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Kainosite-(Y)

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Formula:
Ca
 
2
(Y,Ce)
 
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
12
)(CO
 
3
) · H
 
2
O
System:OrthorhombicColour:chestnut brown, straw ...
Hardness:5 - 6
Name:Named by Nordenskiöld (1886) from the greek καινος, uncommon, in allusion to its unusual chemical composition
This page provides mineralogical data about Kainosite-(Y).

Classification of Kainosite-(Y)

IMA status:Approved
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/E.09-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.CF.10

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
C : Cyclosilicates
F : [Si4O12]8- 4-membered single rings, with insular complex anions
Dana 8th edition ID:60.2.1.1

60 : CYCLOSILICATES Four-Membered Rings
2 : Four-Membered Rings with other anion groups
Hey's CIM Ref.:17.4.10

17 : Silicates Containing other Anions
4 : Silicates with carbonates
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Type Occurrence of Kainosite-(Y)

Type Locality:Igletjødn feldspar quarry (Igletjern), Hæstad, Hidra (Hitterø), Flekkefjord, Vest-Agder, Norway
Year of Discovery:1885

Physical Properties of Kainosite-(Y)

Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent
Colour:chestnut brown, straw yellow, colorless
Hardness (Mohs):5 - 6
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Distinct/Good
{110}
Fracture:Sub-Conchoidal
Density (measured):3.52 g/cm3
Density (calculated):3.542 g/cm3

Crystallography of Kainosite-(Y)

Crystal System:Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Cell Parameters:a = 13.05Å, b = 14.33Å, c = 6.77Å
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.911 : 1 : 0.472
Unit Cell Volume:V 1,266.03 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Optical Data of Kainosite-(Y)

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.662 - 1.665 nβ = 1.682 - 1.689 nγ = 1.687 - 1.692
2V:Measured: 40° , Calculated: 38° to 52°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.025 - 0.027

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:High
Dispersion:strong

Chemical Properties of Kainosite-(Y)

Formula:
Ca
 
2
(Y,Ce)
 
2
(Si
 
4
O
 
12
)(CO
 
3
) · H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:Ca2(Y,Ce)2(Si4O12)(CO3)·H2O
Essential elements:C, Ca, H, O, Si, Y
All elements listed in formula:C, Ca, Ce, H, O, Si, Y

Relationship of Kainosite-(Y) to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.CF.05Ashburtonite
Pb
 
4
Cu
 
4
(Si
 
4
O
 
12
)(HCO
 
3
)
 
4
(OH)
 
3
Cl · H
 
2
O
9.CF.15Clinophosinaite
Na
 
12
(Ca,Sr)
 
4
(Si
 
4
O
 
12
)(PO
 
4
)
 
4
9.CF.15Phosinaite-(Ce)
Na
 
13
Ca
 
2
(Ce,La,Th,Nd,Pr)(Si
 
4
O
 
12
)(PO
 
4
)
 
4
9.CF.20Strakhovite
NaBa
 
3
(Mn,Mn)
 
4
Si
 
6
O
 
19
(OH)
 
3
9.CF.25Cerchiaraite-(Mn)
Ba
 
4
Mn
 
4
Si
 
6
(O,OH,Cl)
 
26
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
17.4.1Tilleyite
Ca
 
5
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
17.4.2Spurrite
Ca
 
5
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
17.4.3Paraspurrite
17.4.4Scawtite
Ca
 
7
(Si
 
3
O
 
9
)
 
2
CO
 
3
· 2H
 
2
O
17.4.5Fukalite
Ca
 
4
[Si
 
2
O
 
6
][CO
 
3
](OH)
 
2
17.4.6Meionite
Ca
 
4
Al
 
6
Si
 
6
O
 
24
CO
 
3
17.4.7Cancrinite
(Na,Ca,☐)
 
8
(Al
 
6
Si
 
6
O
 
24
)(CO
 
3
,SO
 
4
)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
17.4.8Carletonite
KNa
 
4
Ca
 
4
Si
 
8
O
 
18
(CO
 
3
)
 
4
(OH,F) · H
 
2
O
17.4.9Iimoriite-(Y)
Y
 
2
[SiO
 
4
][CO
 
3
]
17.4.11Caysichite-(Y)
Ca
 
2
Y
 
2
Si
 
4
O
 
10
(CO
 
3
)
 
3
· 4H
 
2
O
17.4.12Lepersonnite-(Gd)
Ca(Gd,Dy)
 
2
(UO
 
2
)
 
