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Wurtzite

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Formula:
(Zn,Fe)S
System:HexagonalColour:Dark reddish-brown to ...
Lustre:ResinousHardness:3½ - 4
Member of:Wurtzite Group
Name:
Named in 1861 by Charles Friedel in honor of Charles Adolphe Wurtz [November 26, 1817 Wolfisheim, near Strasbourg, France - May 10, 1884 Paris, France], French chemist who promoted ideas of atomic structure and organic chemistry. Wurtz was a laboratory assistant for Jean Baptiste Dumas at the École de Médecine and succeeded Dumas and later appointed professor of organic and mineral chemistry and eventually promoted to dean of the college. Wurtz was appointed chair of organic chemistry at the Sorbonne. Wurtz was one of the most influential chemists in the world and he received many honors in his lifetime and his name is one of 72 scientists, mathematicians, and engineers whose name is on the Eifel Tower. Biography by Rocke (2001).
Dimorph of:Sphalerite


Wurtzite Group.

Usually found as black to dark reddish-brown massive resinous to sub-metallic material, also as botryoidal banded crusts, and more rarely as hemimorphic pyramidal, or tabular, crystals.
Several polytypes are known.

Classification of Wurtzite

IMA status:Approved
Strunz 8th edition ID:2/C.13-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:2.CB.45

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
C : Metal Sulfides, M: S = 1: 1 (and similar)
B : With Zn, Fe, Cu, Ag, etc.
Dana 7th edition ID:2.8.7.1
Dana 8th edition ID:2.8.7.1

2 : SULFIDES
8 : AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
Hey's CIM Ref.:3.4.5

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
4 : Sulphides etc. of Group II metals other than Hg (Mg, Ca, Zn, Cd)
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Type Occurrence of Wurtzite

Type Locality:San José Mine, Oruro City, Cercado Province, Oruro Department, Bolivia
Year of Discovery:1861

Occurrences of Wurtzite

Geological Setting:Found in hydrothermal veins rich in Zn and as concretions in sedimentary rocks.

Physical Properties of Wurtzite

Lustre:Resinous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Translucent
Comment:Brilliant submetallic on crystal faces.
Colour:Dark reddish-brown to black, orange-brown
Streak:Brown
Hardness (Mohs):3½ - 4
Hardness Data:Measured
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Very Good
Very good and easy on {1120), more difficult on {0001}.
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven
Density (measured):4 - 4.1 g/cm3
Density (calculated):4.09 g/cm3

Crystallography of Wurtzite

Crystal System:Hexagonal
Class (H-M):6mm - Dihexagonal Pyramidal
Space Group:P63mc
Cell Parameters:a = 3.82Å, c = 6.26Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 1.639
Unit Cell Volume:V 79.11 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Cell dimensions are given for the -2H polytype, which is reported as being the most common.

Crystals are hemimorphic pyramidal. No forms reported.
Short prismatic to tabular. Concentric banded crusts, fibrous, columnar.
Comment:Space group for synthetic 2H polytype
Crystal Atlas:
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Wurtzite - {101}, {00-1}

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The mindat.org Crystal Atlas allows you to view a selection of crystal drawings of real and idealised crystal forms for this mineral and, in certain cases, 3d rotating crystal objects. The 3d models and HTML5 code are kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Epitaxial Relationships of Wurtzite

Epitaxial Minerals:
Chalcopyrite
CuFeS
 
2
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
3.31(100)
3.13(90)
2.93(80)
2.27(30)
1.91(70)
1.76(50)
1.63(50)
1.30(10)
Comments:Data given are for synthetic -1H material.

Optical Data of Wurtzite

Type:Uniaxial (+)
RI values: nω = 2.356 nε = 2.378
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.022

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Internal Reflections:Yellow to dark brown

Chemical Properties of Wurtzite

Formula:
(Zn,Fe)S
Essential elements:S, Zn
All elements listed in formula:Fe, S, Zn
Analytical Data:May contain up to 8% Fe and 4% Cd.
Common Impurities:Fe,Cd

Relationship of Wurtzite to other Species

Member of:Wurtzite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
2.CB.05aColoradoite
HgTe
2.CB.05aHawleyite
CdS
2.CB.05aMetacinnabar
HgS
2.CB.05cPolhemusite
(Zn,Hg)S
2.CB.05bSakuraiite
(Cu,Zn,Fe)
 
