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Bytownite

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Formula:
(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si
 
2
O
 
8
]
System:TriclinicColour:Colourless, grey, ...
Lustre:Sub-VitreousHardness:6 - 6½
Member of:Feldspar Group
Name:Named after its locality ("Bytown," now Ottawa, Ontario, Canada)
A variety of Anorthite

A plagioclase feldspar with an albite : anorthite molar ratio ranging from 10 : 90 to 30 : 70.

The original material, a greenish-white substance, was found in a boulder near Bytown (now Ottawa), and later shown to be a mixture (Robert A. A. Johnston, 1915). This locality now appears to have been lost. Additionally, the original specimens are either extremely rare or no longer exist in collections. Gemmy feldspar pieces are, on occasion, falsely attributed to the original bytownite locality.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Bytownite. Currently in public beta-test.

Classification of Bytownite

Strunz 8th edition ID:8/J.07-60
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.FA.35

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
F : Tektosilicates without zeolitic H2O
A : Tektosilicates without additional non-tetrahedral anions
Hey's CIM Ref.:16.10.1

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
10 : Aluminosilicates of Ca and alkalis
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Physical Properties of Bytownite

Lustre:Sub-Vitreous
Colour:Colourless, grey, greenish-white, or white
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):6 - 6½
Cleavage:Perfect
on [001], good on [010]
Fracture:Step-Like

Crystallography of Bytownite

Crystal System:Triclinic

Optical Data of Bytownite

Type:Biaxial (+/-)
RI values: nα = 1.563 - 1.572 nβ = 1.568 - 1.578 nγ = 1.573 - 1.583
2V:Measured: 86° , Calculated: 80° to 88°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.010 - 0.011

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Low
Dispersion:r > v strong

Chemical Properties of Bytownite

Formula:
(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si
 
2
O
 
8
]
Simplified for copy/paste:(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si2O8]
Essential elements:Al, Ca, O, Si
All elements listed in formula:Al, Ca, Na, O, Si

Relationship of Bytownite to other Species

Member of:Feldspar Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Albite
NaAlSi
 
3
O
 
8
Amazonite
Andesine
(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si
 
2
O
 
8
]
Anorthite
CaAl
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
Anorthoclase
(Na,K)AlSi
 
3
O
 
8
Banalsite
BaNa
 
2
[Al
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
]
 
2
Buddingtonite
(NH
 
4
)AlSi
 
3
O
 
8
Celsian
BaAl
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
Dmisteinbergite
CaAl
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
Hyalophane
(K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si
 
2
O
 
8
]
Labradorite
(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si
 
2
O
 
8
]
Microcline
KAlSi
 
3
O
 
8
Oligoclase
(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si
 
2
O
 
8
]
Orthoclase
KAlSi
 
3
O
 
8
Paracelsian
BaAl
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
Reedmergnerite
Na[BSi
 
3
O
 
8
]
Sanidine
KAlSi
 
3
O
 
8
Slawsonite
(Sr,Ca)Al
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
Stronalsite
SrNa
 
2
[Al
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
]
 
2
Svyatoslavite
CaAl
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.FA.05Kaliophilite
KAlSiO
 
4
9.FA.05Kalsilite
KAlSiO
 
4
9.FA.05Nepheline
(Na,K)AlSiO
 
4
9.FA.05Panunzite
(K,Na)AlSiO
 
4
9.FA.05Trikalsilite
(K,Na)AlSiO
 
4
9.FA.05Yoshiokaite
(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)O
 
4
]
9.FA.05Megakalsilite
KAlSiO
 
4
9.FA.10Malinkoite
NaBSiO
 
4
9.FA.15Virgilite
LiAlSi
 
2
O
 
6
9.FA.25Lisitsynite
KBSi
 
2
O
 
6
9.FA.30Adularia
KAlSi
 
3
O
 
8
9.FA.30Anorthoclase
(Na,K)AlSi
 
3
O
 
8
9.FA.30Buddingtonite
(NH
 
4
)AlSi
 
3
O
 
8
9.FA.30Celsian
BaAl
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
9.FA.30Hyalophane
(K,Ba)[Al(Si,Al)Si
 