24
(SiO
 
4
)
 
4
(CO
 
3
)
 
8
(OH)
 
24
· 48H
 
2
O
17.4.13Ashburtonite
Pb
 
4
Cu
 
4
(Si
 
4
O
 
12
)(HCO
 
3
)
 
4
(OH)
 
3
Cl · H
 
2
O
17.4.14Surite
(Pb,Ca)
 
3
(Al,Fe
2+
 
,Mg)
 
2
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
17.4.15Tundrite-(Ce)
Na
 
2
Ce
 
2
Ti(SiO
 
4
)(CO
 
3
)
 
2
O
 
2
17.4.16Tundrite-(Nd)
Na
 
3
(Nd,La)
 
4
(Ti,Nb)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)
 
3
O
 
4
(OH) · 2H
 
2
O

Other Names for Kainosite-(Y)

Synonyms:
CenositeKainosite
Other Languages:
German:Cenosit
Kainosit
Kainosit-(Y)
Russian:Кайнозит-(Y)
Simplified Chinese:碳硅钇钙石
Spanish:Cenosita
Kainosita
Traditional Chinese:碳矽釔鈣石

Other Information

Other Information:Effervesces slowly in cold dilute HCl
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Kainosite-(Y)

Reference List:

- +
Nordenskiöld, A.E. (1886): Mineralogiska bidrag. Kainosit, et nytt mineral från Hitterö i Norge. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar 8, 143-146

Schetelig, J. (1922): Kainosit. in Brøgger, W.C, Vogt, Th. & Schetelig, J. (1922): Die Mineralien der südnorwegischen Granitpegmatitgänge. II. Silikate der seltenen Erde. Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter. I.Mat-Naturv. Klasse 1922. 11, 124-127

Giuseppetti, G., Tadini, C., and Oddone, M. (1989) Cenosite-(Y) from Baveno, Novara (Italy): crystal structure. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1989): 153-164.

American Mineralogist (1964): 49: 1738.

G. Pouliot, J. A. Maxwell, and S. C. Robinson (1964): Cenosite from Bancroft, Ontario. Canadian Mineralogist 8, 1-10.

Internet Links for Kainosite-(Y)

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
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  • Kainosite-(Y) details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Kainosite-(Y)

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Austria
     
    • Salzburg
      • Hohe Tauern
        • Obersulzbach valley
          • Hopffeld area
    Preite, D. (2012): Die Mineralien des Hopffeldgrabens im Obersulzbachtal, Österreich. Mineralien Welt. 23 (1), 49-53
          • Seebach valley
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
    Canada
     
    • Ontario
      • Haliburton Co.
        • Cardiff Township
    G. Pouliot, J. A. Maxwell, and S. C. Robinson (1964): Cenosite from Bancroft, Ontario. Canadian Mineralogist 8, 1-10.
      • Lanark Co.
        • North Burgess Township
    Ontario Ministry of Northern Development and Mines MDI Number: MDI31C16SW00017
    Am. Min. (1930) 15:205-219
      • Timiskaming District
        • Cobalt-Gowganda region
          • Gowganda area
            • Haultain Township
    George Robinson 1990
    • Québec
      • Côte-Nord
        • Sept-Rivières RCM
    Louise Corriveau (Date Modified: 2008-12-08) Mineral Deposits of Canada District Metallogeny The Manitou district a Canadian iron oxide copper-gold deposit setting. Geological Survey of Canada
      • Montérégie
        • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
          • Mont Saint-Hilaire
    Horváth, L and Gault, R.A. (1990), The mineralogy of Mont Saint-Hilaire Quebec. Mineralogical Record: 21: 284-359.
      • Nord-du-Québec
        • Nunavik
    BIRKETT, T.C., MILLER, R.R., ROBERTS, A.C., & MARIANO, A.N. (1992) Zirconium bearing minerals from the Strange Lake intrusive complex, Quebec Labrador. Canadian Mineralogist, 30, 191-205.
      • Outaouais
        • Les Collines-de-l'Outaouais RCM
          • Val-des-Monts
            • Lac Saint-Pierre (Wakefield Lake)
    Hogarth, D.D., Chao, G.Y., Plant. G.A. & Steacy, H. R. (1974): Caysichite, a new silico-carbonate of yttrium and calcium. Canadian Mineralogist.12: 293-298
    • Québec & Newfoundland and Labrador
    Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 34, pp.349-371 (1996); A. Kerr and H. Rafuse (2012) Rare-earth element (REE) geochemistry of the Strange Lake deposits: Implications for resource estimation and metallogenic models. Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Natural Resources Current Research 2012 pp39-60
    China
     
