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Thortveitite

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Formula:
(Sc,Y)
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
7
System:MonoclinicColour:Greyish-green, black, ...
Hardness:6 - 7
Name:Named in 1911 by Jakob Grubbe Cock Schetelig in honor of Gunder Olaus Olsen Thortveit [October 1, 1872 Thortveit, Iveland, Aust-Agder, Norway - June 15, 1917 in Rossås, Iveland, Aust-Agder, Norway], feldspar and mineral exporter from Iveland, Norway.

Classification of Thortveitite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/C.01-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.BC.05

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
B : Sorosilicates
C : Si2O7 groups, without non-tetrahedral anions; cations in octahedral [6] and greater coordination
Dana 8th edition ID:55.2.1a.4

55 : SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups,Generally with no Additional Anions
2 : Si2O7 Groups, Generally with no Additional Anions with cations in [6] coordination
Hey's CIM Ref.:14.8.5

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
8 : Silicates of Group III metals other than Al
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Type Occurrence of Thortveitite

Type Locality:Ljoslandsknipan (Thortveitittgruva), Knipan (Knipane), Ljosland, Iveland, Aust-Agder, Norway
Year of Discovery:1911

Physical Properties of Thortveitite

Lustre:Vitreous, Waxy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Translucent
Colour:Greyish-green, black, grey, blue, yellowish
Hardness (Mohs):6 - 7

Crystallography of Thortveitite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Cell Parameters:a = 6.65Å, b = 8.61Å, c = 4.68Å
β = 102.2°
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.772 : 1 : 0.544
Unit Cell Volume:V 261.91 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Optical Data of Thortveitite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.756 nβ = 1.793 nγ = 1.809
2V:Measured: 65° , Calculated: 64°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.053

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Dispersion:distinct to strong

Chemical Properties of Thortveitite

Formula:
(Sc,Y)
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
7
Simplified for copy/paste:(Sc,Y)2Si2O7
Essential elements:O, Sc, Si
All elements listed in formula:O, Sc, Si, Y
Common Impurities:Zr,Hf,Al,Fe,Mn,Mg,Ca,Ce,TR

Relationship of Thortveitite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.BC.05Gittinsite
CaZrSi
 
2
O
 
7
9.BC.05Keiviite-(Y)
(Y,Yb)
 
2
[Si
 
2
O
 
7
]
9.BC.05Keiviite-(Yb)
(Yb,Y)
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
7
9.BC.05Yttrialite-(Y)
(Y,Th)
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
7
9.BC.10Keldyshite
(Na,H)
 
2
ZrSi
 
2
O
 
7
9.BC.10Khibinskite
K
 
2
ZrSi
 
2
O
 
7
9.BC.10Parakeldyshite
Na
 
2
ZrSi
 
2
O
 
7
9.BC.15Rankinite
Ca
 
3
Si
 
2
O
 
7
9.BC.20Barysilite
Pb
 
8
Mn
2+
 
[Si
 
2
O
 
7
]
 
3
9.BC.25Edgarbaileyite
(Hg-Hg)
 
3
Si
 
2
O
 
7
9.BC.30Kristiansenite
Ca
 
2
ScSn(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)(Si
 
2
O
 
6
OH)
9.BC.35Percleveite-(Ce)
(Ce,La,Nd)
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
7
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
14.8.1Thalénite-(Y)
Y
 
3
(Si
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
14.8.2Keiviite-(Y)
(Y,Yb)
 
2
[Si
 
2
O
 
7
]
14.8.3Keiviite-(Yb)
(Yb,Y)
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
7
14.8.4Tombarthite-(Y)
Y
 
4
(Si,H
 
4
)
 
4
O
 
12-x
(OH)
 
4+2x
14.8.6Sazhinite-(Ce)
Na
 
3
Ce[Si
 
6
O
 
15
] · 6H
 
2
O
14.8.7Monteregianite-(Y)
(Na,K)
 
6
(Y,Ca)
 
2
Si
 
16
O
 
38
· 10H
 
2
O
14.8.8Iraqite-(La)
K(Ca,Na)
 
2
(La,Ce,Th)[(Si,Al)
 
8
O
 
20
]
14.8.9Ashcroftine-(Y)
K
 
5
Na
 
5
(Y,Ca)
 
12
Si
 
28
O
 
70
(OH)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
8
· 8H
 
2
O
14.8.10Nordite-(La)
(La,Ce)(Sr,Ca)Na
 
2
(Na,Mn)(Zn,Mg)Si
 
6
O
 
17
14.8.11Nordite-(Ce)
(Ce,La)(Sr,Ca)Na
 
2
(Na,Mn)(Zn,Mg)Si
 
6
O
 
17
14.8.12Jervisite
(Na,Ca,Fe
2+
 
)(Sc,Mg,Fe
2+
 
)Si
 
2
O
 
6
14.8.13Cerite-(Ce)
(Ce,Ca)
 