2
O
 
8
]
9.FA.30Microcline
KAlSi
 
3
O
 
8
9.FA.30Orthoclase
KAlSi
 
3
O
 
8
9.FA.30Sanidine
KAlSi
 
3
O
 
8
9.FA.30Rubicline
(Rb,K)AlSi
 
3
O
 
8
9.FA.30Monalbite
NaAlSi
 
3
O
 
8
9.FA.35Albite
NaAlSi
 
3
O
 
8
9.FA.35Andesine
(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si
 
2
O
 
8
]
9.FA.35Anorthite
CaAl
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
9.FA.35Labradorite
(Ca,Na)[Al(Al,Si)Si
 
2
O
 
8
]
9.FA.35Oligoclase
(Na,Ca)[Al(Si,Al)Si
 
2
O
 
8
]
9.FA.35Reedmergnerite
Na[BSi
 
3
O
 
8
]
9.FA.40Paracelsian
BaAl
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
9.FA.45Svyatoslavite
CaAl
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
9.FA.45Kumdykolite
NaAlSi
 
3
O
 
8
9.FA.50Slawsonite
(Sr,Ca)Al
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
9.FA.55Lisetite
CaNa
 
2
Al
 
4
Si
 
4
O
 
16
9.FA.60Banalsite
BaNa
 
2
[Al
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
]
 
2
9.FA.60Stronalsite
SrNa
 
2
[Al
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
]
 
2
9.FA.65Danburite
CaB
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
9.FA.65Maleevite
BaB
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
9.FA.65Pekovite
SrB
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
9.FA.70Lingunite
(Na,Ca)AlSi
 
3
O
 
8
9.FA.75Kokchetavite
KAlSi
 
3
O
 
8
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
16.10.2Lisetite
CaNa
 
2
Al
 
4
Si
 
4
O
 
16
16.10.4Thomsonite-Ca
NaCa
 
2
[Al
 
5
Si
 
5
O
 
20
] · 6H
 
2
O
16.10.5Gonnardite
(Na,Ca)
 
2
(Si,Al)
 
5
O
 
10
· 3H
 
2
O
16.10.6Mesolite
Na
 
2
Ca
 
2
Si
 
9
Al
 
6
O
 
30
· 8H
 
2
O
16.10.7Faujasite
16.10.8Garronite
Na
 
2
Ca
 
5
Al
 
12
Si
 
20
O
 
64
· 27H
 
2
O
16.10.9Boggsite
Ca
 
8
Na
 
3
(Si,Al)
 
96
O
 
192
· 70H
 
2
O
16.10.10Herschelite
16.10.11Phillipsite
16.10.12Fedorite
(Na,K)
 
2-3
(Ca
 
4
Na
 
3
)Si
 
16
O
 
38
F
 
2
· 3.5H
 
2
O
16.10.13Willhendersonite
KCa[Al
 
3
Si
 
3
O
 
12
] · 5H
 
2
O
16.10.14Barrerite
(Na,K,Ca
 
0.5
)
 
2
[Al
 
2
Si
 
7
O
 
18
] · 7H
 
2
O
16.10.15Mordenite
(Na
 
2
,Ca,K
 
2
)Al
 
2
Si
 
10
O
 
24
· 7H
 
2
O
16.10.16Reyerite
(Na,K)
 
2
Ca
 
14
(Si,Al)
 
24
O
 
58
(OH)
 
8
· 6H
 
2
O
16.10.17Lévyne
16.10.18Clinoptilolite
16.10.19Heulandite
16.10.20Gobbinsite
Na
 
4
(Ca,Mg,K
 
2
)Al
 
6
Si
 
10
O
 
32
· 12H
 
2
O
16.10.21Stilbite
16.10.22Dachiardite
16.10.23Offretite
KCaMgAl
 
5
Si
 
13
O
 
36
· 16H
 
2
O or near
16.10.24Perlialite
K
 
9
Na(Ca,Sr)[Al
 
2
Si
 
4
O
 
12
]
 