    • Sichuan Province
      • Liangshan Autonomous Prefecture
        • Mianning Co.
    Denghong Wang, Yuchuan Chen, Jue Xu, Jianmin Yang, Chunji Xue, and Shenghao Yan (2000): Acta Geologica Sinica 74(3), 478-484.
    Finland
     
    • Western and Inner Finland Region
      • Kangasala
    Reijo Alviola analytical data
    France
     
    • Rhône-Alpes
      • Savoie
        • Tarentaise valley
          • Ruitor massif
            • Sainte-Foy
    De Ascencao Guedes R. et al. (2003), Découverte de kainosite-(Y) au glacier de l'Invernet, Sainte-Foy, Haute-Tarentaise, Savoie, Le Règne Minéral, n°54, pp: 11-17
    Germany
     
    • Baden-Württemberg
      • Black Forest
        • Haslach
          • Urenkopf
    K. Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
    Italy
     
    • Aosta Valley
      • Courmayeur
        • Les Grandes Jorasses Massif
          • Ferret Valley
    Lapis 2004 number 7/8 pp. 37-51
        • Monte Bianco Massif (Mont Blanc Massif)
          • Veny Valley
    Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
    Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
    • Lombardy
      • Varese Province
        • Ceresio Valley
    No reference listed
    • Piedmont
      • Cuneo Province
        • Bagnolo Piemonte
          • Ortieul
    - Finello, G., Ambrino, P., Kolitsch, U., Ciriotti, M.E., Blaß, G., Bracco, R. (2007): I minerali della “Pietra di Luserna”, Piemonte, Italia nord-occidentale. I. Alcune cave di gneiss della Val Luserna. Micro (località), 2/2007, 181-226.; Piccoli, G. C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., & Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo F. Eusebio - Alba, 607 pag.
      • Torino Province
        • Luserna San Giovanni
    Probed EDX-PXRD M.E. Ciriotti - G. Blass
      • Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Province
        • Baveno
          • Oltrefiume
            • Mount Camoscio
    Grill, E. (1935): I minerali del granito di Baveno, la fayalite. Periodico di Mineralogia, 129-133. - Gallitelli, P. (1936): Le miche del granito di Baveno. . Periodico di Mineralogia, 61-76 - Pagliani, G. (1948): Le Zeoliti del granito di Baveno. Periodico di Mineralogia, 175-188. - Ravagnani, D. (1974): I giacimenti uraniferi italiani - Gruppo Mineralogico Lombardo - Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano, Ed., Milano, 188 pp. - min. Rec. 14 (3), 157-168 - Am. Min. 83, 1330-1334 (1998) - Am. Min. 84, 782-789 (1999). - Guastoni, A. & Pezzotta, F. (2004): Kristiansenite a Baveno, second ritrovamento Mondiale della specie. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2004, 247-251. - Guastoni, A., Demartin, F., Pezzotta, F. (2004): Sekaninaite delle pegmatiti granitiche di Feriolo e Baveno (VB). Atti della Società Italiana di Scienze Naturali e del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano, 145, 59-68. - Mineralogist americano (2005) 90, 1442-1452.
    American Mineralogist, 84(5-6), 782-789
        • Ossola Valley
          • Montecrestese
    'Apatite' - Monazite-(Ce) - Synchysite-(Y) - Kainosite-(Y)) sono analizzate
    • Sardinia
      • Cagliari Province
        • San Vito
          • Idda Mt.
    Stara P., Astolfi M. (1990) - San Priamo - Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, fasc. 1, pp. 51-63
      • Olbia-Tempio Pausania Province
        • Calangianus
    - Gamboni, A., Gamboni, T., Pileri, P. (1997): Su alcuni minerali del massiccio granitico del monte Limbara zona "Furru e Conca", comune di Calangianus. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 2/1997, 123-134. Gamboni, A. & Bonacina, E. (2006): Massiccio granitico del Monte Limbara: calcioancylite-(Ce) e kainosite-(Y) di Furru e Conca, Calangianus, Olbia-Tempio Pausania, Sardegna nord-orientale. Micro (località), 1/2006, 137-140.
        • La Maddalena
          • La Maddalena Island
    Gamboni, A. (2003): Cala Francese - La Maddalena (SS). Micro (località), 2003, 11-20
    • Trentino-Alto Adige
      • Bolzano Province (South Tyrol)
        • Sarentine Alps (Sarntal Alps)
          • Fortezza (Franzensfeste)
            • Grasstein
    Folie, K. & Rocchetti, I. (2004): Grasstein – ein Fundort für interessante Mineralien in Südtirol. Mineralien-Welt, 15 (4), 50-64.
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Kinki Region
        • Kyoto Prefecture
          • Kameoka City
    Tsuruta et al. (2005) Chigaku Kenkyu, 54, 89-93.
    Malawi
     