9
(Mg,Fe)(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
(HSiO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
3
14.8.14Cascandite
Ca(Sc,Fe
3+
 
)(HSi
 
3
O
 
9
)

Other Names for Thortveitite

Other Languages:
German:Thortveitit
Russian:Тортвейтит
Simplified Chinese:钪钇石
Spanish:Thortveitita
Traditional Chinese:鈧釔石

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Thortveitite

Reference List:

- +
Schetelig, J. (1911): Über Thortveitit, ein neues Mineral. Vorläufige Mitteilung. Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie, 721-726.

Schetelig, J. (1921) Thortveitite, a silicate of scandium, (Sc,Y)2Si2O7. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift. 6: 233-244 8+ plates I-II.

Schetelig, J. (1922): Thortveitit- Ein scandiumsilikat, (Sc,Y)2Si2O7. in Brøgger, W.C, Vogt, Th. & Schetelig, J. (1922): Die Mineralien der südnorwegischen Granitpegmatitgänge. II. Silikate der seltenen Erde. Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter. I.Mat-Naturv. Klasse. 11: 51-87 + plates X-XIII

American Mineralogist (1922): 7: 195.

Sakurai (1962) Thortvetite from Kobe, Omiya, Japan. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan, 35: 1775-1779.

Parker & Havens (1963) U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 475-B: B10-B11.

Krol et al (1969): Thortveitite as an accessory mineral in Permian alaskite granites (Central Kazakhstan) (in Russian) [Consult Chem. Abstr., 81, 44180r (1971)].

Oftedal, I. (1969): On minor elements in thortveitite. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift, 49: 77-79

Lee (1970) Some Rare-earth mineral deposits in mainland China. U.S. Geological Survey Bull. 1312-N: N1-N34.

Kainov (1973) Thortveitite and xenotime from quartz veins of the southern Ural. (in Russian) [Consult Chem Abstr.,81, 27911g (1974)].

Pello, N. (1988): Finland crystals up to 6 cm. (pers. comm. to Roy Kristiansen from Seppo Lahti 1988).

Voloshin et al. (1991) Scandium mineralization and the first find of thortveitite Sc2Si2O7 in granitic pegmatites of the Kola peninsula. Dokl. Acak. Naul, SSSR, 318: 972-976 (in Russian).

Foord, Eugene E. et al (1993) Canadian Mineralogist: 31: 337-346.

Yamada et al. On the thortveitite, fluocerite, pyroxferroite and minerals from Isango mine, Oro, Naka gun, Kyoto prefecture. Chigaky Kenkyu, 31: 205-222 (in Japanese).

Egorov et al. (1993): Kumir scandium-rare-earth ore occurrence in Gorno Altai. Izv. Vyssh. Uchbn. Zaved., Geol. Razved.,(2): 43-54.

Yokoyama et al. (1993): Analyses of natural minerals by energy-dispersive spectrometer. Bulletin of the National Science Museum, series C: 19: 115-126 (in Japanese).

Canadian Mineralogist (1993): 31: 337.

Zhang Peishan et al, (1995): Mineralogy and geology of Rare earths in China. Science Press Beijing. (in English).

Langhof (1996): Thortveitite from granitic NYF pegmatites in Sweden. Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 118: A54.

Kristiansen, R.(1997): Thortveititt -Sc2Si2O7- et historisk tilbakeblikk og dagens status. STEIN magazine. 24 (3): 111-115

U. Kolitsch and E. Tillmanns (2003): The crystal structure of synthetic Sc2Si2O7 at 100, 200 and 293 K: thermal expansion and behaviour of the Si2O7 group. Z. Kristallogr., Suppl. No. 20, 139. [synthetic thortveitite]

Spandler et al. (2004) American Mineralogist: 89: 1795-1806.

M. Allix, M. D. Alba, P. Florian, A. J. Fernandez-Carrion, M. R. Suchomel, A. Escudero, E. Suard and A. I. Becerro (2011): Structural elucidation of beta-(Y,Sc)2Si2O7: combined use of 89Y MAS NMR and powder diffraction. J. Appl. Crystallogr. 44, 846-852.