6
· 15H
 
2
O
16.10.25Erionite
16.10.26Paulingite
16.10.27Sodium Dachiardite
(Na
 
2
,Ca,K
 
2
)
 
4-5
Al
 
8
Si
 
40
O
 
96
· 26H
 
2
O
16.10.28Mazzite-Mg
K
 
2
Mg
 
2
Ca
 
1.5
Al
 
9.5
Si
 
26.5
O
 
72
· 28H
 
2
O or near
16.10.29Roggianite
Ca
 
2
Be(OH)
 
2
Al
 
2
Si
 
4
O
 
13
· 2.5H
 
2
O

Other Names for Bytownite

Other Languages:
Dutch:Bytowniet
Estonian:Bütauniit
German:Bytownit
Hebrew:בייטאוניט
Italian:Bytownite
Lithuanian:Bitovnitas
Portuguese:Bytownita
Russian:Битовнит
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Битовнит
Simplified Chinese:倍长石
培长石
Spanish:Bytownita

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Bytownite

Reference List:

- +
Jonhston, R.A.A. "A list of Canadian Mineral Occurrences," GSC Memoir 74, 1915.

Internet Links for Bytownite

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  • Localities for Bytownite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Algeria
     
    • Skikda Province
      • Collo
        • Cape Bougaroun
    Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, pp. 625-638.
    Angola
     
    • Huíla Province
      • Lubango City Council
    Eur. J. Mineral. , 1993, 5, pp. 1001-1024.
    Antarctica
    AmMin 36:361-367
    Australia
     
    • New South Wales
      • Yancowinna Co.
    Birch BH Book
      • Yungnulgra Co.
        • White Cliffs
    Eur. J. Mineral. , 1991, 3, pp. 293-322.
    • Northern Territory
      • Jervois
    Huckitta 1996
    Zia U. Bajwah, Huckitta 1:250 000 Mineral deposit data series, Northern Territory Geological Survey, 1994
    • Tasmania
      • Huon district
    No reference listed
    • Western Australia
      • Mount Magnet Shire
        • Dalgaranga Station
    New Material From, and a Reconsideration of the Dalgaranga Meteorite and Crater, Western Australia; G McCall, Mineralogical Magazine, Sept 1965 pp476-487
      • Ngaanyatjarraku Shire
        • West Musgrave Block
          • Wingellina Community
    Trommsdorff, V., and Wenk, H.-R. (1968): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 19, 158-168.
    Austria
     
    • Carinthia
      • Friesach - Hüttenberg area
        • Hüttenberg
    H. Meixner: 32(3):85-97 (1981)
    G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
          • Mosinzgraben
            • Mosinz
    H. Meixner: Carinthia II 157./77.:88-89 (1967)
      • Karawanken
    G. Niedermayr, I. Praetzel: Mineralien Kärntens, 1995
    • Lower Austria
      • Mostviertel
        • Dunkelstein Forest
          • Dunkelsteinerwald
            • Gansbach
    D.A. Carswell et al., Eur.J. Mineral., 1989, 1, pp. 455-466.
      • Waldviertel
        • Senftenberg
    R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
    • Styria
      • Graz
        • Wildon
          • Weitendorf
    R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
      • Koralpe
        • Schwanberg
    Heritsch, H. (1963) : Exkursion in das Kristallin der Koralpe. In : Mitteilungen des Naturwissenschaftlichen Vereines für Steiermark, Band 93, 1963, p. 178 – 198.
    Canada
     
    • British Columbia
      • Victoria Mining Division
        • Vancouver Island
    • Manitoba
    Bernier, Louis R., 1990, Vanadiferous Zincian-Chromian Hercynite in a Metamorphosed Basalt-Hosted Alteration Zone, Atik Lake, Manitoba, Canadian Mineralogist (1990) v. 28:57-50.
    • Ontario
      • Carleton Co.
        • Gloucester Co.
    António Manuel Ináçio Martins.
      • Haliburton Co.
        • Monmouth Township
      • Rainy River District
        • Bad Vermilion Lake Area
    T. Tagai et al. , Eur. Journ. Mineral. , 1992, 4, pp. 299-305.
    China
     
