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Selenium

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Formula:
Se
System:TrigonalColour:Gray to grayish black, ...
Lustre:MetallicHardness:2
Name:From the Greek "selene," the moon, in allusion to tellurium.

Classification of Selenium

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:1/B.03-30
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:1.CC.10

1 : ELEMENTS (Metals and intermetallic alloys; metalloids and nonmetals; carbides, silicides, nitrides, phosphides)
C : Metalloids and Nonmetals
C : Sulfur-selenium-iodine
Dana 7th edition ID:1.3.3.1
Dana 8th edition ID:1.3.4.1

1 : NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
3 : Semi-metals and non-metals
Hey's CIM Ref.:1.53

1 : Elements and Alloys (including the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au)
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Physical Properties of Selenium

Lustre:Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:Gray to grayish black, reddish gray, red
Streak:red
Hardness (Mohs):2
Tenacity:Flexible
Cleavage:Distinct/Good
Good on {0112}
Density (measured):4.8 g/cm3
Density (calculated):4.809 g/cm3

Crystallography of Selenium

Crystal System:Trigonal
Class (H-M):3 2 - Trapezohedral
Space Group:P31 2 1
Cell Parameters:a = 4.3662Å, c = 4.9536Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 1.135
Unit Cell Volume:V 81.78 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:3
Crystal Atlas:
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Selenium - {100}, {101}

About Crystal Atlas

The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Optical Data of Selenium

Type:Uniaxial (+)
RI values: nω = 3.000 nε = 4.040
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 1.040

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Type:Anisotropic
Anisotropism:Very strong
Colour in reflected light:white in air, darker white to grayish brown in oil red in transmitted light
Pleochroism:Visible
Comments:Cream-white to brown

Chemical Properties of Selenium

Formula:
Se
Essential elements:Se
All elements listed in formula:Se
Common Impurities:S

Relationship of Selenium to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
1.CC.05Rosickýite
S
1.CC.05Sulphur
S
 
8
1.CC.10Tellurium
Te
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
1.1Copper
Cu
1.2Silver
Ag
1.5Gold
Au
1.6Auricupride
Cu
 
3
Au
1.7Tetra-auricupride
AuCu
1.8Zinc
Zn
1.9Cadmium
Cd
1.10Danbaite
CuZn
 
2
1.11Zhanghengite
CuZn
1.12Mercury
Hg
1.13Kolymite
Cu
 
7
Hg
 
6
1.14Moschellandsbergite
Ag
 
2
Hg
 
3
1.15Eugenite
Ag
 
11
Hg
 
2
1.16Schachnerite
Ag
 
1.1
Hg
 
0.9
1.17Paraschachnerite
Ag
 
3
Hg
 
2
1.18Luanheite
Ag
 
3
Hg
1.19Weishanite
(Au,Ag)
 
3
Hg
 
2
1.20Indium
In
1.21Aluminium
Al
1.22Khatyrkite
(Cu,Zn)Al
 
2
1.23Cupalite
(Cu,Zn)Al
1.24Diamond
C
1.25Graphite
C
1.26Chaoite
C
1.27Lonsdaleite
C
1.28Silicon
Si
1.29Tin
Sn
1.30Lead
Pb
1.31Anyuiite
Au(Pb,Sb)
 
2
1.31Novodneprite
AuPb
 
3
1.32Leadamalgam
Pb
 
0.7
Hg
 
0.3
1.33Arsenic
As
1.34Arsenolamprite
As
1.35Paxite
CuAs
 
2
1.36Koutekite
Cu
 
5
As
 
2
1.37Domeykite
Cu
 
3
As
1.38Algodonite
(Cu
 
1-x
As
 
x
)
1.39Novakite
Cu
 
20
AgAs
 
10
1.40Kutinaite
Ag
 
6
Cu
 
14
As
 
7
1.41Antimony
Sb
1.42Stibarsen
AsSb
1.43Paradocrasite
Sb
 
3
As
1.44Horsfordite
Cu, Sb
1.45Cuprostibite
Cu
 
2
(Sb,Tl)
1.46Allargentum
(Ag
 
1-x
Sb
 
x
)
1.47Aurostibite
AuSb
 
2
1.48Dyscrasite
Ag
 
3
Sb
1.49Bismuth
Bi
1.50Maldonite
Au
 
2
Bi
1.51Sulphur
S
 
8
1.52Rosickýite
S
1.54Tellurium
Te
1.55Chromium
Cr
1.56Rhenium
Re
1.57Iron
Fe
1.58Chromferide
Fe
 
