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Stilpnomelane

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Formula:
(K,Ca,Na)(Fe
2+
 
,Mg,Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
8
(Si,Al)
 
12
(O,OH)
 
36
· nH
 
2
O
System:TriclinicColour:Red, brown, black, dark ...
Hardness:3 - 4
Name:
Named in 1827 by Ernst Friedrich Glocke from Greek στιλπνοζ "stilpnos" ("shining"), and μελανοζ "melanos" ("black"), alluding to its appearance.
Isostructural with:Chalcodite, Franklinphilite, Parsettensite


May be confused with biotite and other brownish mica.

Classification of Stilpnomelane

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:8/H.17-40
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:9.EG.40

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
E : Phyllosilicates
G : Double nets with 6-membered and larger rings
Dana 8th edition ID:74.1.1.1

74 : PHYLLOSILICATES Modulated Layers
1 : Modulated Layers with joined islands
Hey's CIM Ref.:16.20.9

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
20 : Aluminosilicates of Fe, Mg and alkalis
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Type Occurrence of Stilpnomelane

Type Locality:Melchior and Tobias adits, Horní Údolí (Obergrund), Zlaté Hory (Zuckmantel), Olomouc Region, Moravia (Mähren; Maehren), Czech Republic
Year of Discovery:1827

Occurrences of Stilpnomelane

Geological Setting:Banded iron formations, blueschist and greenschist facies of metamorphic rocks, metamorphosed massive sulphide deposits.

Physical Properties of Stilpnomelane

Lustre:Sub-Vitreous, Pearly, Sub-Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Translucent
Comment:Pearly to vitreous on cleavage
Colour:Red, brown, black, dark green, dark reddish brown, golden brown
Streak:White, grey
Hardness (Mohs):3 - 4
Cleavage:Perfect
Perfect on {001}
imperfect {010}
Density (measured):2.59 - 2.96 g/cm3
Density (calculated):2.667 g/cm3

Crystallography of Stilpnomelane

Crystal System:Triclinic
Class (H-M):1 - Pinacoidal
Space Group:P1
Cell Parameters:a = 21.72Å, b = 21.72Å, c = 17.4Å
α = 124.14°, β = 95.86°, γ = 120°
Ratio:a:b:c = 1 : 1 : 0.801
Unit Cell Volume:V 4,974.93 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:Plates or scales, plumose or radiating groups

Optical Data of Stilpnomelane

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.543 - 1.634 nβ = 1.576 - 1.745 nγ = 1.576 - 1.745
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.033 - 0.111

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Dispersion:none
Pleochroism:Visible
Comments:X- bright golden yellow to pale yellow
Y= Z= deep reddish brown, to deep green to nearly black

Chemical Properties of Stilpnomelane

Formula:
(K,Ca,Na)(Fe
2+
 
,Mg,Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
8
(Si,Al)
 
12
(O,OH)
 
36
· nH
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:(K,Ca,Na)(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)8(Si,Al)12(O,OH)36·nH2O
Essential elements:Fe, H, K, O, Si
All elements listed in formula:Al, Ca, Fe, H, K, Mg, Na, O, Si
Common Impurities:Ti,Mn,Ca,Na,K,H2O

Relationship of Stilpnomelane to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
9.EG.05Cymrite
BaAl
 
2
Si
 
2
(O,OH)
 
8
· H
 
2
O
9.EG.10Naujakasite
(Na,K)
 
6
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
,Ca)(Al,Fe)
 
4
Si
 
8
O
 
26
9.EG.10Manganonaujakasite
Na
 
6
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)Al
 
4
Si
 
8
O
 
26
9.EG.15Dmisteinbergite
CaAl
 
2
Si
 
2
O
 
8
9.EG.20Kampfite
Ba
 
12
(Si
 
11
Al
 
5
)O
 
31
(CO
 
3
)
 
8
Cl
 
5
9.EG.25Strätlingite
Ca
 
2
Al
 
2
SiO
 
7
· 8H
 
2
O
9.EG.25Vertumnite
Ca
 
4
Al
 
4
Si
 
4
O
 
6
(OH)
 
24
· 3H
 
2
O
9.EG.30Eggletonite
(Na,K,Ca)
 
2
(Mn,Fe)
 
8
(Si,Al)
 
12
O
 
29
(OH)
 
7
· 11H
 
2
O
9.EG.30Ganophyllite
(K,Na,Ca)
 
2
Mn
 
8
(Si,Al)
 
12
(O,OH)
 