    • Anhui Province
      • Anqing Prefecture
        • Yuexi Co.
          • Wumiao
            • Marble quarry
    • Fujian Province
      • Fuzhou Prefecture
        • Pingtan Co.
    Jiyue Xue, Yanfeng Cai, and Xiaoning Zhao (1999): Geological Journal of China Universities 5(2), 170-174.
    • Gansu Province
      • Jiuquan Prefecture
        • Guazhou Co. (Anxi Co.)
    Lishe Wang, Jianguo Yang, Chunlin Xie, Yuxi Wang, Yongxiao Lei, Hongxia Cao, Pengfei Yang, and Yalin Qi (2008): Geotectonica et Metallogenia 32(3), 392-399
    • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
      • Hohhot League (Huhehaote Prefecture)
        • Wuchuan Co.
    Youbin Liang (1981): Geology and Prospecting 17(12), 18-21
    • Shaanxi Province
      • Hanzhong Prefecture
        • Ningqiang Co.
    Xiyue Wang, Huimin Zhang, Sichao Wang, and Yuezhen Wu (1987): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 6(4), 296-306
    • Tibet Autonomous Region
      • Ngari Prefecture
        • Gêrzê Co. (Gaize Co.)
    Bao Peisheng, Xiao Xuchang, Su Li, and Wang Jun (2007): Science in China, Series D (Earth Sciences), 50(5), 660-671.
    • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
      • Hami Prefecture (Kumul Prefecture; Qumul Prefecture)
        • Hami Co. (Kumul Co.; Qumul Co.)
          • Baishiquan ore district
    Fengmei Chai, Zhaochong Zhang, Jingwen Mao, Lianhui Dong, Zuoheng Zhang, Huishou Ye, Hua Wu, and Xinhua Mo (2006): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 25(1), 1-12
    Costa Rica
     
    • Alajuela Province
    Cuba
     
    • Santiago de Cuba Province
    Roesler, Max (1917) Geology of the Iron-Ore Deposits of the Firmeza District, Oriente province, Cuba, AIME Transactions, p. 77-127.
    Czech Republic
     
    • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
      • Vysočina Region
        • Jihlava (Iglau)
          • Stonařov (Stannern)
    von Engelhardt, W. (1963): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 9, 65-94.
    El Salvador
     
    • Sonsonate Department
    www.geo.mtu.edu/volcanoes/central_america/el_salvador/izalco/petro.html a
    Finland
     
    • Lapland Region
      • Penikat complex
        • Sompujärvi Reef
    Barkov, A., Halkoaho, T., Roberts, A., Criddle, A., Martin, R., Papunen, H. (1999) New Pd-Pb and Pb-V oxides frm a bonanza-type PGE-rich, nearly BMS-free deposit in the Penikat layered complex, Finland. Canadian Mineralogist, 37, 1507-1524.
    France
     
    • Franche-Comté
      • Haute-Saône
        • Château-Lambert
    F. André and J. Béhien, Bull. Minéral. , France, 1983, 106, pp. 341-351.
    F. André and J. Béhien, Bull. Minéral. , France, 1983, 106, pp. 341-351.
    F. André and J. Béhien, Bull. Minéral. , France, 1983, 106, pp. 341-351.
    F. André and J. Béhien, Bull. Minéral. , France, 1983, 106, pp. 341-351.
          • Saint-Maurice-sur-Moselle
    F. André and J. Béhien, Bull. Minéral. , France, 1983, 106, pp. 341-351.
    • Rhône-Alpes
      • Drôme
        • Romans-sur-Isère
          • Saint-Jean-en-Royans
    M. Christophe Michel-Lévy, Bull. Minéral. , 1987, 110, pp. 449-458.
    French West Indies
     
    • Guadeloupe
      • Basse-Terre
    Ch. Lefèvre and Ph. Cocusse, Bull. Minéral. , 1985, 108, pp. 189-208.
    Germany
     