3
Cr
 
1-x
(x=0.6)
1.59Ferchromide
Cr
 
3
Fe
 
1-x
1.60Wairauite
CoFe
1.61Nickel
Ni
1.62Kamacite
(Fe,Ni)
1.63Taenite
(Fe,Ni)
1.64Tetrataenite
FeNi
1.65Awaruite
Ni
 
3
Fe
1.66Palladium
(Pd,Pt)
1.67Potarite
PdHg
1.68Paolovite
Pd
 
2
Sn
1.69Stannopalladinite
(Pd,Cu)
 
3
Sn
 
2
1.70Cabriite
Pd
 
2
CuSn
1.71Taimyrite-I
(Pd,Cu,Pt)
 
3
Sn
1.72Atokite
(Pd,Pt)
 
3
Sn
1.73Rustenburgite
(Pt,Pd)
 
3
Sn
1.74Zvyagintsevite
(Pd,Pt,Au)
 
3
(Pb,Sn)
1.75Plumbopalladinite
Pd
 
3
Pb
 
2
1.76Osmium
(Os,Ir,Ru)
1.77Iridium
(Ir,Os,Ru)
1.82Platinum
Pt
1.83Hongshiite
PtCu
1.84Niggliite
PtSn
1.85Isoferroplatinum
Pt
 
3
Fe
1.86Tetraferroplatinum
PtFe
1.87Tulameenite
Pt
 
2
CuFe
1.88Ferronickelplatinum
Pt
 
2
FeNi
1.89Rhodium
(Rh,Pt)
Related Minerals - Dana Grouping):

- +
1.3.3.1Paradocrasite
Sb
 
3
As
1.3.3.2Hunchunite
Au
 
2
Pb
1.3.3.2Tellurium
Te

Other Names for Selenium

Synonyms:
Native Selenium
Other Languages:
Afrikaans:Selenium
Arabic:سيلينيوم
Armenian:Սելեն
Azeri:Selen
Basque:Selenio
Belarusian:Селен
Bengali:সেলেনিয়াম
Bosnian (Latin Script):Selen
Bulgarian:Селен
Catalan:Seleni
Corsican:Seleniu
Croatian:Selenij
Czech:Selen
Danish:Selen
Dutch:Seleen
Esperanto:Seleno
Estonian:Seleen
Finnish:Seleeni
French:Sélénium
Friulian:Seleni
Galician:Selenio
German:Selen
Gediegen Selen
Greek:Σελήνιο
Haitian:Selenyòm
Hebrew:סלניום
Hindi:सेलेनियम
Hungarian:Szelén
Icelandic:Selen
Ido:Selenio
Indonesian:Selenium
Irish Gaelic:Seiléiniam
Italian:Selenio
Japanese:自然セレン
Javanese:Selenium
Kannada:ಸೆಲೆನಿಯಮ್
Korean:셀레늄
Latin:Selenium
Latvian:Selēns
Lithuanian:Selenas
Lojban:lurcmu
Low Saxon:Selen
Luxembourgish:Selen
Macedonian:Селен
Malayalam:സെലീനിയം
Manx:Shellainium
Marathi:सेलेनियम
Norwegian (Bokmål):Selen
Norwegian (Nynorsk):Selen
Occitan:Selèni
Persian:سلنیوم
Polish:Selen
Portuguese:Selênio
Quechua:Silinyu
Romanian:Seleniu
Russian:Селен
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Селен
Serbo-Croatian:Selen
Sicilian:Sileniu
Simplified Chinese:自然硒
Slovak:Selén
Slovenian:Selen
Spanish:Selenio
Swahili:Seleni
Swedish:Selen
Tamil:செலீனியம்
Thai:ซีลีเนียม
Turkish:Selenyum
Ukrainian:Селен
Uzbek (Latin Script):Selen
Vietnamese:Selen
Welsh:Seleniwm

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Selenium

Reference List:

- +
Palache, Charles (1934), Contributions to crystallography; claudetite, minasragrite, samsonite, native selenium, indium: American Mineralogist: 19: 194-205; …(abstract): American Mineralogist (1934): 19: 128.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 834pp.: 136-137.

