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Cryolite

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Formula:
Na
 
3
[AlF
 
6
]
System:MonoclinicColour:Colourless, white, ...
Lustre:Vitreous, Greasy, PearlyHardness:
Name:From the Greek κρύος, frost, and λίθος, stone, meaning "ice-stone" in allusion to its appearance.


A curiosity mineral. The colourless material seemingly disappears in water due to the proximity of their refractive indices.
Historically, cryolite was used as an aluminium ore and later in the electrolytic processing of the aluminium ore bauxite.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Cryolite. Currently in public beta-test.

Classification of Cryolite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:3/B.03-30
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:3.CB.15

3 : HALIDES
C : Complex halides
B : Neso-aluminofluorides
Dana 8th edition ID:11.6.1.1

11 : HALIDE COMPLEXES
6 : Aluminofluorides - Isolated Octahedra
Hey's CIM Ref.:8.6.5

8 : Halides - Fluorides, Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides; also Fluoborates and Fluosilicates
6 : Halides of Al
mindat.org URL:http://www.mindat.org/min-1161.html
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Type Occurrence of Cryolite

Type Locality:Ivigtut Cryolite deposit, Ivittuut (Ivigtut), Arsuk Fjord, Sermersooq, Greenland
General Appearance of Type Material:Massive white transparent to translucent.
Place of Conservation of Type Material:University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Year of Discovery:1799
Geological Setting of type material:As a pegmatitic body in a granite stock intruded into gneiss.
Associated Minerals at type locality:
ZirconWolframiteWeberiteTopazThomsenolite
SideriteQuartzPyriteProsopitePachnolite
MolybdeniteMicroclineMica GroupJarliteGearksutite
GalenaFluoriteCryolithioniteColumbiteChiolite
CassiteriteArsenopyrite

Occurrences of Cryolite

Geological Setting:Late stage mineral in granitic pegmatites, vapor phase mineral in rhyolites.

Physical Properties of Cryolite

Lustre:Vitreous, Greasy, Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Comment:Pearly on {001}
Colour:Colourless, white, brown, grey, black; colourless in transmitted light.
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:None Observed
Parting:On {001} and {110}, producing cuboidal forms.
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven
Density (measured):2.96 - 2.98 g/cm3
Density (calculated):2.973(2) g/cm3

Crystallography of Cryolite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Cell Parameters:a = 7.7564(3) Å, b = 5.5959(2) Å, c = 5.4024(2) Å
β = 90.18°
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.386 : 1 : 0.965
Unit Cell Volume:V 234.48 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Crystals usually cuboidal with c, , or modified by r, v, k; also short prismatic [001]. {110} faces striated [111], [111], or [110]. Massive, coarsely granular.
Twinning:Very common. Often repeated or polysynthetic with simultaneous occurrence of several twin laws, and reflecting the pseudo-orthorhombic symmetry of the unit cell.

1. By a 90° or 270° rotation on [110], penetration, common.

2. By a 180° rotation on [110], rhombic section (110), repeated, less common.

3. By a 120° rotation on [021], composition surface irregular; common, especially in granular material, as fine lamellae and probably always secondary.

4. By a 180° rotation on [111], rhombic section near (110), repeated; rare (not in granular material).

5. On (001) or by a 180° rotation on [100], composition plane (001).

6. On (100) or by a 180° rotation on [001], composition plane (100).

7. On (112), composition plane (112).

8. On (112), composition plane (112).

9. On (110), composition plane (110).

10. By a 180° rotation on [111], rhombic section near (110).

11. On (211).

(Palache et al (1951), Dana's System of Mineralogy, 7th. ed., vol. 2: 111).
Crystal Atlas:
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Cryolite no.15 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Cryolite no.16 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Epitaxial Relationships of Cryolite

Epitaxial Minerals:
Thenardite
Na
 
2
SO
 
4
Epitaxi Comments:Oriented growths (artificial material).
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Cryolite

Type:Biaxial (+)
RI values: nα = 1.339 - 1.339 nβ = 1.339 - 1.339 nγ = 1.340 - 1.340
2V:Measured: 43°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.001