    • Hesse
      • Gießen (Giessen)
        • Großen-Buseck
    S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Lower Saxony
      • Harz
        • Bad Harzburg
          • Radau valley
    No reference listed
    • Rhineland-Palatinate
      • Eifel
        • Mayen
          • Ettringen
            • Bellerberg volcano
    Blass, G., Emmerich, F., Graf, HW., Schäfer, Ch., Tschörtner, J., (2006): Minerale der Eifelvulkane, Version 1.0, CD, published by authors
    Greece
     
    • Thraki Department (Thrace; Thracia)
      • Komotini Prefecture (Rodopi; Rhodope)
        • Thermes
    Eur. J. Mineral. , 1994, 6, pp. 733-738.
    India
     
    • Andhra Pradesh
      • Karimnagar District
        • Malial
    Sharma, I. N. and Prakash, D., 2006, Occurrence of Kornerupine-bearing granulite from Karimnagar, Andhra Pradesh, Current Science, v. 91, p. 678-683.
      • Krishna District
    Leelanandam, C, 1997, The Kondapalli Layered Complex, Andhra Pradesh, India : A Synoptic Overview, Gondwana Research, v. 1, Pages 95–114
    Italy
     
    • Campania
      • Naples Province
        • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
    www.dinet.it/Mineral-GMC/AMI/vesuvio.html.
    • Sicily
      • Siracusa Province
        • Melilli
    S. Tonarini et al. , Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, pp. 1153-1173.
      • Trapani Province
    Journal of Petrology (1998)
    Japan
     
    • Chugoku Region
      • Shimane Prefecture
        • Oki Islands
          • Dohgo Island
    Masaru Yamaguchi (1964) Petrogenic Significance of Ultrabasic Inclusions in Basaltic Rocks from Southwest Japan. Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 15, #1, 163-219.
    • Honshu Island
      • Kanto Region
        • Kanagawa Prefecture
          • Yamakita
    unpublished analysis
      • Tohoku Region
        • Miyagi Prefecture
          • Sendai
    Dr. Yohachiro Okamoto collection (curated at Geological Survey museum, Japan)
    • Kyushu Region
      • Saga Prefecture
        • Karatsu City (Higashi-Matsuura-gun)
    Masaru Yamaguchi (1964) Petrogenic Significance of Ultrabasic Inclusions in Basaltic Rocks from Southwest Japan. Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 15, #1, 163-219.
    Madagascar
     
    • Antananarivo Province
      • Vakinankaratra Region
        • Antsirabé 2 District
    Rakotondrazafy, A.F.M., Giuliani, G., Ohnenstetter, D., Fallick, A.E., Rakotosamizanany, S., Andriamamonjy, A., Ralantoarison, T., Razanatseheno, M., Offant, Y., Garnier, V., Maluski, H., Dunaigre, C., Schwarz, D., and Ratrimo, V. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 34, 134-154.
    • Mahajanga Province (Majunga)
      • Melaky Region
        • Morafenobe District
    Lacroix, A. (1922): Mineralogie de Madagascar, Tome I. Géologie-Minéralogie descriptive. A.Challamel (Éditeur), Paris. 624p (p.577)
    • Tuléar Province (Toliara)
      • Anosy Region (Fort Dauphin Region)
        • Amboasary District
          • Tranomaro Commune
    Delbos, L. (1955): Note sur le gisement d'un mineral nouveau " la hibonite" de' l'Androy Mandrareen" in Rapport Annuel du Service Geologique pour 1955, Tananarivo.143-144
    Mexico
     
    • Chihuahua
      • Casas Grandes
    Collectors Edge specimens
    • Durango
    www.asahi-net.or.jp/~UG7S-KTU/e_bytown.htm
    Norway
     
    • Finnmark
      • Hasvik
    Bøe, P. (2001): Geologi og mineralogi på Sørøya i Finnmark. Bergverksmuseets Skrift 18, 23-29
    • Jan Mayen Island
    www.albany.edu/geosciences/cwhitems.html.
    Pacific Ocean
     
    • East Pacific Rise
    R. Hekinian et al. , Bull. Minéral. , 1985, 108, pp. 691-698.
    Portugal
     