Acta Crystallographica (1953): 71.

Internet Links for Selenium

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
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  • Localities for Selenium

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Argentina
     
    • Catamarca
      • Tinogasta Department
    FOGLIATA, Ana S. y AVILA, Julio C.. El yacimiento de estaño Vil Achay, Catamarca. Rev. Asoc. Geol. Argent. [online]. 2004, vol.59, n.1, pp. 83-90.
    • La Rioja
      • Sañogasta District
    M.K. de Brodtkorb (ed.) (2002) Las Especies Minerales de la Republica Argentina, (Asociacion Mineralogica Argentina)
    Minerales de la Republica Argentina, E. O. Zappettini Ed., Buenos Aires 1999 ISSN 0328-2325
      • Vinchina Department
    Recursos Minerales de la Republica Argentina, E. O. Zappettini Ed., Buenos Aires 1999 ISSN 0328-2325
    Australia
     
    • New South Wales
      • Clive Co.
        • Sandy Flat
    Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
      • Gough Co.
        • Deepwater
    Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
        • Emmaville (Vegetable Creek)
    Metallogenic Study and Mineral Deposit Data Sheets: Grafton-Maclean Metallogenic Map (SH/56-6, SH/56-7), Geological Survey of New South Wales, 2001: HF Henley, RE Brown, JW Brownlow, RG Barnes and WJ Stroud. Published by the Geological Survey of New South Wales.
    • Western Australia
      • Dundas Shire
        • Mundrabilla Roadhouse
    Simpson, E.S. (1938), Some New and Little Known Meteorites Found in Western Australia, Mineralogical Magazine: 25 (December, 1938): 157-171.
      • East Pilbara Shire
    Fetherston, J., Stocklmayer, S., Stocklmayer, V. (2013): Gemstones of WA, Geological Survey of WA
      • Menzies Shire
        • Menangina Station
    Eardleyite as a Product of the Supergene Alteration of Nickel Sulphides in Western Australia; E Nickel, C Davis, M Bussell, P Bridge, J Dunn, R Macdonald; American Mineralogist; Vol 62, pp449-457, 1977.
        • Walling Rock Station
    Bootle Creek Gold deposits, Menzies District, Western Australia; I.D.M. Robertson, CRC LEME, 2003.
      • Wyndham-East Kimberley Shire
        • Lake Argyle area
    Nickel, E., Grey, I., Madsen, I.(1987): Lucasite (Ce) a New Mineral from Western Australia, American Mineralogist (1987):72: 1006-1010
      • Yalgoo Shire
        • Paynes Find
    Pegamtites of Western Australia; M Jacobson, M Calderwood, B Grguric; Hesperian Press, Perth, 2007.
    Austria
     
    • Styria
      • Leoben
    Meixner, H. (1954): Neue Mineralfunde in den österreichischen Ostalpen XIII.- Carinthia II, 144./64., 18-29.
    Belgium
     
    • Hainaut Province (Henegouwen; Hennegau)
      • Charleroi
        • Fleurus
          • Soleimont (Soleilmont)
    Chris Stefano collection
    Bolivia
     
    • Potosí Department
      • Antonio Quijarro Province
    [MinRec 21:133]
      • Chayanta Province
        • Pakajake Canyon (Pacajake Canyon)
    [MinRec 32:476]; Amer.Min.(1969) 54, 1519-1527
    Canada
     
