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Bannisterite

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Formula:
Ca
 
0.5
(K,Na)
 
0.5
(Mn,Fe,Zn)
 
10
(Si,Al)
 
16
O
 
38
(OH)
 
8
· 5.5H
 
2
O
System:MonoclinicColour:Dark brown
Hardness:4
Name:Named by Marie Louise Lindberg Smith and Clifford Frondel in 1968 in honor of Dr. Frederick Allen Bannister (1901-1970), mineralogist and x-ray crystallographer, formerly Keeper of Minerals, British Museum (Natural History), London, England, UK. (Originally identified as ganophyllite in 1936 by William Frederick Foshag.)


Dark bown flat platy aggregates.

Classification of Bannisterite

IMA status:Approved 1967
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/H.17-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.EG.75

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
E : Phyllosilicates
G : Double nets with 6-membered and larger rings
Dana 8th edition ID:74.1.1.4

74 : PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
1 : Modulated Layers with joined islands
Hey's CIM Ref.:16.16.15

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
16 : Aluminosilicates of Mn
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Type Occurrence of Bannisterite

Co-type Localities:Benallt Mine (Tyddyn Meirion mine; Ty Canol mine), Rhiw, Llanfaelrhys, Lleyn Peninsula, Gwynedd (Caernarvonshire), Wales, UK
Franklin Mine, Franklin, Franklin Mining District, Sussex Co., New Jersey, USA
Year of Discovery:1967
Geological Setting of type material:Silicate-carbonate hosted zinc deposit.
Associated Minerals at type locality:
QuartzCalciteBaryteAmphibole SupergroupRhodonite
Sphalerite

Occurrences of Bannisterite

Geological Setting:Sulfide-bearing zinc deposits

Physical Properties of Bannisterite

Lustre:Sub-Vitreous, Resinous, Greasy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Translucent
Colour:Dark brown
Streak:Creamy white
Hardness (Mohs):4
Cleavage:Perfect
{001}
Fracture:Micaceous
Comment:Cleavages are smooth without ruling, A-structure, or imperfections typical of True Micas.
Density (measured):2.83 - 2.84 g/cm3
Density (calculated):2.84 g/cm3

Crystallography of Bannisterite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:B2/b {B1 1 2/b} {C2/c} {C1 2/c 1}
Cell Parameters:a = 22.26Å, b = 16.36Å, c = 24.66Å
β = 94.28°
Ratio:a:b:c = 1.361 : 1 : 1.507
Unit Cell Volume:V 8,955.48 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Platy aggregates
Comment:A2/a
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
12.33 (100)
4.593 (10)
4.103 (15b)
3.436 (20)
3.077 (12)
2.638 (15)
2.606 (11)
2.41 (10)
Comments:ICDD 21-57; Structurally similar to ganophyllite and the stilpnomelane group

Optical Data of Bannisterite

Type:Biaxial
RI values: nα = 1.544 - 1.574 nβ = 1.586 - 1.611 nγ = 1.589 - 1.612
2V:Calculated: 18° to 28°
Birefringence:0.045
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.045

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Dispersion:r < v weak to moderate
Pleochroism:Visible
Comments:X colorless to pale yellow

Chemical Properties of Bannisterite

Formula:
Ca
 
0.5
(K,Na)
 
0.5
(Mn,Fe,Zn)
 
10
(Si,Al)
 
16
O
 
38
(OH)
 
8
· 5.5H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:Ca0.5(K,Na)0.5(Mn,Fe,Zn)10(Si,Al)16O38(OH)8·5.5H2O
Essential elements:Ca, H, K, Mn, O, Si
All elements listed in formula:Al, Ca, Fe, H, K, Mn, Na, O, Si, Zn
Common Impurities:Zn,Na

Relationship of Bannisterite to other Species

Common Associates:
ApophylliteFluoriteGalenaQuartzRhodonite
Sphalerite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.EG.05Cymrite
BaAl
 
2
Si
 
2
(O,OH)
 
8
· H
 
2
O
9.EG.10Naujakasite
(Na,K)
 
6
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
,Ca)(Al,Fe)
 
4
Si
 
8
O
 
26
9.EG.10Manganonaujakasite
Na
 
6
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)Al
 
4
Si
 
8
O
 
26
9.EG.15Dmisteinbergite
CaAl
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
9.EG.20Kampfite
Ba
 
12
(Si
 
11
Al
 
5
)O
 
31
(CO
 
3
)
 
8
Cl
 
5
9.EG.25Strätlingite
Ca
 
2
Al
 
2
SiO
 
7
· 8H
 
2
O
9.EG.25Vertumnite
Ca
 
4
Al
 
4
Si
 
4
O
 
6
(OH)
 
24
· 3H
 
2
O
9.EG.30Eggletonite
(Na,K,Ca)
 
2
(Mn,Fe)
 
8
(Si,Al)
 
12
O
 
29
(OH)
 
7
· 11H
 
2
O
9.EG.30Ganophyllite
(K,Na,Ca)
 
2
Mn
 
8
(Si,Al)
 