    • Bragança District
      • Freixo de Espada à Cinta
        • Poiares
    L. Miguel Gaspar and Carlos M. C. Inverno (2000). Mineralogy and Metasomatic Evolution of Distal Strata-Bound Scheelite Skarns in the Riba de Alva Mine, Northeastern Portugal Economic Geology, v. 95, p. 1259-1275,
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
        • Irkutskaya Oblast'
          • Zheleznogorsk
    Mazurov, M.P., Grishina, S.N., Istomin, V.E., and Titov, A.T. (2007): Geology of Ore Deposits 49(4), 271-284.
      • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
    [World of Stones 12:49]
    • Northern Region
      • Karelia Republic
        • Northern Karelia
          • Oulanka plutonic complex
            • Olanga River (Oulanka River)
    Eur. J. Mineral. , 1993, 5, pp. 1227-1233.
    Slovakia
     
    • Banská Bystrica Region
      • Rimavská Sobota Co.
    Koděra et all.,1990: Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, I-III, 1590p
      • Žarnovica Co.
    Koděra et all.,1990: Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, I-III, 1590p
    • Nitra Region
      • Levice Co.
    Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590
    • Prešov Region
      • Prešov Co.
        • Červenica
    Duda,R. et. all.,1981: MIneralogia severnej časti Slanských vrchov. Min.Slovaca,Monografia 2, Bratislava, 98p
    Ďuďa,R., et al., 1981: Mineralógia severnej časti Slanských vrchov. Min.Slovaca, Monografia 2, 98s
    Duda et. all.,1981:Minerály severnej časti Slanských vrchov. Min.Slovca,Monografia 2,Bratislava, 98 p
    South Korea
     
    • Gyeongsangbuk-do (Kyongsang-bukto; Gyeongsangbugdo)
      • Ulleung-gun
    Atsuo Harumoto (1970) Volcanic Rocks and Associated Rocks of Utsuryoto Island, (Japan Sea). (39pp + geological map)
    Spain
     
    • Aragón
      • Huesca
        • Camporrells
    B. Azambre et al. , Bull. Minéral; , 1987, 110, pp. 379-396.
        • Estopiñán del Castillo
    B. Azambre et al. , Bull. Minéral; , 1987, 110, pp. 379-396.
        • Sopeira
    B. Azambre et al. , Bull. Minéral; , 1987, 110, pp. 379-396.
    • Cantabria
      • Santander
    B. Azambre et al. , Bull. Minéral; , 1987, 110, pp. 379-396.
    B. Azambre et al. , Bull. Minéral; , 1987, 110, pp. 379-396.
    Sweden
     
    • Småland
      • Jönköping
        • Månsarp
    S.Hjelmqvist: The titaniferous iron-ore deposit of Taberg in the southern part of Sweden. SGU C 512, 1950
    Switzerland
     
    • Grischun (Grisons; Graubünden)
      • Bregaglia Valley (Bergell)
        • Löbbia
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 297.
    Tanzania
     
    • Kilimanjaro Region
      • Mt Kilimanjaro
    Jochen Hintze (2010) Lapis, 35, #12, 15-19.
    U.S. Virgin Islands
     
    • St Thomas
    Thomas W. Donnelly (1962) Wairakite in West Indian Spilitic Rocks. American Mineralogist, 47, 794-802.
    UK
     