Best Localities for Thortveitite

Best of Species:Thortveitite

Internet Links for Thortveitite

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  • Localities for Thortveitite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Austria
     
    • Salzburg
      • Hohe Tauern
        • Obersulzbach valley
          • Hopffeld area
    Putz, H. (2007): Beiträge zur Landesmineralogie Salzburgs. Miner. Arch. Salzb. 12, 255-256.
    Brazil
     
    Kristiansen, R.(1997): Thortveititt- Sc2Si2O7-et historisk tilbakeblikk og dagens status. STEIN magazine. 24 (3): 111-115.
    Canada
     
    • Ontario
      • Thunder Bay District
        • Walsh Township
    Potter, E. G. and Mitchell, R.H. (2005): Mineralogy of the Deadhorse Creek volcaniclastic breccia complex, northwestern Ontario, Canada. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 150 (2): 212-229
    China
     
    • Hunan Province
      • Chenzhou Prefecture
        • Linwu Co.
          • Xianghualing Sn-polymetallic ore field
    Lee, K.Y. (1970): Some Rare-earth mineral deposits in mainland China. U.S. Geological Survey Bull. 1312-N: N1-N34.
    Finland
     
    • Lapland Region
      • Pello (Turtola)
    Kristiansen, R.(1997): Thortveititt- Sc2Si2O7-et historisk tilbakeblikk og dagens status. STEIN magazine. 24 (3): 111-115
    France
     
    • Midi-Pyrénées
      • Ariège
        • Luzenac
    Gatel, P. , Parodi, G. , Parseval (De), P. , Fontan, F. and Marty, F. (2002): Les minéraux de terres rares à Trimouns. Le Règne Minéral(Hors série 8), 29-63
    Germany
     
    • Saxony
      • Oberlausitz
        • Görlitz
          • Thiemendorf
    T. Witzke & T. Giesler (2003): Thortveitit aus dem Königshainer Granit in der Lausitz, Sachsen - ein Neufund für Deutschland.- Lapis 28 (6), 46-47
    Italy
     
    • Aosta Valley
      • Nus
        • Saint-Barthélemy
    • Barresi, A.A., Kolitsch, U., Ciriotti, M.E., Ambrino, P., Bracco, R., Bonacina, E. (2005): La miniera di manganese di Varenche (Aosta, Italia nord-occidentale): ardennite, arseniopleite, manganberzeliite, pirofanite, sarkinite, thortveitite, nuovo As-Sc-analogo della metavariscite e altre specie. Micro (località), 2/2005, 81-122.
    • Liguria
      • Savona Province
        • Maremola Valley
          • Magliolo
    Bracco, R., Callegari, A., Boiocchi, M., Balestra, C., Armellino, G., Ciriotti, M. E. (2006). Costa Balzi Rossi (Magliolo, Val Maremola, Savona, Liguria): una nuova località per minerali di terre rare e scandio. MICRO (località), 2006, 161-178.
    • Lombardy
      • Varese Province
        • Ceresio Valley
    Guastoni A., Pezzotta F., Demartin F., 2004. Contributo alla mineralogia del granofiro di Cuasso al Monte: recenti determinazioni su esemplari del MSNM. Riv. Mineral. Ital., 28, 4: 194-202.
    Am Min 90:1442-1452
    • Piedmont
      • Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Province
        • Baveno
          • Oltrefiume
            • Mount Camoscio
    Grill, E. (1935): I minerali del granito di Baveno, la fayalite. Periodico di Mineralogia, 129-133. - Gallitelli, P. (1936): Le miche del granito di Baveno. . Periodico di Mineralogia, 61-76 - Pagliani, G. (1948): Le Zeoliti del granito di Baveno. Periodico di Mineralogia, 175-188. - Ravagnani, D. (1974): I giacimenti uraniferi italiani - Gruppo Mineralogico Lombardo - Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano, Ed., Milano, 188 pp. - min. Rec. 14 (3), 157-168 - Am. Min. 83, 1330-1334 (1998) - Am. Min. 84, 782-789 (1999). - Guastoni, A. & Pezzotta, F. (2004): Kristiansenite a Baveno, second ritrovamento Mondiale della specie. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2004, 247-251. - Guastoni, A., Demartin, F., Pezzotta, F. (2004): Sekaninaite delle pegmatiti granitiche di Feriolo e Baveno (VB). Atti della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano, 145, 59-68. - Mineralogist americano (2005) 90, 1442-1452.
    No reference listed
    • Sardinia
      • Cagliari Province
        • Sarroch
    - Orlandi, P., Gelosa, M., Bonacina, E., Caboni, F., Mamberti, M., Tanca, G., A. et Vinci, A. (2013) : Sardignaite, gelosaite et tancaite-(Ce) : trois nouveaux minéraux de Su Seinargiu, Sarroch, Sardaigne, Italie. Le Règne Minéral, 112, 39-52.
      • Olbia-Tempio Pausania Province
        • Calangianus
    Tanca, G.A., Gamboni, A., Mamberti, M. & Mascia, S. (2007) – Furru e Conca, Massiccio granitico del Monte Limbara, Calangianus, Olbia-Tempio Pausania - Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, Milano. 31,4,pp.274-281.
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Kinki Region
        • Kyoto Prefecture
          • Kyotango City
    Masutomi Museum specimens (Kyoto)
    Yamada et al. (1980): On the thortveitite, fluocerite, pyroxferroite and minerals from Isanago mine, Oro, Naka gun, Kyoto prefecture. Chigaky Kenkyu, 31: 205-222 (in Japanese).
          • Ohmiya town
            • Kobe
    Sakurai et al. (1962): Thortveitite from Kobe, Omiya, Japan. Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan, 35: 1775-1779.
    Kazakhstan
     
