksite; Gaylussite: American Mineralogist: 36: 358-361.

Pabst, Adolf (1959), On the hydrates of sodium carbonate, a correction, and the crystallography of trona. American Mineralogist: 44: 274-281.

Acta Crystallographica (1982): B38: 2874-2876.

Internet Links for Trona

Specimens:
The following Trona specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Trona

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Antarctica
 
  • Buckley Island quadrangle
Liu, T. and Bish, D.L. (2010) MINERALOGICAL COMPOSITIONS OF THE EVAPORITES AT LEWIS CLIFF ICE TONGUE, ANTARCTICA: A POTENTIAL MARTIAN ANALOG. 41st Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2010)
Argentina
 
  • Chubut
    • Paso de Indios Department
      • Los Altares
Zalba, P.E., Conconi, M.S., Morosi, M., Manassero, M. & Comerio, M. (2011): Dawsonite in tuffs and litharenites of the Cerro Castaño Member, Cerro Barcino Formation, Chubut group (Cenomanian), Los Altares, Patagonia, Argentina. Canadian Mineralogist. 49. 503-520
  • Salta
Raúl Jorge Tauber Larry
Australia
 
  • Western Australia
    • Menzies Shire
      • Menangina Station
Mineralogical Magazine 1977 41 : 37-41; Min Mag (1979) 43, 97-98
Austria
 
  • Burgenland
    • Neusiedl am See
      • Seewinkel
Götzinger, M. A. (2009): Die Salzminerale des Seewinkels, Burgenland.
Götzinger, M. A. (2009): Die Salzminerale des Seewinkels, Burgenland.
Götzinger, M. A. (2009): Die Salzminerale des Seewinkels, Burgenland.
Götzinger, M. A. (2009): Die Salzminerale des Seewinkels.
Bolivia
 
  • Potosí Department
    • Nor Lípez Province
      • San Juan
Ahlfeld & Muñoz Reyes (1955) Las Especies Minerales de Bolivia (Banco Minero de Bolivia)
    • Sud Lípez Province
USGS Bulletin # 1975, (1992)
USGS Bulletin # 1975, (1992)
USGS Bulletin # 1975, (1992)
Canada
 
  • Québec
    • Montérégie
      • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
        • Mont Saint-Hilaire
Horváth, L and Gault, R.A. (1990), The mineralogy of Mont Saint-Hilaire Quebec. Mineralogical Record: 21: 284-359.
Chad
 
  • Lake Chad
    • Kanem Region (Khanem)
      • Eguéi Region (Eguei; Eguéï; Egai)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 955.
Chile
 
  • Tarapacá Region
    • Iquique Province
      • Santa Rosa-Huantajaya District
Schlüter, J. and Pohl, D.- N. Jb. MH. 182/1. 2005, 11-14
China
 