3
(In,Sn)S
 
4
2.CB.05aSphalerite
ZnS
2.CB.05aStilleite
ZnSe
2.CB.05aTiemannite
HgSe
2.CB.05UM1998-15-S:CuFeZn
Cu
 
2
Fe
 
3
Zn
 
5
S
 
10
2.CB.05aRudashevskyite
(Fe,Zn)S
2.CB.10aChalcopyrite
CuFeS
 
2
2.CB.10aEskebornite
CuFeSe
 
2
2.CB.10aGallite
CuGaS
 
2
2.CB.10bHaycockite
Cu
 
4
Fe
 
5
S
 
8
2.CB.10aLenaite
AgFeS
 
2
2.CB.10bMooihoekite
Cu
 
9
Fe
 
9
S
 
16
2.CB.10bPutoranite
Cu
 
9
(Fe,Ni)
 
9
S
 
16
2.CB.10aRoquesite
CuInS
 
2
2.CB.10bTalnakhite
Cu
 
9
(Fe,Ni)
 
8
S
 
16
2.CB.10aLaforêtite
AgInS
 
2
2.CB.15aČernýite
Cu
 
2
(Cd,Zn,Fe)SnS
 
4
2.CB.15aFerrokesterite
Cu
 
2
(Fe,Zn)SnS
 
4
2.CB.15aHocartite
Ag
 
2
(Fe
2+
 
,Zn)SnS
 
4
2.CB.15aIdaite
Cu
 
5
FeS
 
6
2.CB.15aKesterite
Cu
 
2
(Zn,Fe)SnS
 
4
2.CB.15aKuramite
Cu
 
3
SnS
 
4
2.CB.15bMohite
Cu
 
2
SnS
 
3
2.CB.15aPirquitasite
Ag
 
2
ZnSnS
 
4
2.CB.15aStannite
Cu
 
2
(Fe,Zn)SnS
 
4
2.CB.15cStannoidite
Cu
+
6
Cu
2+
2
(Fe
2+
 
,Zn)
 
3
Sn
 
2
S
 
12
2.CB.15aVelikite
Cu
 
2
HgSnS
 
4
2.CB.15cUM2006-11-S:CuFeGeZn
Cu
 
8
(Fe,Zn)
 
3
Ge
 
2
S
 
12
(?)
2.CB.20Chatkalite
Cu
 
6
FeSn
 
2
S
 
8
2.CB.20Mawsonite
Cu
 
6
Fe
 
2
SnS
 
8
2.CB.30Colusite
Cu
 
26
V
 
2
(As,Sn,Sb)
 
6
S
 
32
2.CB.30Germanite
Cu
 
13
Fe
 
2
Ge
 
2
S
 
16
2.CB.30Germanocolusite
Cu
 
26
V
 
2
(Ge,As)
 
6
S
 
32
2.CB.30Nekrasovite
Cu
 
26
V
 
2
(Sn,As,Sb)
 
6
S
 
32
2.CB.30Stibiocolusite
Cu
 
13
V
 
4
(Sb,Sn,As)
 
3
S
 
16
2.CB.30Ovamboite
Cu
 
20
(Fe,Cu,Zn)
 
6
W
 
2
Ge
 
6
S
 
32
2.CB.30Maikainite
Cu
 
20
(Fe,Cu)
 
6
Mo
 
2
Ge
 
6
S
 
32
2.CB.35aHemusite
Cu
 
6
SnMoS
 
8
2.CB.35aKiddcreekite
Cu
 
6
SnWS
 
8
2.CB.35aPolkovicite
(Fe,Pb)
 
3
(Ge,Fe)
 
1-x
S
 
4
2.CB.35aRenierite
(Cu,Zn)
 
11
(Ge,As)
 
2
Fe
 
4
S
 
16
2.CB.35aVinciennite
Cu
+
7
Cu
2+
3
Fe
2+
2
Fe
3+
2
Sn(As,Sb)S
 
16
2.CB.35aMorozeviczite
(Pb,Fe)
 
3
Ge
 
1-x
S
 
4
2.CB.35bCatamarcaite
Cu
 
6
GeWS
 
8
2.CB.40Lautite
CuAsS
2.CB.45Cadmoselite
CdSe
2.CB.45Greenockite
CdS
2.CB.45Rambergite
MnS
2.CB.45Buseckite
(Fe,Zn,Mn)S
2.CB.55aCubanite
CuFe
 