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Dispersion:r < v

Chemical Properties of Cryolite

Formula:
Na
 
3
[AlF
 
6
]
Simplified for copy/paste:Na3[AlF6]
Essential elements:Al, F, Na
All elements listed in formula:Al, F, Na
Common Impurities:Fe,Ca

Relationship of Cryolite to other Species

Common Associates:
TopazQuartzPachnoliteFluoriteFeldspar Group
Chiolite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
3.CB.05Cryolithionite
Na
 
3
Li
 
3
[AlF
 
6
]
 
2
3.CB.15Elpasolite
NaK
 
2
[AlF
 
6
]
3.CB.15Simmonsite
Na
 
2
Li[AlF
 
6
]
3.CB.20Colquiriite
CaLi[AlF
 
6
]
3.CB.25Weberite
Na
 
2
Mg[AlF
 
6
]F
3.CB.30Karasugite
SrCa[Al(F,OH)
 
7
]
3.CB.35Usovite
Ba
 
2
CaMgAl
 
2
F
 
14
3.CB.40Pachnolite
NaCa[AlF
 
6
] · H
 
2
O
3.CB.40Thomsenolite
NaCa[AlF
 
6
] · H
 
2
O
3.CB.45Carlhintzeite
Ca
 
2
[AlF
 
6
]F · H
 
2
O
3.CB.50Yaroslavite
Ca
 
3
Al
 
2
F
 
10
(OH)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
8.6.1Zharchikhite
AlF(OH)
 
2
8.6.2Chloraluminite
AlCl
 
3
· 6H
 
2
O
8.6.3Cadwaladerite
AlCl(OH)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
8.6.4Cryolithionite
Na
 
3
Li
 
3
[AlF
 
6
]
 
2
8.6.6Chiolite
Na
 
5
Al
 
3
F
 
14
8.6.7Elpasolite
NaK
 
2
[AlF
 
6
]
8.6.8Weberite
Na
 
2
Mg[AlF
 
6
]F
8.6.9Ralstonite
NaMg[Al(F,OH)
 
6
] · H
 
2
O
8.6.10Koenenite
Na
 
4
Mg
 
9
Al
 
4
Cl
 
12
(OH)
 
22
8.6.11 Chlor-manasseite
Mg
 
x
Al(OH)
 
2x+2
Cl · (x-0.8)H
 
2
O x about 1.75
8.6.12Gearksutite
Ca[Al(F,OH)
 
5
(H
 
2
O)]
8.6.13Prosopite
CaAl
 
2
(F,OH)
 
8
8.6.14Yaroslavite
Ca
 
3
Al
 
2
F
 
10
(OH)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
8.6.15Carlhintzeite
Ca
 
2
[AlF
 
6
]F · H
 
2
O
8.6.16Colquiriite
CaLi[AlF
 
6
]
8.6.17Thomsenolite
NaCa[AlF
 
6
] · H
 
2
O
8.6.18Pachnolite
NaCa[AlF
 
6
] · H
 
2
O
8.6.19Zirklerite
(Fe,Mg,Ca)
 
9
Al
 
4
Cl
 
18
(OH)
 
12
· 14H
 
2
O (?)

Other Names for Cryolite

Synonyms:
ChryolithThonerde mit Flussäure
Other Languages:
Asturian:Criolita
Catalan:Criolita
Czech:Kryolit
Danish:Kryolit
Dutch:Cryoliet
Estonian:Krüoliit
French:Cryolithe
Alumine fluatée alkaline
German:Kryolith
Eisstein
Hebrew:קריאוליט
Italian:Criolite
Japanese:氷晶石
Norwegian (Bokmål):Kryolitt
Norwegian (Nynorsk):Kryolitt
Polish:Kriolit
Portuguese:Criolita
Russian:Криолит
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Криолит
Simplified Chinese:冰晶石
Slovenian:Kriolit
Spanish:Criolita
Sundanese:Kriolit
Ukrainian:Кріоліт
Vietnamese:Cryôlit

Other Information

Thermal Behaviour:Melting Point: 1020°. Inverts to an isometric form at about 560°. Weakly thermoluminescent.
Other Information:Soluble in H2SO4 with evolution of HF. Slightly soluble in water. Readily soluble in AlCl3 solution.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:An important raw material for the production of Aluminium.