  • Henan Province
    • Nanyang Prefecture
      • Tongbai Co.
Shangru Sun (2004): Northwestern Geology [Xibei Dizhi] 37(2), 30-35.
Youxun Zhang (1983): Mineral Deposits 2(3), 69-71; Zhen-Qi Zhou, Qing-Shui Dong, Gang-Fu Hou, Sheng-Chuan Xu, and Chang-Sheng Miao (2006): Journal of Jilin University (Earth Science Edition) 36(6), 1001-1005
  • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
    • Alxa League (Alashan Prefecture)
      • Alxa Left Banner (Alashan Zuoqi)
Zhenmi Liu (2000): Journal of Salt Lake Research 29(3), 21-26
    • Xilin Gol League (Xilinguole Prefecture)
      • Sonid Right Banner (Sunite Youqi)
Yu, G., Harrison, S.P., and Xue, B. (2001): Lake status records from China: Data Base Documentation. MPI-BGC Technology Report No. 4, pp. 46-49.
  • Qinghai Province
    • Haixi Autonomous Prefecture
      • Dulan Co.
Kamitani, M., Okumura, K., Teraoka, Y., Miyano, S., and Watanabe, Y. (2007): Mineral Resources Map of East Asia. Geological Survey of Japan.
  • Tibet Autonomous Region
    • Nagchu Prefecture (Naqu Prefecture)
      • Baingoin Co. (Bange Co.)
Xiyu Zheng and Shengsong Yu (1981): Scientia Geographica Sinica 1(1), 66-76; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
      • Nyima Co. (Nima Co.)
Yuan, H.R., Zheng, M.P., and Si, D.X. (2005): Abstracts of the IX. International Conference on Salt Lake Research, September 26-30, Perth, Australia.; Qian Wu, Mianping Zheng, Zhen Nie, and Lingzhong Bu (2013): Chinese Journal of Inorganic Chemistry 29(1), 36-44
Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
    • Xigazê Prefecture (Rikaze Prefecture; Shigatse Prefecture)
      • Zhongba Co.
Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
  • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
    • Hetian Prefecture (Khotan Prefecture; Hotan Prefecture; Hoten Prefecture)
      • Yutian Co. (Keriye Co.)
Bingxiao Li (1992): Journal of Lake Sciences 4(1), 48-55
    • Wulumuqi Prefecture (Ürümqi Prefecture; Ürümchi Prefecture)
      • Dabancheng District
        • Dabancheng salt lakes
Bingxiao Li (1992): Journal of Lake Sciences 4(1), 48-55
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Karlovy Vary Region
      • Karlovy Vary (Karlsbad; Carlsbad)
Cílek, V., Vylita, T., Filippi, M.: Mineralogie karlovarské vřídelní desky a jejího podloží. Minerál, 2006, 14, 1, 3-10.
      • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
Jan Hloušek
Egypt
 
  • Al Jizah Governorate (Giza Governorate)
    • Al Jizah (Giza)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 139.
  • Western Desert
Marchesini, M. & Barresi, A. (2009): I minerali di Wadi natrun, Deserto Occidentale, Egitto, Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2009, 228-258.
Germany
 
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Lahn valley
      • Bad Ems District
        • Braubach
Schnorrer, G. (1993): Mineralogische Notizen VI. Aufschluss, 44, 44-58.
Greenland
 
  • Kujalleq
    • Narsaq
      • Ilímaussaq complex
Sørensen, H., Leonardsen, E.S. & Petersen, O.V. (1970): Trona and Thermonatrite from the Ilimaussaq alkaline intrusion, south Greenland. Contribution to the mineralogy of Ilimaussaq, no. 17. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark. 20, 1-19
          • Kvanefjeld Uranium deposit
- Petersen, O., Khomyakov, A., Soerensen, H. (2001): Natrophosphate from the Ilimaussaq alkaline complex South Greenland, South Greenland, Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin, 190, 139-141
Petersen, O.V., Giester, G., Brandstätter, F., Niedermayr, G. (2002): Nabesite, a new mineral species from the Ilimaussaq alkaline complex. Canadian Mineralogist. 40, 173-181
Hungary
 
  • Bács-Kiskun Co.
    • Great Hungarian Plain
Szakáll-Gatter-Szendrei: Mineral Species of Hungary, 2006
      • Petőfiszállás
Szakáll-Gatter-Szendrei: Mineral Species of Hungary, 2006
Italy
 
  • Campania
    • Naples Province
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 139; Russo, M., 2006: I minerali di formazione fumarolica della grande eruzione vesuviana del 1906
    • Phlegrean Volcanic Complex
      • Naples Province
        • Phlegrean Fields
          • Pozzuoli
Sinno R. – (1957) Trona, thenardite e mirabilite nei Campi Flegrei. Periodico di Mineralogia – Roma pp. 1-12.
  • Sicily
    • Catania Province
      • Etna Volcanic Complex
        • Mt Etna
www.cse.speleo.it
Kenya
 
  • Rift Valley Province
    • Gregory Rift
G. Périnet, J.J. Tiercelin, C.E. Barton : "Présence de kanémite dans les sédiments récents du lac Bogoria, Rift Gregory, Kenya", Bull. Minéral., 1982, 105, 633-639.
    • South Rift Valley
Nielsen, Joan M. (1999): East African magadi (trona): fluoride concentration and mineralogical composition. Journal of African Earth Sciences 29, 423-428.
    • Suswa Volcano
Forti, P. et al. (2004), "Minerogenesis of volcanic caves of Kenya". Int. J. Speleol. 32, 3-18
Libya
 