    • Manitoba
      • Snow Lake District
    Phillips, K. A. (1979) Minerals of Manitoba: Volume II: Metallic minerals. Manitoba Mineral Resources Division Educational Series 78/2.
    • Ontario
      • Algoma District
        • Peever Township
    J. A. Mandarino (1965): Molybdomenite from the Ranwick uranium mine, Montreal River area, Ontario. Can. Mineral. 8, 149-158.
      • Nipissing District
        • Dickens Township
    T. S. Ercit (1994) The geochemistry and crystal chemistry of columbite-group minerals from granitic pegmatites, southwestern Grenville Province, Canadian Shield. The Canadian Mineralogist 32:421-438
      • Sudbury District
        • Norman Township
    R. G. Arnold and O. P. Malik (1974) Violarite in some nickel ores from Lynn Lake and Thompson, Manitoba, and Sudbury, Ontario, Canada Can Mineral, 12:320-326
    • Québec
      • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
        • Abitibi RCM
          • Amos
    Sabina, A.P. (2003) Rocks & Minerals for the collector; Kirkland Lake - Rouyn-Noranda - Val d'Or, Ontario & Quebec. GSC Misc. Report 77, 128 p.
      • Gaspésie-Îles-de-la-Madeleine
        • La Côte-de-Gaspé RCM
          • Murdochville
    Allcock, J.B.(1982) Skarn and porphyry copper mineralization at Mines Gaspé, Murdochville, Quebec. Economic Geology, vol.77, 971-999.
    • Saskatchewan
    Econ Geol (1987)82:1169-1176
    • Yukon Territory
      • Dawson Mining District
    Olade, M.A., Goodfellow, W.D. (1979). Lithogeochemistry and hydrogeochemistry of uranium and associated elements in the Tombstone Batholith, Yukon, Canada. In Geochemical Exploration 1978, Proceedings of the Seventh International Geochemical Exploration Symposium, J.R. Watterson, P.K. Theobald (ed.), Association of Exploration Geochemists, p. 407-428.
    China
     
    • Hubei Province
      • Enshi Autonomous Prefecture (E'xi Autonomous Prefecture)
        • Enshi Co.
    Zhu Jian-Ming, Zheng Bao-Shan, Su Hong-Can, Li She-Hong, Mao Da-Jun, Lei Ping, and Finkelman, R.B. (2001): Geochimica 30(3), 236-241; Linbo Yao and Zhenmin Gao (2002): Mineral Deposits 21(suppl.), 837-840; Handong Qian, Zhenghua Zhao, Xiang Zheng, Chengyi Lin, Jiahu Zeng, Xuemei Wu, and Wu Chen (2006): Acta Geologica Sinica 80(11), 1706-1710
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Central Bohemia Region
    Zacek, V., Oplustil, S., Mayova, A. & Meyer, F. R. (1995): Die Mineralien von Kladno in Mittelböhmen, Tschechische Republik. Mineralien-Welt 6 (1), 13-30 (in German).
          • Libušin
    Hyrsl J., Korbel P.; Tschechien & Slowakei, Mineralien und Fundstellen. Bode Verlag, 2008. Page 268-273
      • Hradec Králové Region
        • Trutnov (Trautenau)
          • Radvanice
    Žáček, V., Ondruš, P.: Mineralogy of recently formed sublimates from Kateřina colliery in Radvanice, Eastern Bohemia, Czech Republic. Bulletin of the Czech geological survey, 1998, vol. 73, no. 2, s. 289-302.
    • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
      • Olomouc Region
        • Javorník (Jauernig)
    Sejkora J., Škoda R., Pauliš P. 2006: Selenium mineralization of the uranium deposit Zálesí, Rychlebské Hory Mts., Czech Republic. Mineralogia Polonica - Special Papers, vol. 28, 196-198; Sejkora, J., Pauliš, P., Škoda, R.: Uranové ložisko Zálesí v Rychlebských horách. Minerál, 2007, roč. 15, č. 4, s. 305-238.
    Finland
     
    • Northern Finland Region
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
    Vuorelainen, Yrjö 1962. Tutkimusselostus Kuusamon Juuman-Säkkilän albitiittikiviin liittyvien U-aiheiden malmimineraaliseurueista. Outokummun aineistot, 070/4613/ YV/ 62
    France
     