    • Zomba District
    Lapis 29(1), 37-38 (2004)
    Mongolia
     
    • Hovd Aimag (Khovd Aimag)
      • Altai Mts
    P.M. Kartashov data
          • Mount Ulyn Khuren
    P. Kartashov et al. (2002) Can. Mineral. 40, 1641-1648
    P.M. Kartashov data
    Norway
     
    • Aust-Agder
      • Evje og Hornnes
    Husdal, T. (2009): Ancylittmineraler i Norge. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift 41, 33 - 42
      • Gjerstad
    Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p 173
    • Buskerud
      • Krødsherad
        • Krøderen Lake
    Bjørlykke, H. (1960): Årsberetning for 1959. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse 211, Årbok 1959, p. 249
    • Nordland
      • Hamarøy
        • Finnøy
    Husdal, T. (2008): The minerals of the pegmatites within the Tysfjord granite, northern Norway. Norsk Bergverksmuseum, skrift 38, 5-28.
    Husdal, T. (2011): Tysfjordgranittens pegmatitter. Stein. 38 (4): 4-35
    Husdal, T. (2008): The minerals of the pegmatites within the Tysfjord granite, northern Norway. Norsk Bergverksmuseum, skrift 38, 5-28.
      • Rana
    Grauch et al. (1994): Høgtuvaite, a new beryllian member of the aenigmatite group fom Norway, with x-ray data on aenigmatite. Canadian Mineralogist. 32: 439-448.
      • Tysfjord
        • Drag
          • Eivollen
    Sverdrup, T. L. (1968): Contributions to the Mineralogy of Norway No. 37. Yttrofluorite-yttrocerite-cerfluorite in norwegian pegmatites. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 48: 245-252
          • Lapplægeret
    Husdal, T. (2008): The minerals of the pegmatites within the Tysfjord granite, northern Norway. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift 38: 5-28
    Husdal, T. (2008): The minerals of the pegmatites within the Tysfjord granite, northern Norway. Norsk Bergverksmuseum, skrift 38, 5-28.
    • Telemark
      • Drangedal
        • Tørdal
    Raade, G. & Kristiansen, R. (2000a): Mineralogy and geochemistry of the Heftetjern granite pegmatite, Tørdal: a progress report. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrifter. 17, 19-25
    Raade, Sæbø, Austrheim & Kristiansen (1993): Kuliokite-(Y) and its alteration products kainosite-(Y) and kamphaugite-(Y) from granite pegmatite in Tørdal, Norway, European Journal of Mineralogy: 5: 691-698.
      • Kragerø
        • Lindvikskollen-Kalstadgangen pegmatite
    Knut Eldjarn collection
    Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p. 102
      • Skien
        • Kilebygda
    Larsen, A.O. (1993): Gruver og skjerp i Skien. Stathelle 1993. 72p
    • Vest-Agder
      • Flekkefjord
        • Hidra (Hitterø)
          • Hæstad
    Nordenskiöld, A.E. (1886): Mineralogiska bidrag. Kainosit, et nytt mineral från Hitterö i Norge. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar 8, 143-146
    • Vestfold
      • Larvik
        • Tvedalen
    Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 p
    Russia
     
    • Northern Region
      • Murmanskaja Oblast'
        • Kola Peninsula
          • Keivy Mountains
            • Western Keivy Massif
    A.V. Voloshin, Ya.A. Pakhomovskii Minerals and mineralformation evolution in amazonite pegmatites of Kola peninsula, - Leningrad, Nauka, 1986, pp.168.
    • Western-Siberian Region
      • Prepolar Ural
        • Tyumenskaya Oblast'
          • Khanty-Mansi Okrug (Khanty Mansiysk)
            • Saranpaul
    Burlakov, J. V. (1995): Dodo: Alpine Klüfte im Polar-Ural. Lapis. 20 (3), 13-26, 35
    [MinRec 30:465]
    South Africa
     