12
(O,OH)
 
32
· 8H
 
2
O
9.EG.30Tamaite
(Ca,K,Ba,Na)
 
3-4
Mn
 
24
(Si,Al)
 
40
(O,OH)
 
112
· 21H
 
2
O
9.EG.35Coombsite
K(Mn,Fe,Mg)
 
13
(Si,Al)
 
18
O
 
42
(OH)
 
14
9.EG.35Zussmanite
K(Fe,Mg,Mn)
 
13
(Si,Al)
 
18
O
 
42
(OH)
 
14
9.EG.40Franklinphilite
(K,Na)
 
4
(Mn,Zn,Mg,Fe)
 
48
(Si,Al)
 
72
(O,OH)
 
216
· 6H
 
2
O
9.EG.40Lennilenapeite
K
 
6-7
(Mg,Mn,Fe,Zn)
 
48
(Si,Al)
 
72
(O,OH)
 
216
· 16H
 
2
O
9.EG.40Parsettensite
K
 
1.2
Mn
 
8
(Si,Al)
 
12
O
 
26
(OH)
 
10
9.EG.40Stilpnomelane
(K,Ca,Na)(Fe
2+
 
,Mg,Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
8
(Si,Al)
 
12
(O,OH)
 
36
· nH
 
2
O
9.EG.45Latiumite
(Ca,K)
 
4
(Si,Al)
 
5
O
 
11
(SO
 
4
,CO
 
3
)
9.EG.45Tuscanite
(K(Ca,Na)
 
6
(Si,Al)
 
10
O
 
22
[SO
 
4
,CO
 
3
,(OH)
 
2
] · H
 
2
O
9.EG.50Jagoite
Pb
 
18
Fe
3+
4
[Si
 
4
(Si,Fe
3+
 
)
 
6
][Pb
 
4
Si
 
16
(Si,Fe)
 
4
]O
 
82
Cl
 
6
9.EG.55Wickenburgite
CaPb
 
3
Al
 
2
Si
 
10
O
 
24
(OH)
 
6
9.EG.60Hyttsjöite
Pb
 
18
Ba
 
2
Ca
 
5
Mn
2+
2
Fe
3+
2
Si
 
30
O
 
90
Cl · 6H
 
2
O
9.EG.65Armbrusterite
K
 
5
Na
 
7
Mn
 
15
[(Si
 
9
O
 
22
)
 
4
](OH)
 
10
· 4H
 
2
O
9.EG.70Britvinite
[Pb
 
7
(OH)
 
3
F(BO
 
3
)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)][Mg
 
4.5
(OH)
 
3
(Si
 
5
O
 
14
)]
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
16.16.1Kanonaite
Mn
3+
 
Al(SiO
 
4
)O
16.16.2Spessartine
Mn
2+
3
Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
3
16.16.3Davreuxite
MnAl
 
6
Si
 
4
O
 
17
(OH)
 
2
16.16.4Sursassite
Mn
2+
2
Al
 
3
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)(SiO
 
4
)(OH)
 
3
16.16.5Carpholite
Mn
2+
 
Al
 
2
(Si
 
2
O
 
6
)(OH)
 
4
16.16.6Kellyite
Mn
2+
2
Al(AlSiO
 
5
)(OH)
 
4
16.16.7Pennantite
Mn
2+
5
Al(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
8
16.16.8Akatoreite
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)
 
9
Al
 
2
(HSi
 
4
O
 
13
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
16.16.9Ganophyllite
(K,Na,Ca)
 
2
Mn
 
8
(Si,Al)
 
12
(O,OH)
 
32
· 8H
 
2
O
16.16.10Mangano-arfvedsonite
[Na][Na
 
2
][Mn
2+
4
(Fe
3+
 
)]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
16.16.11Masutomilite
(K,Rb)(Li,Mn
3+
 
,Al)
 
3
(AlSi
 
3
O
 
10
)(F,OH)
 
2
16.16.13Howieite
Na(Fe,Mn)
 
10
(Fe,Al)
 
2
Si
 
12
O
 
31
(OH)
 
13
16.16.14Eggletonite
(Na,K,Ca)
 
2
(Mn,Fe)
 
8
(Si,Al)
 
12
O
 
29
(OH)
 
7
· 11H
 
2
O
16.16.16Taneyamalite
(Na,Ca)(Mn,Mg,Fe)
 
12
Si
 
12
(O,OH)
 
44
16.16.17Zussmanite
K(Fe,Mg,Mn)
 
13
(Si,Al)
 
18
O
 
42
(OH)
 
14
16.16.18Coombsite
K(Mn,Fe,Mg)
 
13
(Si,Al)
 
18
O
 
42
(OH)
 
14
16.16.19Henritermierite
Ca
 
3
(Mn
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
16.16.20Macfallite
Ca
 
2
(Mn
3+
 
,Al)
 
3
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)(SiO
 
4
)(OH)
 