    • Aquitaine
      • Lot-et-Garonne
    Econ Geol (1989) 84:1541-1556
    • Auvergne
      • Puy-de-Dôme
        • Saint-Amant-Tallende
          • Olloix
    H. Agrinier and J. Geffroy : "Les Minéraux Séléniés du Point Uranifère de Liauzun-en-Olloix (Puy de Dôme) : Clausthalite, Sélénium Natif, Sélénite de Plomb et Chalcoménite", Bull. Soc. Fr. Minéral. Cristallogr., 1967, XC, N°3, 383-386
    • Brittany
      • Côtes-d'Armor
        • Guingamp
    Schillinger N, Schillinger F., Lechenne G. (2001), Galène et améthyste de Bégard, Massif de Plouaret (Côtes d'Armor), Le Règne Minéral, n°42, pp: 10-15
      • Morbihan
        • Le Faouët
          • Berné
    R. Pierrot, L. Chauris, C. Laforêt and F. Pillard : "Inventaire Minéralogique de la France N° 9 : Morbihan", BRGM, 1980.
    • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
      • Hautes-Alpes
        • Saint-Véran area
    TUDURI Johan (2001) Minéralisations cuprifères syn-orogéniques dans les schistes lustrés des Alpes occidentales. Exemple de la mine de cuivre des Clausis (Saint-Véran, France)
    Germany
     
    • Baden-Württemberg
      • Black Forest
        • Menzenschwand
    Walenta: "Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes", Weise (Munich), 1992
        • Wolfach
          • Oberwolfach
            • Rankach valley
    Walenta, K. (1992): Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes. Chr. Weise Verlag, München, 336 pp. (in German); WALENTA, K. (1993): Neue Mineralfunde von der Grube Clara (5. Folge). - Lapis 18 (1), 16-23; Gröbner, J., Kolitsch, U. und Bayerl, R. (2005): Interessante Uranmineralien im Stinkspat der Grube Clara. Lapis 30 (10), 34-39; 90; Gröbner, J., Bayerl, R. und Kolitsch, U. (2006): Weitere Beobachtungen zu den Uran- und Vanadium-Paragenesen der Grube Clara aus den Jahren 2002, 2004 und 2005. Erzgräber 20, 1-10
    • Bavaria
      • Upper Palatinate
        • Schwandorf
          • Wölsendorf Fluorite mining District
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Lower Saxony
      • Harz
        • Clausthal-Zellerfeld
          • Rosenhof veins
            • Lerbach
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
        • Lautenthal
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
    • North Rhine-Westphalia
      • Aachen
        • Alsdorf
    Blaß, G. and Strehler, H. (1993): Mineralbildungen in einer durch Selbstentzündung brennenden Bergehalde des Aachener Steinkohlenreviers. Mineralien-Welt 4 (4), 35-42. (in German)
    • Saxony-Anhalt
      • Harz
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
    • Saxony
      • Dresden
        • Freital
    Thalheim, K.; Reichel, W. & Witzke, T. (1991): Die Minerale des Döhlener Beckens.- Schriften des Staatlichen Museums für Mineralogie und Geologie zu Dresden, Nr. 3
    • Thuringia
      • Gera
        • Ronneburg U deposit
    T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
    T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
    Italy
     
    • Campania
      • Naples Province
        • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
    Russo, M., 2006: I minerali di formazione fumarolica della grande eruzione vesuviana del 1906
      • Phlegrean Volcanic complex
        • Naples Province
          • Phlegrean Fields
            • Cape Miseno
    Francesco Civero collection
    • Liguria
      • Genova Province
        • Ne
    [MinRec 32:360]
            • Reppia
    Redazione (2005): Sistematica ligure: resoconto 2005. Notiziario di Mineralogia Ferrania Club, 19, 3-5.
    • Sicily
      • Catania Province
        • Etna Volcanic Complex
    Mariani & Scaini, 1978. I minerali d'Italia. Rizzoli Ed., Milano.
      • Messina Province
        • Eolie Islands (Aeolian Islands)
          • Lipari
    Mariani & Scaini, 1978. I minerali d'Italia. Rizzoli Ed., Milano.
            • Vulcano Island
    QUERCIGH E. (1935): Sul solfoselenio di Vulcano (Isole Eolie). - Rendiconti dell' Accademia delle Scienze Fisiche e Matematiche di Napoli - 32, 3-7.
    Kazakhstan
     