References for Cryolite

Reference List:

- +
Abildgaard (1799) Allgemeines Journal der Chemie, Berlin 1798-1803 (Scheerer’s Journal): 2: 502 (as Chryolith, Thonerde mit Flussäure).

Abildgaard, [P. C.] (1800): Sur plusieurs pierres nouvelles envoyées de Norwège.
Annales de Chimie. 32, 193-196. (as Chryolithe)

d'Andrada (1800) Allgemeines Journal der Chemie, Berlin 1798-1803 (Scherer’s Journal): 4: 37.

Karsten, D.L.G. (1800) Mineralogische Tabellen, Berlin. First edition (1800): 28: 73 (as Kryolith).

Klaproth (1800) Journal Phys.: 51: 473.

Haüy, R.J. (1801) Traité de minéralogie. First edition: in 4 volumes with atlas in fol.: 2: 157 (as alumine fluatée alkaline).

Vauquelin (1801) Annales de chimie, Paris: 37: 89.

Klaproth, M.H. (1802): Untersuchung des Kryoliths, Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntniss der Mineralkörper, Dritter Band, Rottmann Berlin, 207-214

Glocker, E.F. (1831) Handbuch der Mineralogie, Nürnberg: 958.

Hagemann (1866) American Journal of Science: 42: 268.

Brandl analysis in: Groth (1882) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 7: 386.

Cross and Hillebrand (1883) American Journal of Science: 26: 283.

Krenner (1883) Mathematische und Naturwissenschaftliche Berichte aus Ungarn, Berlin, Budapest, Leipzig: 1: 151.

Baumhauer (1885) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 11: 139.

Hillebrand (1885) USGS Bull. 20: 48.

Joly (1887) Proceedings of the Royal Society of london: 41: 250.

Mügge (1908) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Stuttgart: 34.

Bøggild (1912) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 50: 349.

Wallerant (1912) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 35: 177.

Bernard (1916) Mineralogical Magazine: 14: 202.

Goldschmidt, V. (1918) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text, vol. 5: 53.

Poduroff (1925) Mineralogicheskoe Obshchestvo, Leningrad, Zapiski: 54: 207.

Doelter, C. (1930) Handbuch der Mineral-chemie (in 4 volumes divided into parts): 4 [3]: 303.

Doelter, C. (1931) Handbuch der Mineral-chemie (in 4 volumes divided into parts): 4 [3]: 283, 289.

Cesàro and Mélon (1936) Bulletin Académie royale des sciences de Belgique, Brussels, Cl. Sc.: 362.

Menzer (1938) Naturwissenschaften: 26: 236.

Náray-Szabó and Sasvári (1938) Mat. Termés. Ért.: 57: 664.

Náray-Szabó and Sasvári (1938)Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 99: 27.

Zintl and Morawietz (1939) Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie, Hamburg, Leipzig: 240: 145.

Birch, F. (1942)(editor) Handbook of Physical Constants, Chairman, J.F. Schairer, and H. Cecil Spicer. Geological Society of America, Special Paper 36, New York: 169, 231.

Tananaev and Lelchuk (1943) Comptes rendus de l’académie des sciences de l’U.R.S.S., n.s.: 41: 114.

Brosset (1946) Arkiv för Kemi, Mineralogi och Geologi, Stockholm: 21A, no. 9.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 110-113.

Canadian Mineralogist (1975): 13: 377-382.

Bailey, J.C. (1980): Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Denmark 29, 1-45.

Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (1997) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume III. Halides, Hydroxides, Oxides. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 628pp.: 145.