  • Fezzan
Piazza M. (1931): Trona del Lago Mandara (Fezzan). Periodico di Mineralogia - Roma, pp. 17-23.
Namibia
 
  • Kunene Region
Foshag, Wm. F. (1933) Sulfohalite and Other Minerals from the Otjiwalundo Salt Pan, South West Africa. American Mineralogist: 18: 431-434; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 549.
Russia
 
  • Northern Region
    • Murmanskaja Oblast'
      • Kola Peninsula
        • Khibiny Massif
PEKOV, I.V. & NIKOLAEV, A.P. (2013) Minerals of the pegmatites and hydrothermal assemblages of the Koashva deposit (Khibiny, Kola Peninsula, Russia). Mineralogical Almanac 189(2), 7-65.
          • Kukisvumchorr Mt
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
        • Lovozero Massif
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
            • Umbozero mine (Umbozerskii mine; Umba Mine)
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow; Pekov, I.V. (2000): Lovozero Massif. Moscow, Ocean Pictures Ltd, 480 pp.
South Africa
 
  • Gauteng Province
    • Pretoria District (Tshwane District)
Minerals of South Africa
Sudan
 
  • North Darfur Wilayah (Shamal Darfur Wilayah)
Nielsen, Joan M. (1999): East African magadi (trona): fluoride concentration and mineralogical composition. Journal of African Earth Sciences 29, 423-428.
Switzerland
 
  • Vaud (Waadt)
    • Bex
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 413.
  • Wallis (Valais)
    • Martigny
      • Mont Chemin
Tanzania
 
  • Arusha Region
Nielsen, Joan M. (1999): East African magadi (trona): fluoride concentration and mineralogical composition. Journal of African Earth Sciences 29, 423-428.
Mitchell, R.H. (2006) Mineralogy of stalactites formed by subaerial weathering of natrocarbonatite hornitos at Oldoinyo Lengai, Tanzania. Mineralogical Magazine: 70: 437-444
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 139.
Turkey
 
  • Central Anatolia Region
    • Ankara Province
Helvaci, C., Mordogan, H., Çolak, M., & Gündogan, I. (2004). Presence and distribution of lithium in borate deposits and some recent lake waters of west-central Turkey. International Geology Review, 46(2), 177-190.
    • Konya Province
      • Great Konya Basin
Lideke Vergouwen (1979) Two New Occurrences and the Gibbs Energy of Burkeite. Mineralogical Magazine 43:341-345.
  • Marmara Region
    • Balikesir Province
      • Biga peninsula
Uganda
 
  • Kasese District
Nielsen, Joan M. (1999): East African magadi (trona): fluoride concentration and mineralogical composition. Journal of African Earth Sciences 29, 423-428.; Mineralogical Recoed 8:396
UK
 
  • England
    • Co. Durham
      • Billingham
Mineralogical Magazine 1959 32 : 172-175.
    • Devon
      • East Devon
        • Budleigh Salterton
Brian Craik-Smith collection
Ukraine
 
  • Crimea Oblast'
    • Crimea peninsula
      • Kerch peninsula (Kertch peninsula)
        • Bondarenkovo Village area
Deyak M.A. Modern water-chemogenic formations of mud volcanoes of Kerch Peninsula. Dissertation to Scientific Candidate Degree in Geological Sciences in speciality 04.00.21 – lithology. –Department of marine geology and sedimentary ore formation of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. – Kyiv, 2010.
    • Simferopol area
      • Chistenkoye village
Geologiya SSSR (The geology of USSR) (1969) - Nedra (Moscou), 1969, vol. VIII, 575 p.
USA
 
