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Iron Monarch open cut, Iron Knob, Middleback Range, Eyre Peninsula, South Australia, Australia
© Leon Hupperichs
Monoclinic clay-like minerals.
Positive identification of minerals in the smectite group may need data from dehydration experiments (thermogravimetric analysis, TGA, or differential thermo-analysis, DTA), and X-ray powder patterns before and after treatment by heating and with organic liquids.
The most common members are montmorillonite, nontronite and saponite.
Classification of Smectite Group
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Chemical Properties of Smectite Group
|Simplified for copy/paste:||A0.3D2-3[T4O10]Z2·nH2O|
Relationship of Smectite Group to other Species
Other Names for Smectite Group
|Health Warning:||No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.|
References for Smectite Group
Schultz, L.G. (1969), Lithium and potassium absorption, dehydroxylation temperature and structural water content of aluminous smectites: Clays and Clay Minerals 17: 115-149.
Harder, H. (1972), The role of magnesium in the formation of smectite minerals: Chemical Geology: 10: 31-39.
Lagaly, G. and A. Weiss (1975), The layer charge of smectite layer silicates. In S.W. Bale, Editor, Proceedings of International Clay Conference, Mexico p. 157-172. Applied Publishing Ltd., Wilmette, Illinois.
Eslinger, E., P. Highsmith, D. Albers, and B. deMayo (1979), Role of iron reduction in the conversion of smectite to illite in bentonites in the disturbed belt, Montana: Clays and Clay Minerals: 27: 327-338.
Brigatti, M.F. and L. Poppi (1981), A mathematical model to distinguish the members of the dioctahedral smectite series: Clay Minerals: 16: 81-89.
Nahon, D., F.Colin, and Y. Tardy (1982), Formation and distribution of Mg, Fe, Mn- smectites in the first stages of the lateritic weathering of forsterite and tephroite. Clay Minerals: 17: 339-348.
Brigatti, M.F. (1983), Relationships between composition and structure in Fe-rich smectites: Clay Minerals: 18: 177-186.
Talibudeen, O., and K.W.T. Goulding (1983), Charge heterogeneity in smectites: Clays and Clay Minerals: 31: 37-42.
May, H.M., D.G. Kinniburgh, P.A. Helmke, and M.L. Jackson (1986), Aqueous dissolution, solubilities and thermodynamic stabilities of common alumino-siolicate clay minerals; kaolinite and smectite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 50: 1667-1677.
Nadeau, P. and D. Bain (1986), Composition of some smectites and diagenetic illitic clays and implications for their origin: Clays and Clay Minerals: 34: 455-464.
Decarreau, A., F. Colin, A. Herbillon, A. Manceau, D. Nahon, H. Paquet, D. Trauth-Badeaud, and J.J. Trescases (1987), Domain segregation in Ni-Fe-Mg-smectites: Clays and Clay Minerals: 35: 1-10.
Iwazaki, T. and T. Watanabe (1988), Distribution of Ca and Na ions in dioctahedral smectites and interstratified dioctahedral mica/smectites: Clays and Clay Minerals: 36: 73-82.
Madejova, J., K. Putyera, and B. Čičel (1992)Proportion of central atoms in octahedral layers of smectites calculated from IR spectra: Geologica Carpathica Series Clays: 43: 117-120.
Christidis, G.E. and A.C. Dunham (1997), Compositional variations in smectites: Part II. Alteration of acidic precursors. A case study from Milos Island, Greece: Clay Minerals: 32: 253-270.
Madejova, J., P. Komadel, and B. Čičel (1994), Infrared study of octahedral site populations in smectites: Clay Minerals: 29: 319-326.
Cuadros, J., and S.P. Altaner (1998), Compositional and structural features of the octahedral sheet in mixed layer illite-smectite from bentonites: European Journal of Mineralogy: 10: 111-124.
Köster, H.M., U. Ehrlicher, H.A. Gilg, R. Jordan, E. Murad, and K. Onnich (1999), Mineralogical and chemical characteristics of five nontronites and Fe-rich smectites: Cay Minerals: 34: 579-599.
Manceau, A., B. Lanson, V.A. Drits, D. Chateigner, W.P. Gates, J. Wu, D. Huo, and J.W. Stucki (2001), Oxidation-reduction mechanism of iron in dioctahedral smectites. I. Crystal chemistry of oxidized reference nontronites: American Mineralogist: 85: 133-152.
Christidis, George E. and D.D. Eberl (2003), Determination of layer charge characteristics of smectites. Clays and Clay Minerals: 51: 644-655.
Pironon, J., Pelletier, M., De Donato, P. and Mosser-Ruck, R. (2003) Characterization of smectite and illite by FTIR spectroscopy of interlayer NH4 + cations. Clay Minerals: 38: 201-211.
Sainz-Diaz, C.I., E.J. Palin, M.T. Dove, and A. Hernandez-Laguna (2003a), Monte Carlo simulations of ordering of Al, Fe and Mg cations in the octahedral sheet of smectites and illites: American Mineralogist: 88: 1033-1045.
Sainz-Diaz, C.I., E.J. Palin, A. Hernandez-Laguna, and M.T. Dove (2003b), Octahedral cation ordering of illite and smectite. Theoretical exchange potential determination and Monte Carlo simulation: Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 30: 382-392.
Gaudin, A., S. Petit, J. Rose, F. Martin, A. Decarreau, Y. Noack, and D. Borschneck (2004), The accurate crystal chemistry of ferric smectites from the lateritic nickel ore of Murin Murin (Western Australia). II. Spectroscopic (IR and EXAFS) approaches: Clay Minerals: 39: 453-467.
Dainyak, Lidia G., Victor A. Drits, Bella B. Zviagina, and Holger Lindgreen (2006), Cation redistribution in the octahedral sheet during diagenesis of illite-smectites from Jurassic and Cambrian oil source rock shales: American Mineralogist: 91: 589-603.
Christidis, George E. (2006), Genesis and compositional heterogeneity of smectites. Part III: Alteration of basic pyroclastic rocks - A case study from the Troodos Ophiolite Complex, Cyprus: American Mineralogist: 91: 685-701.
Internet Links for Smectite Group
Localities for Smectite Group
The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.