    • Almaty Province (Almaty Oblysy; Almati Oblast')
      • Middle Ili River
        • Dzharkenskaya Depression
    Pavel M. Kartashov data
    • Karagandy Province (Qaragandy Oblysy; Karaganda Oblast')
    Evseev, A. A. (1995) Kazaknstan and Middle Asia. A brief Mineralogical Guide. World of Stone 8:24-30
    Mexico
     
    • Sonora
      • Mun. de Moctezuma
        • Moctezuma
    Panczner(1987):108-401.
    • Zacatecas
      • Mun. de Ojo Caliente
        • La Blanca
    Parker, R. (2010). Geology And Mineral Resources Of The Bilbao Silver-Lead-Zinc Deposit, State Of Zacatecas, Mexico. Private Company Report for Xtierra Inc.
    New Caledonia
     
    • Northern Province
      • Diahot River Valley
    Briggs, R. M. (1975). Structure, metamorphism and mineral deposits in the Diahot region, northern New Caledonia. Thesis (PhD-Geology), University of Auckland, 1975
    Nicaragua
     
    • León Department
    Gunnar Farber specimens, 2007
    Poland
     
    • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
      • Kłodzko District
    Banaś M., Ottemann J. 1971: Supplementary data on bohdanowiczite, a natural silver-bismuth selenide. Mineralogia Polonica, vol. 2, 37-44; Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
    • Opolskie
      • Nysa District
        • Głuchołazy commune
    Szełęg, E. (2002) Na-meionite (scapolite group) from pegmatite vein of the Sławniowice (Eastern Sudetes, Poland). Miner. Polon., Vol. 33, No 1
    Romania
     
    • Maramureș Co.
      • Baia Sprie (Felsöbánya)
        • Baia Sprie mine (Felsöbánya mine)
    Buzatu, A., Damian, G., & Buzgar, N. (2012) Raman And Infrared Studies Of Weathering Products From Baia Sprie Ore Deposit (Romania). Romanian Journal of Mineral Deposits, 85:7-10
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
      • Tuva Republic
        • Turan District
    http://maurice.strahlen.org/tuva/tuva.htm; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    • Far-Eastern region
      • Sakhalinskaya Oblast'
        • Kuril Islands
          • Kunashir Island
    Econ Geol (1997) 92:468-484
    • Northern Region
      • Karelia Republic
        • Ladoga Region
          • Pitkyaranta District (Pitkäranta District)
    V. I. Ivashchenko, O. B. Lavrov, K. Sundblad and A. N. Toritsin (2007) Au-Ag-Bi-Te-Se vein mineralization at Roikonkoski, Karelia, northern Lake Ladoga region. Geological Survey of Finland, Guide 53 pp 51-56
    • Urals Region
      • Southern Urals
        • Bashkortostan Republic (Bashkiria Republic)
          • Uchaly
    Belogub, E.V., Novoselov, K.A., Spiro, B., and Yakovleva, V.A. (2003): Mineralogical Magazine 67(2), 339-354; Yakovleva, V.A., Belogub, E.V., Novoselov, K.A. (2003): Mineralogical Magazine 67(2), 355-361; Belogub, E.V., Novoselov, K.A., Yakovleva, V.A., and Spiro, B. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 239-254
    Slovenia
     
    • Polhov gradec (Billichgrätz)
      • Črni vrh (Schwarzenbach)
    Albrecht von Quadt, Vladica Cvetković, Rade Jelenković, Miodrag Banjesević, Vladica Cvetković & Aleksandar Pačevski, Ljubomir Cvetković & Robert Moritz(2007) Advances in Regional Geological and Metallogenic Studies in the Carpathians, Balkans, Rhodope Massif and Caucasus (Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria and Georgia) Field Guide
    Spain
     
    • Andalusia
      • Málaga
        • Estepona
    Romero Silva, JC (2003). Minerales y Rocas de la provincia de Málaga. Edited by Cedma. Malaga County Council 318 pg. 1 map
    Switzerland
     
    • Wallis (Valais)
      • Le Trient Valley
        • Les Marécottes
    - Meisser, N. (2012): La minéralogie de l'uranium dans le massif des Aiguilles Rouges. Matér. Géol. Suisse, Sér. géotech. 96, 183 p.
    Tajikistan
     
