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Wurtzite

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Charles Adolphe Wurtz
Formula:
(Zn,Fe)S
System:
Hexagonal
Colour:
Dark reddish-brown to ...
Lustre:
Resinous
Hardness:
3½ - 4
Member of:
Name:
Named in 1861 by Charles Friedel in honor of Charles Adolphe Wurtz [November 26, 1817 Wolfisheim, near Strasbourg, France - May 10, 1884 Paris, France], French chemist who promoted ideas of atomic structure and organic chemistry. Wurtz was a laboratory assistant for Jean Baptiste Dumas at the École de Médecine and succeeded Dumas and later appointed professor of organic and mineral chemistry and eventually promoted to dean of the college. Wurtz was appointed chair of organic chemistry at the Sorbonne. Wurtz was one of the most influential chemists in the world and he received many honors in his lifetime and his name is one of 72 scientists, mathematicians, and engineers whose name is on the Eifel Tower. Biography by Rocke (2001).
Dimorph of:
Wurtzite Group.

Usually found as black to dark reddish-brown massive resinous to sub-metallic material, also as botryoidal banded crusts, and more rarely as hemimorphic pyramidal, or tabular, crystals.
Several polytypes are known; the hexagonal 2H polytype is the most common.

Classification of Wurtzite

Approved
2.CB.45

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
C : Metal Sulfides, M: S = 1: 1 (and similar)
B : With Zn, Fe, Cu, Ag, etc.
Dana 7th ed.:
2.8.7.1
2.8.7.1

2 : SULFIDES
8 : AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
3.4.5

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
4 : Sulphides etc. of Group II metals other than Hg (Mg, Ca, Zn, Cd)
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First Recorded Occurrence of Wurtzite

Year of Discovery:
1861

Occurrences of Wurtzite

Geological Setting:
Found in hydrothermal veins rich in Zn and as concretions in sedimentary rocks.

Physical Properties of Wurtzite

Resinous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Translucent
Comment:
Brilliant submetallic on crystal faces.
Colour:
Dark reddish-brown to black, orange-brown
Streak:
Brown
Hardness (Mohs):
3½ - 4
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Very Good
Very good and easy on {1120), more difficult on {0001}.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
4 - 4.1 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.09 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Wurtzite

Polytype:
Formula:
Crystal System:
Class (H-M)
Space Group:
Space Group Setting:
Cell Parameters:
Ratio:
Unit Cell Volume (calc):
Z:
Wurtzite-10HWurtzite-12RWurtzite-15RWurtzite-18RWurtzite-21RWurtzite-2HWurtzite-4HWurtzite-5HWurtzite-6HWurtzite-8H
ZnS    (Zn,Fe)SZnS   
Hexagonal  Trigonal   Hexagonal Hexagonal    
6mm - Dihexagonal Pyramidal3m - Ditrigonal Pyramidal6mm - Dihexagonal Pyramidal6mm - Dihexagonal Pyramidal
P63mc R3m  P63mcP63mc   
          
a = 3.824Å, b = 3.824Å, c = 31.20Å
α = 90°, β = 90°, γ = 120°


α = 90°, β = 90°, γ = 120°


a = 3.82Å, c = 6.26Å
a = 3.8227Å, b = 3.8227Å, c = 12.52Å
α = 90°, β = 90°, γ = 120°



a:b:c = 1 : 1 : 8.159    a:c = 1 : 1.639a:b:c = 1 : 1 : 3.275   
V 395.113 ų    V 79.11 ųV 158.444 ų   
10 15  24   

Crystallographic forms of Wurtzite

Crystal Atlas:
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Wurtzite - {101}, {00-1}
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

View
Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

Epitaxial Relationships of Wurtzite

Epitaxial Minerals:
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.31(100)
3.13(90)
2.93(80)
2.27(30)
1.91(70)
1.76(50)
1.63(50)
1.30(10)
Comments:
Data given are for synthetic -1H material.

Optical Data of Wurtzite

Type:
Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 2.356 nε = 2.378
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.022
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Internal Reflections:
Yellow to dark brown

Chemical Properties of Wurtzite

Formula:
(Zn,Fe)S
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Analytical Data:
May contain up to 8% Fe and 4% Cd.
Common Impurities:
Fe,Cd