    • Karagandy Province (Qaragandy Oblysy; Karaganda Oblast')
      • Balkhash Region (Balqash; Karatas; Prebalkhashie)
        • Mointy (Moyynty)
          • Mointy Railway Station
    A.V. Stepanov data
    http://geo.web.ru/druza/l-Kent.htm
    Madagascar
     
    • Antananarivo Province
      • Analamanga Region
        • Anjozorobe District
    Behier, J. (1960): Contribution á la mineralogie de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar XXIX, Tananarive, 19-20
        • Ankazobe Pegmatite Field
          • Ankazobe District
    Guigues, J. (1955): Etude des gisements de pegmatite de Madagascar (Deuxième partie). Travaux du Bureau Géologiques de Madagascar 67, Service Geologique, Tananarive, p 8-9
    Guigues, J. (1955): Etude des gisements de pegmatite de Madagascar (Deuxième partie). Travaux du Bureau Géologiques de Madagascar 67, Service Geologique, Tananarive, p 6-8
    New Caledonia
     
    • Northern Province
      • Ouégoa Commune
    Spandler, C.; Hermann, J. and Rubatto, R. (2004) : Exsolution of thortveitite, yttrialite, and xenotime during low-temperature recrystallization of zircon from New Caledonia, and their significance for trace element incorporation in zircon. American Mineralogist 89: 1795-1806
    Norway
     
    • Aust-Agder
      • Evje og Hornnes
        • Landsverk
    Revheim, O. (2006): Landsverk 1, Jokeli-bruddet i Evje. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift. 33: 41-50
    - Schetelig, J. (1922): Thortveitit- Ein scandiumsilikat, (Sc, Y)2Si2O7. in Brøgger, W.C, Vogt, Th. & Schetelig, J. (1922): Die MIneralien der südnorwegischen Granitpegmatitgänge. II. Silikate der seltenen Erde. Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter. I.Mat-Naturv. Klasse 1922. 11, 51-87 + plates X- XIII
        • Undeland (Unneland)
    Schetelig, J. (1922): Thortveitit- Ein scandiumsilikat, (Sc, Y)2Si2O7. in Brøgger, W.C, Vogt, Th. & Schetelig, J. (1922): Die Mineralien der südnorwegischen Granitpegmatitgänge. II. Silikate der seltenen Erde. Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter. I.Mat-Naturv. Klasse 1922. 11, 51-87
      • Iveland
        • Eptevann
    Schetelig, J. (1922): Thortveitit- Ein scandiumsilikat, (Sc, Y)2Si2O7. in Brøgger, W.C, Vogt, Th. & Schetelig, J. (1922): Die Mineralien der südnorwegischen Granitpegmatitgänge. II. Silikate der seltenen Erde. Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter. I.Mat-Naturv. Klasse 1922. 11, 51-87; Marble, J.P. and Glass, J.J. (1942): Some new data on thortveitite. American Mineralogist 27: 696-698
        • Eretveit
    Collection of Iveland kommune (Iveland municipality)
        • Frikstad
    Nordrum, F. S. (2004): Nyfunn av mineraler i Norge 2003-2004. STEIN 31 (2), 36-44
    Neumann, H. & Sverdrup, T.L.(1960): Contributions to the mineralogy of Norway No. 8. Davidite from Tuftan, Iveland. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 40: 277-288
        • Håverstad
    Bjørlykke, H. (1934): The Mineral Paragenesis and Classification of the Granite Pegmatites of Iveland, Setesdal, Southern Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 14, 211-311
        • Ivedal
    Bjørlykke, H. (1934): The Mineral Paragenesis and Classification of the Granite Pegmatites of Iveland, Setesdal, Southern Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 14, 211-311
    Knut Eldjarn collection
    Nordrum, F.S. (2005): Nyfunn av mineraler i Norge 2004-2005. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift. 30: 117-124
        • Ljosland
          • Knipan (Knipane)
    Schetelig, J. (1922): Thortveitit- Ein scandiumsilikat, (Sc, Y)2Si2O7. in Brøgger, W.C, Vogt, Th. & Schetelig, J. (1922): Die MIneralien der südnorwegischen Granitpegmatitgänge. II. Silikate der seltenen Erde. Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter. I.Mat-Naturv. Klasse 1922. 11, 51-87
    Bjørlykke, H. (1934): The Mineral Paragenesis and Classification of the Granite Pegmatites of Iveland, Setesdal, Southern Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 14, 211-311
    Rudy Bolona photo and specimen
    Bjørlykke, H. (1934): The Mineral Paragenesis and Classification of the Granite Pegmatites of Iveland, Setesdal, Southern Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 14, 211-311
    • Finnmark
      • Kautokeino
    Mathiesen, C.O. (1969): An occurence of unusual minerals at Bidjovagge, Northern Norway.Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse 266, 86-104
    Olerud,S. (1988): Davidite-loveringite in early Proterozoic albite felsite in Finnmark, North Norway. Mineralogical Magazine 52: 400-402
    • Telemark
      • Drangedal
        • Tørdal
    Knut Edvard Larsen collection & Roy Kristiansen collection; Juve, G. & Bergstøl, S. (1997): Granittpegmatittene i Tørdal, Telemark. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrifter, 12, 56-57
      • Nome
    Åmli, R. (1977): Carbonatites, a possible source of Scandium as indicated by Sc-mineralization in the Fen peralkaline complex, Southern Norway. Economic Geology 72: 855-859
    Poland
     
    • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
      • Świdnica District
    Chabros E., Dzierżanowski P., Kozłowski P. 2002: Post-magmatic rare-earth-element mineralisation in the granitoid Strzegom Massif, SW Poland. Mineralogia Polonica, vol. 20, 71-73
    Russia
     
    • Northern Region
      • Murmanskaja Oblast'
    Voloshin et al (1991) Scandium mineralization and the first find of thortveitite Sc2Si2O7 in granitic pegmatites of the Kola peninsula. Dokl. Acak. Naul, SSSR, 318: 972-976 (in Russian).
    • Urals Region
      • Southern Urals
        • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
    Kainov, V.I. (1973): Thortveitite and xenotime from quartz veins of the southern Ural. (in Russian) [Consult Chem Abstr.,81, 27911g (1974)]
    • Western-Siberian Region
      • Altai Republic (Gorno-Altayskaya Autonomous Oblast')
    Egorov et al (1993) Kumir scandium-rare-earth ore occurrence in Gornyi Altai, - Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved., Geol. i Razved., (2), pp. 43-54 (in Rus.).
    Sweden
     
    • Dalarna
      • Borlänge
        • St Tuna
    Langhof, J. (1996): Thortveitite from granitic NYF pegmatites in Sweden. Geologiska Föreningens I Stockholm Förhandlinger 118, A54
    • Lappland
      • Jokkmokk
    Langhof, J. (1996): Thortveitite from granitic NYF pegmatites in Sweden. Geologiska Föreningens I Stockholm Förhandlinger 118, A54
    • Uppland
      • Vaxholm
        • Resarö
    Langhof, J. (1996): Thortveitite from granitic NYF pegmatites in Sweden. Geologiska Föreningens I Stockholm Förhandlinger 118, A54
    • Västergötland
      • Svenljunga
        • Överlida
    Langhof, J. (1996): Thortveitite from granitic NYF pegmatites in Sweden. Geologiska Föreningens I Stockholm Förhandlinger 118, A54 Kjellman (analyst)
    USA
     
    • Montana
    Parker & Havens (1963) U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 475-B: B10-B11; Foord, Eugene E. et al (1993) Canadian Mineralogist: 31: 337-346.
        • Sapphire Mountains Area
    Gobla, M.J. (2012) Montana mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 87, #3, 208-240.
    • New Jersey
      • Sussex Co.
        • Franklin Mining District
          • Ogdensburg
            • Sterling Hill
    Dunn, P.J. & Frondel, C. (1990): Mineralogical Record: 21: 425-427; Dunn, Pete J. (1995): Franklin and Sterling Hill New Jersey: the world’s most magnificent mineral deposits, part 3: 421.
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