    • Viloyati Sogd (Viloyati Sughd; Viloyati Khodzhent; Viloyati Leninabad)
      • Zeravshan Range
        • Yagnob River
    D.I.Belakovskiy data
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow; Belakovski D.I.. Die Mineralien der brennenden Kohlefloze von Ravat in Tadshikistan, Lapis, 1990, N 12 p.21-26. (in German)
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Yavapai Co.
        • Black Hills (Black Hill Range)
          • Verde District
            • Jerome
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 366; Galbraith, F.W. (1947), AZ Bur. of Mines Bull. 153, Minerals of AZ: 12; Palache, C. (1934), Contributions to crystallography: Claudetite, minasragite, samsonite, native selenium, iridium, Am.Min.: 19: 194-205; Korbel & Novak, 1999. Minerals Encyclopaedia, p.17.
    • California
      • Inyo Co.
        • Darwin Hills
    www.mineralsocal.org
            • Darwin
    No reference listed
    MinRec 18:148
    • Colorado
      • Garfield Co.
        • East Rifle Creek area
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
      • Gunnison Co.
        • Vulcan District (Cebolla District; Domingo District)
          • Vulcan
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
      • Lake Co.
        • Leadville District
    MinRec 16:171-201
      • Moffat Co.
        • Maybell District
          • Maybell Mines
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
      • Montrose Co.
        • Uravan District
          • Bull Canyon
    Korbel & Novak, 1999. Minerals Encyclopaedia, p.17.; American Mineralogist (1956) Vol. 41, pp. 156-157
          • Paradox Valley
    USGS Prof Paper 320
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
      • Ouray Co.
        • Mt. Sneffels
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
      • San Juan Co.
        • Elk Park
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
      • San Miguel Co.
        • Slick Rock District
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels; Am Min (1958) 43:16-24
    • Idaho
      • Caribou Co.
        • Soda Springs
    Kampf, A. R., Nash,P., and Loomis, T.A. (2013): Phosphovanadylite-Ca, Ca[V#4#+^4P^2O^8(OH)^8.12H^2O, the Ca analogue of phosphovanadylite-Ba. American Mineralogist 98,439-443.
    • Nevada
      • Churchill Co.
        • Lake District
    Doug Merson collection
      • Elko Co.
        • Bootstrap District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
        • Tuscarora District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Eureka Co.
        • Carlin Trend
          • Maggie Creek Subdistrict
    MinRec 26(5):449-469.
        • Lynn District
          • Elko
    MinRecord 26:467
      • Humboldt Co.
        • National District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
        • Osgood Mts
          • Potosi District
    Howard, D and D. Thomssen (2000) Occurrences of Native Selenium in Nevada; USA Micro Probe, newsletter of the NorthWest MicroMineral Study Group, Spring 2000, Volume 1X, Number 1, pgs 15-17.
        • Sulphur District
          • Sulphur
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Nye Co.
        • Danville District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
        • Tonopah District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Pershing Co.
        • Humboldt Range
          • Willard District
    [MinRec 32:297]; Howard, D and D. Thomssen (2000) Occurrences of Native Selenium in Nevada; USA Micro Probe, newsletter of the NorthWest MicroMineral Study Group, Spring 2000, Volume 1X, Number 1, pgs 15-17.
    • New Mexico
      • McKinley Co.
        • Gallup District
          • Church Rock area
    NMBMMR Memoir 15 Geology and Technology of the Grants Uranium Region
    Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. Ed., 1996
          • Ambrosia Lake area
    NMBMMR Memoir 15 Geology and Technology of the Grants Uranium Region
    NMBMMR Memoir 15 Geology and Technology of the Grants Uranium Region
    NMBMMR Memoir 15 Geology and Technology of the Grants Uranium Region
    NMBMMR Memoir 15 Geology and Technology of the Grants Uranium Region
    NMBMMR Memoir 15 Geology and Technology of the Grants Uranium Region