Internet Links for Cryolite

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  • Look for Cryolite on Wikipedia
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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Cryolite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Specimens:The following Cryolite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Cryolite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Brazil
     
    • Amazonas
      • Presidente Figueiredo
    Horbe, M. A., Horbe, A. C., Costi, H. T., & Teixeira, J. T. (1991). Geochemical characteristics of cryolite-tin-bearing granites from the Pitinga mine, northwestern Brazil—a review. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 40(1), 227-249.
    A. C. Bastos Neto, V. P. Pereira, L. H. Ronchi, E. F. de Lima and J. C. Frantz (2009): The world-class Sn, Nb, Ta, F (Y, REE, Li) deposit and the massive cryolite associated with the albite-enriched facies of the Madeira A-type granite, Pitinga mining district, Amazonas State, Brazil. Canadian Mineralogist 47, 1329-1357.; Horbe, A. M. C., & da Costa, M. L. (1999). Geochemical evolution of a lateritic Sn–Zr–Th–Nb–Y–REE-bearing ore body derived from apogranite: the case of Pitinga, Amazonas—Brazil. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 66(1), 339-351.; Sighnolfi, G., Costi, H. T., Horbe, A. M. C., Borges, R. M. K., Dall'agnol, R., & Rossi, A. (2008). Mineral chemistry of cassiterites from Pitinga Province, Amozonian Craton, Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Geology, 30(4), 775-782
    • Santa Catarina
    G. Traversa et al., European Journal of Mineralogy, 1996, Vol. 8, N° 1, pp. 193-208.; G Traversa et al (1994) Petrology and Mineral Chemistry of the Alkaline District of Lages, SC, Brazil. Geochem Brazil 8:179-214
    Canada
     
      • Montérégie
        • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
          • Mont Saint-Hilaire
    HORVÁTH, L., & GAULT, R.G. (1990) The mineralogy of Mont Saint Hilaire. Mineralogical Record, 21, 284 359.
        • Lajemmerais RCM
          • Varennes & St-Amable
    HORVÁTH, L., PFENNINGER HORVÁTH, E., GAULT, R.A., and TARASSOFF, P. (1998) Mineralogy of the Saint Amable sill, Varennes and Saint Amable, Québec, Canada. Mineralogical Record, 29, 83 118.
    Horváth, L., Pfenninger-Horváth, E., Gault, R. A., & Tarassoff, P. (1998): Mineralogy of the Saint-Amable Sill, Varennes and Saint-Amable, Québec. Mineralogical Record, 29: 83-118.
      • Montréal
    TARASSOFF, P., HORVÁTH, L. and PFENNINGER-HORVÁTH, E. (2006) Famous mineral localities: the Francon quarry, Montréal, Québec. Mineralogical Record, 37, 5-60.
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Karlovy Vary Region
        • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
          • Jáchymov District (St Joachimsthal)
            • Horní Blatná District (Platten)
              • Boží Dar (Gottesgab)
    Bull. Minéral. , 1988, 111, pp. 477-492.
      • Ústí Region
        • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
          • Klášterec nad Ohří
    Bull. Minéral. , 1988, 111, pp. 477-492.
    Bull. Minéral. , 1988, 111, pp. 477-492.
    Germany & Czech Republic
     
    • Saxony & Ústí Region (Bohemia; Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Erzgebirge; Krusné Hory Mts
    Bull. Minéral. , 1988, 111, pp. 477-492.
    Greenland
     
    • Qeqqata
      • Kangerlussuaq Fjord (Søndre Strømfjord)
    Pauly, H. (1946): Medd. fra Dansk Geol. Forening. 11, 30-46
    • Sermersooq
      • Arsuk Fjord
        • Ivittuut (Ivigtut)
    Scherer's Allg. Journal D. Chemie,(1799) 2, p. 502; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 99, 112.; Petersen, O. V and K Secher (1993) The Minerals of Greenland. Mineralogical Record 24:36
    Kazakhstan
     
    • Eastern Kazakhstan Province (Shyghys Qazaqstan Oblysy; Vostochno-Kazakhstanskaya Oblast')
      • Tarbagatai Range
        • Akzhaylyautas Mts (Akzhailyautas Mts; Akjaylautas Mts; Akzhalautas Mts)
    Pavel M. Kartashov data; Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980.
    Namibia
     
    • Khomas Region
      • Windhoek District
        • Aris
    Garvie, L. A. J., Devouard, B., Groy, T. L., Cámara, F. and Buseck, P. R. (1999): Crystal structure of kanemite, NaHSi2O5•3H2O, from the Aris phonolite, Namibia. Am. Mineral., 84, 1170-1175; Uwe Kolitsch (single-crystal X-ray diffraction); [http://www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/aris.htm]
    • Kunene Region
      • Damaraland District
        • Kalkfeld
    American Mineralogist, Vol. 84, pp. 1117-1125, 1999.; New Data on Minerals (2004): 39: 50-64
    Nigeria
     