2
S
 
3
2.CB.55bIsocubanite
CuFe
 
2
S
 
3
2.CB.60Picotpaulite
TlFe
 
2
S
 
3
2.CB.60Raguinite
TlFeS
 
2
2.CB.65Argentopyrite
AgFe
 
2
S
 
3
2.CB.65Sternbergite
AgFe
 
2
S
 
3
2.CB.70Sulvanite
Cu
 
3
VS
 
4
2.CB.75Vulcanite
CuTe
2.CB.80Empressite
AgTe
2.CB.85Muthmannite
AuAgTe
 
2
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
3.4.1Niningerite
(Mg,Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)S
3.4.2Oldhamite
(Ca,Mg)S
3.4.3Mátraite
ZnS
3.4.4Sphalerite
ZnS
3.4.6Stilleite
ZnSe
3.4.7Greenockite
CdS
3.4.8Hawleyite
CdS
3.4.9Cadmoselite
CdSe
Related Minerals - Dana Grouping):

- +
2.8.7.3Cadmoselite
CdSe

Other Names for Wurtzite

Synonyms:
Buergerite (of Gagarin and Cuomo)Hurlburtite (of Gagarin and Cuomo)Spiauterite
Other Languages:
Catalan:Wurtzita
Dutch:Wurtziet
German:Wurtzit
Italian:Wurtzite
Japanese:ウルツ鉱
Polish:Wurcyt
Russian:Вюртцит
Simplified Chinese:纤维锌矿
纤锌矿
Spanish:Wurtzita
Traditional Chinese:纖維鋅礦
纖鋅礦
Ukrainian:Вюртцит
Varieties:
PolywurtziteVoltzite

Polytypes for Wurtzite

Polytypes:
Wurtzite-12RWurtzite-15RWurtzite-18RWurtzite-21RWurtzite-2H
Wurtzite-4HWurtzite-5HWurtzite-6HWurtzite-8H

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Wurtzite

Reference List:

- +
Friedel (1861), CRAS: 52: 983-985.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman and Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 834pp.: 227-228.
American Mineralogist (1950): 35: 29-42.
Smith. F. G. (1955) Structure of zinc-sulfide minerals. American Mineralogist: 40: 658-675.
Haussühl, S. and Müller, G. (1963): Neue ZnS-Polytypen (9R, 12R und 21R) in mesozoischen Sedimenten NW-Deutschlands. Beitr. Mineral. Petrogr., 9, 28-39. [9R, 12R & 21R polytypes]
Fleet, M.E. (1977b) Structural transformations in natural ZnS. American Mineralogist: 62: 540-546.

Fleet, M. E.
(1977c) The birefringence-structural state relation in natural zinc sulfides and its application to the schalenblende from Pribram. Canadian Mineralogist: 15: 303-308.
Augustithis, S. S. and Vgenopoulos, A. (1982) On the hawleyite-sphalerite-wurtzite-galena paragenesis from Ragada, Komotini, (Rhodope) North Greece. Special Publication of the Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits: 2: 413-417.
Hollenbaugh, D. W. & Carlson, E. H. (1983): The occurrence of wurtzite polytypes in eastern Ohio. Canadian Mineralogist, 21, 697-703.
Fleet, M. E. (1987) Layer-disordered wurtzite (ZnS-2H): diffuse X-ray scattering recorded by c-axis precession photography. Journal of Applied Crystallography: 20: 191-194.
Xu, Y. N. and Ching, W. Y. (1993) Electronic, optical, and structural properties of some wurtzite crystals. Physical review, B, Condensed Matter: 48: 4335-4351.
Gaines, Richard V., H. Catherine, W. Skinner, Eugene E. Foord, Brian Mason, Abraham Rosenzweig (1997), Dana's New Mineralogy : The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana: 72.

Chao, George Y. & Gault, Robert A.
(1998): The occurrence of two rare polytypes of wurtzite, 4H and 8H, at Mont Saint-Hilaire, Quebec Canadian Mineralogist, 36, 775-778.
Rocke, Alan J. (2001) Nationizing Science. Adolphe Wurtz and the Battle for Chemistry, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, pp. 443.
Graeser, S. (2011): Die Wurtzite vom Lengenbach - Polymorphie und Polytypie. Schweizer Strahler 45, 16-24. [-2H and -4H polytypes]

Internet Links for Wurtzite

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    Localities for Wurtzite

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