    NMBMMR Memoir 15 Geology and Technology of the Grants Uranium Region
    NMBMMR Memoir 15 Geology and Technology of the Grants Uranium Region
    NMBMMR Memoir 15 Geology and Technology of the Grants Uranium Region
    NMBMMR Memoir 15 Geology and Technology of the Grants Uranium Region
    NMBMMR Memoir 15 Geology and Technology of the Grants Uranium Region
    NMBMMR Memoir 15 Geology and Technology of the Grants Uranium Region
          • Poison Canyon area
    NMBMMR Memoir 15 Geology and Technology of the Grants Uranium Region
          • Smith Lake area
    NMBMMR Memoir 15 Geology and Technology of the Grants Uranium Region
    Econ Geol (1985) 80:1348-1364
    Econ Geol (1985) 80:1348-1364
      • Sandoval Co.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    • Pennsylvania
      • Luzerne Co.
    Reed, Juliet C. (1976), Annotated Biblio. of Mins. New to the Pa List 1965-1974, The Mineralogical Soc. of PA, Inc.: 72; Barnes, J. H. & Lapham, D. M. (1972), "Selenium, Pa's Rarest Mineral?," PA Geol., Vol. 3(2):8-9; Finkelman, R. B., et al (1974), "Observations on Mins. from Burning Anthracite Seams & Culm in PA," Geol. Soc. Am. Abstracts w. Programs, Vol. 5(1): 27-28; Downey, W. F., Jr. (1974); "Geological Conditions in Burning Anthracite-NE PA," Geol. Soc. Am. Abstracts w. Programs, Vol 5(1): 19-20;
      • Northumberland Co.
      • Schuylkill Co.
    American Mineralogist (1977): 62: 316-320.
    • South Dakota
      • Fall River Co.
        • Edgemont Uranium District
          • Craven Canyon
    SDSMT Bull 18 Roberts and Rapp "Mineralogy of the Black Hills"; American Mineralogist (1956) Vol. 41, pp. 156-157
    • Texas
      • Karnes Co.
    Smith, A.E. (1991), Texas Mineral Locations Index, Rocks & Min.: 66(3).
    MINERALS OF THE KARNES URANIUM DISTRICT-THE FRANKLIN OF TEXAS Alan J. Cherepon, http://www.wma-minelife.com/uranium/papers/karnes.htm
      • Live Oak Co.
    R&M 66:3 pp 196-224
    • Utah
      • Grand Co.
        • Polar Mesa District (Polar Mesa)
    Collected by and in the collection of Brent Thorne.
        • Thompsons District (S. E. Thomsons)
          • Parco Mine Group
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah; Am Min 49:1511-1526; Am Min (1964) 49:1511-1526; American Mineralogist (1956) Vol. 41, pp. 156-157
        • Yellow Cat District (W. part of Thompsons District)
    Collected by and in the collection of Brent Thorne.
      • San Juan Co.
        • Blanding
    Rocks & Minerals: 68(6): 398-400.
        • La Sal District (Paradox Valley District)
          • La Sal Creek Canyon
    UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
        • La Sal Quadrangle
    Can. Min. (2001) 39, 6, 1691-1700
    • Virginia
      • Fauquier Co.
        • Gold-Pyrite Belt
          • Midland
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
      • Fluvanna Co.
        • Gold-Pyrite Belt
    Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    • Wyoming
      • Campbell Co.
        • Pumpkin Buttes District
    Page, L. R.; Stocking, H. E.; Smith, H. B. (1956) Contributions to the geology of uranium and thorium by the United States Geological Survey and Atomic Energy Commission for the United Nations International Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva, Switzerland, 1955. USGS Professional Paper 300 pp361-370.
      • Carbon Co.
    Harshman, E. N. (1972) Geology and uranium deposits, Shirley Basin area, Wyoming. USGS Prof Paper 745
      • Fremont Co.
        • Gas Hills District
    Page, L. R.; Stocking, H. E.; Smith, H. B. (1956) Contributions to the geology of uranium and thorium by the United States Geological Survey and Atomic Energy Commission for the United Nations International Conference on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy, Geneva, Switzerland, 1955. USGS Professional Paper 300 pp361-370.
    Uzbekistan
     
    • Kyzylkum Desert
      • Central Kyzylkum Region
        • Lyavlyakan-Beshkak ore field
    Solodov, I.N., Nesterova, M.V., Shugina, G.A., Ganina, N.I., Shulik, L.S., and Solodov, D.I. (2001): Lithology and Mineral Resources 36(1), 43-62.
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