    • Plateau State
    Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980.
    Am Min 51:299-323
    Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980.
    Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980.
    Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980.
    Norway
     
    • Oppland
      • Lunner
        • Nordmarka
    Eldjarn, K. (1981): Kryolitt fra Gjerdingen i Nordmarka. NAGS-nytt 8 (2), 11-12. Raade, G. & Haug, J.(1982): Gjerdingen. Fundstelle seltener Mineralien in Norwegen. LAPIS 7, 9-15
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
        • Buriatia (Buryatia)
          • Mama River Basin
            • Maigunda River
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow; Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980.
      • Transbaikalia (Zabaykalye)
        • Chitinskaya Oblast'
    Seltmann, R., Soloviev, S., Shatov, V., Pirajno, F., Naumov, E., & Cherkasov, S. (2010). Metallogeny of Siberia: tectonic, geologic and metallogenic settings of selected significant deposits*. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 57(6), 655-706
      • Tuva Republic
    Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980.
    P.M. Kartashov data
    • Far-Eastern Region
      • Primorskiy Kray
    Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980.
    • Northern Region
      • Murmanskaja Oblast'
        • Kola Peninsula
    www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/khib.htm
    www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/lovo.htm; Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
            • Kedykverpakhk Mt
    Pekov, I.V., and Agakhanov, A.A. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(7), 583-589.
    • Urals Region
      • Southern Urals
        • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
          • Ilmen Mts
            • Ilmen Natural Reserve
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow; Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980.
    Saint Helena
     
    Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980
    Spain
     
    • Aragón
      • Huesca
        • Tena Valley
          • Sallent de Gállego
    Am Min 51:299-323
    Ukraine
     
    • Zhytomyr Oblast' (Zhitomir Oblast')
    Yurk Yu.Yu., Gurov E.P., Gurova E.P. (1973) Pecularities of fluorin mineralogy of Ukrainian crystalline shield, - Naukova Dumka, Kiev, pp.184 (in Russian).; Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980.
    Lyckberg, P., Chornousenko, V. & Wilson, W. E. (2009): Volodarsk-Volynski, Zhitomir Oblast, Ukraine. Mineralogical Record, 40, 473-506.; Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980.
    USA
     
    • Colorado
      • Boulder Co.
        • Jamestown District
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
      • El Paso Co.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 112; "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 14, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
    Am Min 51:299-323
    Am Min 51:299-323
    Am Min 51:299-323; American Mineralogist (1936): 20: 319-333
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
      • Fremont Co.
    "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 16, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; Armbrustmacher, T. J. (1988) Geology and resources of thorium and associated elements in the Wet Mountains area, Fremont and Custer counties, Colorado. USGS Professional Paper: 1049-F
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
      • Garfield Co.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
      • Jefferson Co.
        • Clear Creek pegmatite Province
    Meeves, H., et al (1966), Reconnaissance of beryllium-bearing pegmatite deposits in six western states, US Bur. Mines Info. Circ. 8298: 29 (Table A-1).
      • Rio Blanco Co.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
    • Nevada
      • Mineral Co.
        • Fitting District
          • Gillis Range
    Mineralogical Record: 31: 204.
    • New Hampshire
      • Grafton Co.
        • Grafton
    • New Mexico
      • Colfax Co.
        • Springer
          • Point of Rocks Mesa (Pecks Mesa)
    DeMark, R. S. (1989): Micromounting in New Mexico. Mineralogical Record. 20: 64.; Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    • Texas
      • Hudspeth Co.
    Am. Min. 74:865-869 (1989)
    Am Min 72:1122-1130
    • Utah
      • Emery Co.
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    • Virginia
      • Amelia Co.
        • Winterham
    [L.E. Kearns, 1995 - Mineralogical Record Vol 26 No.6 - "Alumino-Fluorides from the Morefield Pegmatite"]
    • Wisconsin
      • Marathon Co.
    Rocks & Min. (2007) 82:233
    • Wyoming
      • Park Co.
    Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980
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