32
· 8H
 
2
O
9.EG.30Tamaite
(Ca,K,Ba,Na)
 
3-4
Mn
 
24
(Si,Al)
 
40
(O,OH)
 
112
· 21H
 
2
O
9.EG.35Coombsite
K(Mn,Fe,Mg)
 
13
(Si,Al)
 
18
O
 
42
(OH)
 
14
9.EG.35Zussmanite
K(Fe,Mg,Mn)
 
13
(Si,Al)
 
18
O
 
42
(OH)
 
14
9.EG.40Franklinphilite
(K,Na)
 
4
(Mn,Zn,Mg,Fe)
 
48
(Si,Al)
 
72
(O,OH)
 
216
· 6H
 
2
O
9.EG.40Lennilenapeite
K
 
6-7
(Mg,Mn,Fe,Zn)
 
48
(Si,Al)
 
72
(O,OH)
 
216
· 16H
 
2
O
9.EG.40Parsettensite
K
 
1.2
Mn
 
8
(Si,Al)
 
12
O
 
26
(OH)
 
10
9.EG.45Latiumite
(Ca,K)
 
4
(Si,Al)
 
5
O
 
11
(SO
 
4
,CO
 
3
)
9.EG.45Tuscanite
(K(Ca,Na)
 
6
(Si,Al)
 
10
O
 
22
[SO
 
4
,CO
 
3
,(OH)
 
2
] · H
 
2
O
9.EG.50Jagoite
Pb
 
18
Fe
3+
4
[Si
 
4
(Si,Fe
3+
 
)
 
6
][Pb
 
4
Si
 
16
(Si,Fe)
 
4
]O
 
82
Cl
 
6
9.EG.55Wickenburgite
CaPb
 
3
Al
 
2
Si
 
10
O
 
24
(OH)
 
6
9.EG.60Hyttsjöite
Pb
 
18
Ba
 
2
Ca
 
5
Mn
2+
2
Fe
3+
2
Si
 
30
O
 
90
Cl · 6H
 
2
O
9.EG.65Armbrusterite
K
 
5
Na
 
7
Mn
 
15
[(Si
 
9
O
 
22
)
 
4
](OH)
 
10
· 4H
 
2
O
9.EG.70Britvinite
[Pb
 
7
(OH)
 
3
F(BO
 
3
)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)][Mg
 
4.5
(OH)
 
3
(Si
 
5
O
 
14
)]
9.EG.75Bannisterite
Ca
 
0.5
(K,Na)
 
0.5
(Mn,Fe,Zn)
 
10
(Si,Al)
 
16
O
 
38
(OH)
 
8
· 5.5H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
16.20.1Glaucophane
◻[Na
 
2
][Mg
 
3
Al
 
2
]Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
16.20.2Sodium-anthophyllite
16.20.3Sodium Gedrite
16.20.4Crossite
16.20.5Ferro-eckermannite
NaNa
 
2
(Fe
2+
 
,
 
4
Al)Si
 
8
O
 
22
(OH)
 
2
16.20.6Wonesite
(Na,K)(Mg,Fe,Al)
 
6
((Al,Si)
 
4
O
 
10
)
 
2
(OH,F)
 
4
16.20.8Lennilenapeite
K
 
6-7
(Mg,Mn,Fe,Zn)
 
48
(Si,Al)
 
72
(O,OH)
 
216
· 16H
 
2
O
16.20.10Glauconite
(K,Na)(Fe
3+
 
,Al,Mg)
 
2
((Si,Al)
 
4
O
 
10
)(OH)
 
2

Other Names for Stilpnomelane

Synonyms:
ChrysobiotiteFerrostilpnomelaneMinguetite
Other Languages:
German:Minguétit
Stilpnomelan
Simplified Chinese:黑硬绿泥石
Spanish:Minguétita
Traditional Chinese:黑硬綠泥石
Varieties:
EkmaniteFerristilpnomelaneManganoan Stilpnomelane

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Stilpnomelane

Reference List:

- +
Beitr. mineral. Kenntnis Sudetenländer (1827): pt. 1, p. 68.

Hutton, Colin Osborne (1956): Further data on the stilpnomelane mineral group: American Mineralogist: 41: 608-615.

Smith, M.L. and Frondel, C. (1968): The related layered minerals ganophyllite, bannisterite and stilpnomelane. Mineralogical Magazine: 36: 893-913.

Mineralogical Magazine (1978): 42: 361-368.

Internet Links for Stilpnomelane

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Stilpnomelane details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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    Localities for Stilpnomelane

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