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Santa Eulalia District, Mun. de Aquiles Serdán, Chihuahua, Mexico

This page kindly sponsored by Peter Megaw
 
 
The Santa Eulalia Mining District lies in central Chihuahua, Mexico at latitude 28o 35' N; longitude 105o 50' W; about 360 km south of El Paso, Texas and 23 km east of Chihuahua City (Fig. 1). The district occupies the approximate center of the north-northwest elongate, fault-bounded Sierra Santa Eulalia (a.k.a. Sierra Santo Domingo) whose peaks rise up to 700 m above the surrounding plains. Maximum elevations exceed 2400 m and the numerous deep canyons carved into the limestone and volcanic rocks of the range create a very rugged topography. Santa Eulalia has been in nearly continuous production for over three centuries (1703-present) and ranks as one of Mexico's chief silver and base metal producers with over a half billion troy ounces of silver and nearly 6 million tonnes of lead and zinc recovered. The City of Chihuahua was built by Spanish pioneers on the riches emanating from Santa Eulalia over the first 200 years of mining and, although modern industry now dominates Chihuahua's economy.

In a regional geological and mineralogical perspective, Santa Eulalia is the largest of a number of similar Carbonate Replacement Deposits that occur in a 2200 km long belt running from Hidalgo State to the Chihuahua-U.S.A. border…and into the USA (Megaw et al., 1988). This belt of deposits includes many of Mexico’s most prolific specimen-producing mines such as: Ojuela, Naica, Concepcion del Oro, Los Lamentos, San Carlos, San Pedro Corralitos, Charcas and Sabinas-San Martin. That these deposits are prolific specimen producers stems from aspects of their primary genesis and subsequent oxidation that create abundant open space during times when crystal growth potential is high. Additionally, the largest Carbonate Replacement Deposits characteristically underwent multiple stages or pulses of mineralization and oxidation, which results in mineralogical overprinting and the creation of a wide range of pseudomorphs. Santa Eulalia is especially well endowed in this regard.

The Sierra Santa Eulalia consists of Cretaceous carbonate and evaporite strata deformed into a broad, north-northwest-trending, doubly-plunging anticline with generally gentle dips. These rocks were subsequently deeply eroded and unconformably buried by a southward-thickening succession of early- and mid-Tertiary volcaniclastic and caldera-related volcanic rocks. Pre and intra-mineral intrusive dikes and sills are important ore localizers and mineralization is closely linked in time and space to distinctive felsite intrusions. Post-mineral faulting or deformation is minimal, so erosion and oxidation from meteoric waters is all that has happened to the ores since their deposition.

The mining district is divided into the West and East Camps, based on a combination of geography, production and style of mineralization. The West Camp (a.k.a. The Main Mineral Zone; Prescott, 1916 and Hewitt, 1968) lies on the western flank of the range and is characterized by massive sulfide manto and chimney orebodies with local, high-level iron-calcic skarns. The East Camp (a.k.a. the San Antonio mine area) lies on the eastern fringe of the range and is characterized by bilaterally symmetrically zoned, intrusion-cored skarns with peripheral massive sulfide manto bodies. The 2.5km wide intervening zone, known as the Middle Camp, contains minor mineralization and saw limited production, but is generally considered barren. The ultimate source of the district mineralization is actively being sought, but remains elusive.