    • Limpopo Province
      • Bushveld Complex
        • Waterberg District
          • Mokopane (Potgietersrus)
    Minerals of South Africa
    Spain
     
    • Galicia
      • Pontevedra
        • Porriño
    Calvo, M., Viñals, J. and Vila, F. (2009) Mineralogy of the pegmatites and miarolitic cavities in the granitic batholit of Porriño, Pontevedra, galicia, Spain. Mineral Up, (2009-1), 6-23
    • Madrid
    Min. Mag. 70(4),397-404(2006)
    Tanago, J. G., Lozano, P. L., Larios, A. , La Iglesia, A. (2012) Stokesite crystals from La Cabrera, Madrid, Spain. Mineralogical Record 43:499-508
    Sweden
     
    • Dalarna
      • Falun
    No reference listed
    • Värmland
      • Filipstad
        • Nordmark (Nordmarksberg)
    Sjögren, H.(1897): Kainosit från Kogrufvan på Nordmarksfältet. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar, 19: 54-60; Amer. Min. (1930) 15:205-219
    Switzerland
     
    • Bern
      • Hasli Valley
        • Grimsel area
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 235.
          • Oberaar lake area
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 235.
        • Guttannen
          • Handegg
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 235.
    • Grischun (Grisons; Graubünden)
      • Vorderrhein Valley
        • Tujetsch (Tavetsch)
          • Curnera Valley
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 235.
          • Nalps Valley
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 236.
    • Uri
      • Reuss Valley
        • Göschenen
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 235.
    • Vaud (Waadt)
      • Morcles
    Meisser, N. (2012): La minéralogie de l'uranium dans le massif des Aiguilles Rouges. Matér. Géol. Suisse, Sér. géotech. 96, 183 p.
    • Wallis (Valais)
      • Goms
        • Oberwald
    S Wolfsried collection
      • Le Trient Valley
        • Les Marécottes
          • Emosson
    Meisser, N. (2012): La minéralogie de l'uranium dans le massif des Aiguilles Rouges. Matér. Géol. Suisse, Sér. géotech. 96, 183 p.
      • Martigny
        • Mont Chemin
    Graeser S., Reuse G. (2005) - Minéraux provenant du tunnel routier de Martigny. Le Cristallier Suisse, n°1, pp: 23-32
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 394.
      • Visp
        • Baltschieder Valley
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 235.
    UK
     
    • Scotland
      • North West Highlands (Argyllshire)
        • Strontian
    UKJMM 26:23-26
    UKJMM 26:23-26; UKJMM Vol.29 p.15
    UKJMM 26:23-26
      • North West Highlands (Inverness-shire)
        • Isle Of Skye
          • Broadford
          • Luib
    S. Rust collection; UKJMM 26:23-26
    USA
     
    • Arkansas
      • Pulaski Co.
        • Little Rock
          • Granite Mountain area
    Henry Barwood - unpublished (2010)
    • Colorado
      • El Paso Co.
    Hanson, S.L. and Zito, G. (2013) Mineralogy of Miarolitic Pegmatites in the Stove Mountain Area, Colorado. The 40th Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, Contributed Papers in Specimen Mineralogy, 14-15.
      • Fremont Co.
    AmMin 47:328
    "Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", pp. 14-15, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
      • Jefferson Co.
        • South Platte Pegmatite District
    Grant Martin's Collection
    • Idaho
      • Boundary Co.
    Rocks & Min. 70:247
        • Moyie - Yaak District
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; Am Min (1964) 49:1736-1741
    • Maine
      • Hancock Co.
        • Mount Desert
    King, V. and Foord, E., 2000, Mineralogy of Maine, volume 2, Addenda.
    • New York
      • Essex Co.
    USGS Open File report 2010-5220
          • Moriah Township
    http://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2005NE/finalprogram/abstract_83497.htm
      • Hamilton Co.
        • Long Lake
    [MinRecord 31:420]
    • North Carolina
      • Catawba Co.
        • Hickory
    K. Wood collection
    • Virginia
      • Loudoun Co.
        • Leesburg
    Minerals of Virginia, 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    • Washington
      • Okanogan Co.
        • Golden Horn Batholith
    Micro Probe Volume VI Number 8; Rocks and Minerals, 66:6, p. 458; American Mineralogist, V.73, p.1191-1194
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