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 374.
      • Deep Springs Valley
Jones, Blair Francis (1961), Zoning of saline minerals at Deep Spring Lake, California: USGS PP 424-B, Article 83: B200; Jones, Blair Francis (1963), Layer sequence of saline minerals at Deep Spring Lake, California (abstract): Geological Society of America Program, New York Meeting: 88A; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 207.
      • Owens Valley
        • Olancha
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 139.; Mineralogical Record (2001) 32: 245; Clarke, F.W. (1910), Analyses of rocks and minerals from the laboratory of the United States Geological Survey, 1880-1908; USGS Bulletin 419: 256; Chatard, T.M. (1890a), On urao: American Journal of Science, 3rd. series: 38: 59; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 374; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 205.
    • Lake Co.
      • Sulphur Creek District (Sulfur Creek District; Wilbur Springs District)
        • Clear Lake
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
        • Clear Lake Oaks
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 139, 235, 373; Vonsen, Magnus (1935), The discovery of borates in California: Mineralogist: 3(12): 22, 24; Vonsen, Magnus & G.D. Hanna (1936), Borax Lake, California: California Division Mines Report 32: 103; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 280, 289; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 208.
    • Mono Co.
Murdoch, Joseph (1951c), Notes on California minerals: nuevite = samarskite; trona, and hanksite; Gaylussite: American Mineralogist: 36: 358; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 214.
Murdoch, Joseph (1951c), Notes on California minerals: nuevite = samarskite; trona, and hanksite; Gaylussite: American Mineralogist: 36: 358; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 374; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 207, 283.
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Fort Irwin area
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
Ayers, Edward F. (1889b), Notes on the crystallization of trona (urao): American Journal of Science, 3rd. series: 38: 65-66; Pabst, Adolf & Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 102; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 294; Foshag, William Frederick (1935), Burkeite, a new mineral species from Searles Lake, California: American Mineralogist: 20: 51; Dwight L. Sawyer, Jr. (1948), Tincalconite crystals from Searles Lake, San Bernardino County, California: American Mineralogist: 33: 472; Smith, George Irving & W.P. Pratt (1957), Core logs from Owens, China, Searles and Panamint Basins, California: USGS Bulletin 1045-A: 27; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 139, 340, 629; Mineralogical Record (2007): 38: 212.; American Mineralogist 50:281; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Mineralogy of the Searles Lake deposits in Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 296-308
Smith, George Irving & W.P. Pratt (1957), Core logs from Owens, China, Searles and Panamint Basins, California: USGS Bulletin 1045-A: 27; Smith, George Irving & D.V. Haines (1964), Character and distribution of nonclastic minerals in the Searles Lake evaporite deposit, California: USGS Bulletin 1181-P: 9; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 116.
  • Colorado
    • Alamosa Co.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    • Chaffee Co.
      • Chalk Creek District
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
    • Costilla Co.
      • San Luis Valley
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
    • Mesa Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    • Rio Blanco Co.
      • Piceance Basin
        • Green River Formation
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
    • Saguache Co.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
  • Michigan
    • Marquette Co.
      • Marquette iron range
        • Palmer
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
  • Nevada
    • Churchill Co.
      • Ragtown
        • Carson Sink
USBM Inf Circ 7093 (1939)
USBM Inf Circ 7093 (1939)
    • Mineral Co.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 139; NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada.
NBMG Bull 58 Geology and Mineral Resources of Mineral County, Nevada
NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada; American Mineralogist,Vol.49:1366-1387
    • Nye Co.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 139; NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada.
  • New Mexico
    • Cibola Co.
10th Annual New Mexico Mineral Symposium
    • Colfax Co.
      • Springer
        • Point of Rocks Mesa (Pecks Mesa)
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd. rev. ed. (1996)
    • McKinley Co.
      • Valle de San Miguel
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    • Otero Co.
2008 New Mexico Mineral Symposium abstracts
  • Oregon
    • Lake Co.
Am.Min.54:1034
  • Utah
    • Duchesne Co.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2002AM/finalprogram/abstract_45510.htm.
Am Min 58:211-217; U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY Open-File Report 96-0729
  • Washington
    • Grant Co.
      • Moses Lake
Cannon, B. (1975): Minerals of Washington, p.63
www.dnr.wa.gov/geology/okanogan.htm.
  • Wyoming
    • Albany Co.
      • Laramie
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 139.
[Clark, 1993 - "Hey's Mineral Index"]
      • Green River Basin
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
USGS Professional Paper 474E; Tony Nickischer
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 139, 279.
Am Min 48:400-403
Am Min 26:646-650
Am Min 48:400-403
Am Min 48:400-403
Am Min 46:420-429
Am Min 49:778-781
Venezuela
 
  • Zulia
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 139.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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