Mineral List

Mineral list contains entries from the region specified including sub-localities
Acanthite
Actinolite
Adamite
Alabandite
Albite
'Albite-Anorthite Series'
Alunogen
Andradite
Anglesite
Anhydrite
Ankerite
'Anorthoclase'
Aragonite
var: Flos Ferri
Argentojarosite
Argentopyrite
Arsenopyrite
Augite
Aurichalcite
'Axinite Group'
Azurite
Baryte
'Biotite'
Bornite
Brochantite
Bromargyrite
Calcite
Caledonite
Caryopilite
Cassiterite
Celadonite
Cerussite
Chalcanthite
Chalcocite
Chalcophanite
Chalcopyrite
Chlorargyrite
var: Bromian Chlorargyrite
Cinnabar
Clinochlore
Columbite-(Fe)
Conichalcite
Copiapite
Copper
Corkite
Coronadite
Creedite
Cronstedtite
Cryptomelane
Cuprite
Dawsonite
Descloizite
Diaphorite
Diopside
Dolomite
Epidote
Epsomite
Fayalite
Fluoborite
Fluorite
Franklinite
Freibergite
Galena
var: Argentiferous Galena
Goethite
Gold
Goslarite
Greenockite
Grossular
Groutite
Gypsum
var: Selenite
Haiweeite
Halite
Hedenbergite
Hedyphane
Helvine
Hematite
Hemimorphite
Hetaerolite
Hisingerite
Hollandite
'Hornblende'
Hübnerite
Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)
Hydrozincite
Ilmenite
Ilvaite
Iodargyrite
Jamesonite
Jarosite
Jeanbandyite
Kaolinite
Kutnohorite
Legrandite
'Leucoxene'
'Limonite'
Linarite
Ludlamite
Magnetite
Malachite
'Manganese Oxides'
Manganite
Marcasite
Massicot
Melanterite
Mimetite
Minium
Mirabilite
Montmorillonite
Mottramite
Murdochite
Muscovite
var: Illite
Natanite
Natrojarosite
Nontronite
Nováčekite-I
Nsutite
Orthoclase
Plattnerite
Plumbojarosite
Polybasite
Proustite
Pyrargyrite
Pyrite
Pyrolusite
Pyromorphite
Pyrrhotite
Quartz
var: Amethyst
var: Citrine
Ramsdellite
Raspite
Realgar
Rhodochrosite
Rhodonite
Rosasite
Sanidine
Siderite
Silver
Sklodowskite
Smithsonite
Sphalerite
var: Marmatite
Stibnite
'Stilbite'
Sulphur
Sylvite
Talc
Tennantite
Tetrahedrite
Thénardite
Thomsonite-Ca
Todorokite
Topaz
'Tourmaline'
Tremolite
'Uvite'
Vanadinite
Vesuvianite
Vivianite
Wickmanite
Willemite
'Wolframite'
Wollastonite
Woodruffite
Wulfenite
Zircon


184 entries listed. 149 valid minerals.

Localities in this Region


The above list contains all mineral locality references listed on mindat.org. This does not claim to be a complete list. If you know of more minerals from this site, please register so you can add to our database. This locality information is for reference purposes only. You should never attempt to visit any sites listed in mindat.org without first ensuring that you have the permission of the land and/or mineral rights holders for access and that you are aware of all safety precautions necessary.

References

Prescott, B. (1916): The Main Mineral Zone of the Santa Eulalia District, Mexico. Am. Inst. Min. Eng. Trans., 51, 57–99. [focuses on oxide ore, in contrast to Hewitt (1943)]

Hewitt, W.P. (1943): Geology and Mineralization of the San Antonio Mine, Santa Eulalia District, Chihuahua, Mexico. Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 64, 173-204.

Hewitt, W.P. (1968): Geology and Mineralization of the Main Mineral Zone of the Santa Eulalia District, Chihuahua, Mexico. Am. Inst. Min. Eng. Trans 241, 228-260.

Megaw, P. K. M., Ruiz, J. & Titley, S. R. (1988): High-temperature, carbonate-hosted Ag-Pb-Zn(Cu) deposits of Northern Mexico. Economic Geology 83, 1856-1885.

Megaw, P. K. M. (1990): Geology and geochemistry of the Santa Eulalia mining district, Chihuahua, Mexico. PhD Thesis, Univ. of Arizona, 461 pp. (http://arizona.openrepository.com/arizona/handle/10150/187549)

External Links


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