3
16.16.21Ottrélite
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,Mg)Al
 
2
(SiO
 
4
)O(OH)
 
2
16.16.22Piemontite
{Ca
 
2
}{Al
 
2
Mn
3+
 
}(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)(SiO
 
4
)O(OH)
16.16.23Okhotskite
Ca
 
2
(Mn
2+
 
,Mg)(Mn
3+
 
,Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)(SiO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
16.16.24Pumpellyite-(Mn2+)
Ca
 
2
(Mn
2+
 
,Mg)(Al,Mn
3+
 
,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)(SiO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
16.16.25Piemontite-(Sr)
{CaSr}{Al
 
2
Mn
3+
 
}(Si
 
2
O
 
7
)(SiO
 
4
)O(OH)

Other Names for Bannisterite

Synonyms:
IMA1967-005
Other Languages:
German:Bannisterit
Russian:Баннистерит
Spanish:Bannisterita

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Not fluorescent in UV
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Bannisterite

Reference List:

- +
Pavlides, Louis and Milton, Charles, 1962, Geology and Manganese Deposits of the Maple and Hovey Mountains Area, Aroostook County, Maine, U. S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 362, pp. 116 + plates.

Smith, M.L. and Frondel, C. (1968) The related layered minerals ganophyllite, bannisterite and stilpnomelane. Mineralogical Magazine: 36: 893-913.

American Mineralogist (1969): 54: 577.

American Mineralogist (1981): 66: 1063-1067.

American Mineralogist (1993): 78: 236.

Clays and Clay Minerals: 40: 129-144.

Internet Links for Bannisterite

Search Engines:
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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Bannisterite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Bannisterite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • New South Wales
      • Yancowinna Co.
    Birch, W. D., ed. (1999): The minerals of Broken Hill. Broken Hill City Council and Museum of Victoria, Broken Hill, Australia, 289 pp.
    Birch et al - 1999, Minerals of Broken Hill - Second Edition.
    Keith Compton collection
    Japan
     
    • Honshu Island
      • Chubu region
        • Shizuoka prefecture
    Sameshima, Teruhiko; Ono, Susumu (1994) Ferroaxinite and datolite from Mt. Nio, Shizuoka city, central Japan. Geosci.Repts.Shizuoka Univ.,20 (Mar.,1994),1−4
      • Kanto Region
        • Saitama Prefecture
          • Hannou
    Satoshi Matsubara (1981) Taneyamalite, (Na, Ca)(Mn2+,Mg,Fe3+,Al)12Si12 (O,OH)44, a New Mineral from the Iwaizawa Mine, Saitama Prefecture, Japan. Mineralogical Magazine 44:51-53.
      • Tohoku Region
        • Iwate Prefecture
          • Shimohei-gun
            • Yamada
    Dr. Matsuo Nambu ore collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
    • Shikoku Island
      • Kochi Prefecture
    Masutomi Museum specimen, Kyoto; Smith, M.L. and Frondel, C. (1968) The related layered minerals ganophyllite, bannisterite and stilpnomelane. Mineralogical Magazine: 36: 893-913.
    Norway
     
    • Telemark
      • Tokke
        • Botnedal
    Wel, D.van der. (1999): The Minerals of the Brandsnuten Manganes Deposit, Tokke, Norway. Bergverksmuseets Skrift 15: 74-86
    Romania
     
    • Suceava Co.
      • Suceava district
        • Iacobeni (Jakobeny; Jacobeny; Jakabfalva)
    http://minerals-of-the-carpathians.eu
    Russia
     
    • Urals Region
      • Middle Urals
        • Sverdlovskaya Oblast'
          • Ekaterinburg (Sverdlovsk)
            • Kurganovo
    Brusnitsyn A.I. (2000) Rhodonite deposits of Middle Ural, - S.-Peterburg Univercity press, p. 200 (in Rus.).
    Slovakia
     
    • Košice Region
      • Gelnica Co.
    Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590k
      • Košice Co.
    Pauliš P., Ďuďa R., 2002: Nejzajimavejší mineralogická nalezište Slovenska. Kuttna, Kutná Hora, 134p.
    Sweden
     
    • Västmanland
      • Lindesberg
    No reference listed
    Kjell Gatedal
    UK
     
    • Wales
      • Gwynedd (Caernarvonshire)
        • Lleyn Peninsula
          • Llanfaelrhys
            • Rhiw
    Smith, M.L. and Frondel, C. (1968) The related layered minerals ganophyllite, bannisterite and stilpnomelane. Mineralogical Magazine: 36: 893-913.; UK Journal of mines & Minerals, number 29 pp47-48
    USA
     
    • New Jersey
      • Sussex Co.
        • Franklin Mining District
          • Franklin
    Dunn(1995):Pt4:487.; Smith, M.L. and Frondel, C. (1968) The related layered minerals ganophyllite, bannisterite and stilpnomelane. Mineralogical Magazine: 36: 893-913.
    • North Carolina
      • Alleghany Co.
        • Sparta
          • Bald Knob
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