    • England
      • Cumbria
        • North and Western Region (Cumberland)
          • Keswick District
            • Keswick
    Mark J E - Notes on teh Geology of teh English Lake District Proceedings of teh Geologists' Assoc. Vol 16 No. 9, Aug 1900 p.455
    • Scotland
      • North West Highlands (Inverness-shire)
        • Isle of Skye
    Livingstone, A. (1988): Reyerite, tobermorite, calcian analcime, and bytownite from amygdales in a Skye basalt. Mineralogical Magazine 52, 711-713.
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Cochise Co.
        • Tombstone Hills
          • Tombstone District
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 330.
    • California
      • Riverside Co.
        • Crestmore
    Daly, John W. (1935) Paragenesis of mineral assemblages at Crestmore, California. American Mineralogist: 20: 638-659. Woodford, A.O., Crippen, R.A., and Garner, K.B. (1941) Section Across Commercial Quarry, Crestmore, California. American Mineralogist: 26: 351-381. [email protected]
    • Colorado
      • Chaffee Co.
        • Sedalia District
    ("Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997); U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 829
    • Connecticut
    Januzzi, 1976. Mineral Localities of CT and Southeastern NY State
    • Georgia
      • Elbert Co.
    Minerals of Georgia: Their properties and occurrences. Robert Cook GGWRD Bull 92
      • Jasper Co.
        • Monticello
    Rocks & Min.:64:198.
    Minerals of Georgia: Their properties and occurrences. Robert Cook GGWRD Bull 92
      • Towns Co.
    Minerals of Georgia: Their properties and occurrences. Robert Cook GGWRD Bull 92
    • Maine
      • Franklin Co.
        • Farmington
    King & Foord, 1994. Mineralogy of Maine, V.1, p.272.
      • Knox Co.
        • Warren
    No reference listed
    • Michigan
    www.deq.state.mi.us/documents/deq-glm-rcim-geology-Minerals_Found_In_Michigan.Pdf.
        • Menominee iron range
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
        • Norway Lake
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
    • New Hampshire
      • Grafton Co.
    Meyers & Stewart, 1956. Geology of NH: Part III, Minerals & Mines
    • New Mexico
      • Cibola Co.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
      • Sandoval Co.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
      • Sierra Co.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
      • Taos Co.
    Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. Ed., 1996
      • Cabarrus Co.
        • Concord
    Harry y.MvSween,Jr,Thomas W.Sando,Stephen R.Clark,James T.Harden and E.Alliison Strange,The Gabbro-Metagabbro Association Of The Southern Appalachian Piedmont,American Journal Of Science,Vol.,284April/May,1984,P.437-461
      • Dare Co.
    Speer,J.Alexander (1981) Petrology Of Cordierite And Almandine-Bearing Granitoid Plutons Of The Southern Applachian Piedmont,USA : Canadian Mineralogist Vol.19,pg-35-46 (1981)
      • Davie Co.
    McSween,Jr,Harry Y.,Sando,Thomas W.,Clark,Stephan R.,Harden,James T.,and Strange,E.Allison (1984) The Gabbro-Metagabbro Association Of The Southern Appalachian Piedmont,America Journal Of Science,Vol.284,April/May,1984,p.437-461
    Hadley,Jarvis B (1973) Igneous rocks Of The Oxford Area, Granville County,North Carolina,America Journal Of Science,Cooper Vol 273-A,1973,p 217-233
      • Macon Co.
        • Cowee Valley
          • Ellijay District
            • Franklin
    Absher and McSween H.Y Jr, 1986, Winding Stair Gap granulite
      • Mecklenburg Co.
    McSween Jr,Harry Y.,Sando,Thomas W.,Clark,Stephen R.,Harden,James T.,and Strange,E.Allison (1984) The Gabbro-MetaGabbro Association Of The Southern Appalachian Piedmont,American Journal Of Science,Vol.,284,April/May,1984,P.437-461
      • Rowan Co.
    McSween,Jr,Harry Y.,Sando,Thomas W.,Clark,Stephan R.,Harden,James T and Strange,E.Allison (1984) The Gabbro-Metagabbro Association Of The Southern Appalachian Piedmont,American Journal Of Science, Vol.284,April/May,1984,p.437-461
    • Oregon
      • Klamath Co.
    Howard, D. G. (2008): [Title]. International Micromounters Journal, 15 (3 & 4), 3-6.
    • Pennsylvania
      • York Co.
        • Warrington Township
          • Rosstown
    Mineral Collecting in Pennsylvania; pg 226-228; Geyer, Smith, Barnes, (1976)
    • South Dakota
      • Pennington Co.
    SDSMT Bull 18 Roberts and Rapp "Mineralogy of the Black Hills"
    • Virginia
      • Augusta Co.
    Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
      • Pittsylvania Co.
    Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    • Washington
      • Snohomish Co.
        • Baring
          • Sunset Falls
    Cannon, B. (1975): Minerals of Washington, p.63
    • Wisconsin
      • Lincoln Co.
    R&M 73:11-12 pp 378-399 Wisconsin Mineral Locality Index
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