Relationship of Wurtzite to other Species

Member of:
Other Members of Group:
2.CB.05aColoradoiteHgTe
2.CB.05aHawleyiteCdS
2.CB.05aMetacinnabarHgS
2.CB.05cPolhemusite(Zn,Hg)S
2.CB.05bSakuraiite(Cu,Zn,Fe)3(In,Sn)S4
2.CB.05aSphaleriteZnS
2.CB.05aStilleiteZnSe
2.CB.05aTiemanniteHgSe
2.CB.05UM1998-15-S:CuFeZnCu2Fe3Zn5S10
2.CB.05aRudashevskyite(Fe,Zn)S
2.CB.10aChalcopyriteCuFeS2
2.CB.10aEskeborniteCuFeSe2
2.CB.10aGalliteCuGaS2
2.CB.10bHaycockiteCu4Fe5S8
2.CB.10aLenaiteAgFeS2
2.CB.10bMooihoekiteCu9Fe9S16
2.CB.10bPutoraniteCu9(Fe,Ni)9S16
2.CB.10aRoquesiteCuInS2
2.CB.10bTalnakhiteCu9(Fe,Ni)8S16
2.CB.10aLaforêtiteAgInS2
2.CB.15aČernýiteCu2(Cd,Zn,Fe)SnS4
2.CB.15aFerrokësteriteCu2(Fe,Zn)SnS4
2.CB.15aHocartiteAg2(Fe2+,Zn)SnS4
2.CB.15aIdaiteCu5FeS6
2.CB.15aKësteriteCu2(Zn,Fe)SnS4
2.CB.15aKuramiteCu3SnS4
2.CB.15bMohiteCu2SnS3
2.CB.15aPirquitasiteAg2ZnSnS4
2.CB.15aStanniteCu2(Fe,Zn)SnS4
2.CB.15cStannoiditeCu6+Cu22+(Fe2+,Zn)3Sn2S12
2.CB.15aVelikiteCu2HgSnS4
2.CB.15cUM2006-11-S:CuFeGeZnCu8(Fe,Zn)3Ge2S12 (?)
2.CB.20ChatkaliteCu6FeSn2S8
2.CB.20MawsoniteCu6Fe2SnS8
2.CB.30ColusiteCu26V2(As,Sn,Sb)6S32
2.CB.30GermaniteCu13Fe2Ge2S16
2.CB.30GermanocolusiteCu26V2(Ge,As)6S32
2.CB.30NekrasoviteCu26V2(Sn,As,Sb)6S32
2.CB.30StibiocolusiteCu13V4(Sb,Sn,As)3S16
2.CB.30Ovamboite Cu20(Fe,Cu,Zn)6W2Ge6S32
2.CB.30MaikainiteCu20(Fe,Cu)6Mo2Ge6S32
2.CB.35aHemusiteCu6SnMoS8
2.CB.35aKiddcreekiteCu6SnWS8
2.CB.35aPolkovicite(Fe,Pb)3(Ge,Fe)1-xS4
2.CB.35aRenierite(Cu,Zn)11(Ge,As)2Fe4S16
2.CB.35aVincienniteCu7+Cu32+Fe22+Fe23+Sn(As,Sb)S16
2.CB.35aMorozeviczite(Pb,Fe)3Ge1-xS4
2.CB.35bCatamarcaiteCu6GeWS8
2.CB.40LautiteCuAsS
2.CB.45CadmoseliteCdSe
2.CB.45GreenockiteCdS
2.CB.45RambergiteMnS
2.CB.45Buseckite(Fe,Zn,Mn)S
2.CB.55aCubaniteCuFe2S3
2.CB.55bIsocubaniteCuFe2S3
2.CB.60PicotpauliteTlFe2S3
2.CB.60RaguiniteTlFeS2
2.CB.65ArgentopyriteAgFe2S3
2.CB.65SternbergiteAgFe2S3
2.CB.70SulvaniteCu3VS4
2.CB.75VulcaniteCuTe
2.CB.80EmpressiteAgTe
2.CB.85MuthmanniteAuAgTe2
3.4.1Niningerite(Mg,Fe2+,Mn2+)S
3.4.2Oldhamite(Ca,Mg)S
3.4.3MátraiteZnS
3.4.4SphaleriteZnS
3.4.6StilleiteZnSe
3.4.7GreenockiteCdS
3.4.8HawleyiteCdS
3.4.9CadmoseliteCdSe

Other Names for Wurtzite

Name in Other Languages:
Catalan:Wurtzita
Dutch:Wurtziet
German:Wurtzit
Italian:Wurtzite
Japanese:ウルツ鉱
Polish:Wurcyt
Simplified Chinese:纤维锌矿
纤锌矿
Spanish:Wurtzita
Traditional Chinese:纖維鋅礦
纖鋅礦
Ukrainian:Вюртцит

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Wurtzite

Reference List:
Friedel (1861), CRAS: 52: 983-985.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman and Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 834pp.: 227-228.
American Mineralogist (1950): 35: 29-42.
Smith. F. G. (1955) Structure of zinc-sulfide minerals. American Mineralogist: 40: 658-675.
Haussühl, S. and Müller, G. (1963): Neue ZnS-Polytypen (9R, 12R und 21R) in mesozoischen Sedimenten NW-Deutschlands. Beitr. Mineral. Petrogr., 9, 28-39. [9R, 12R & 21R polytypes]
Fleet, M.E. (1977b) Structural transformations in natural ZnS. American Mineralogist: 62: 540-546.

Fleet, M. E.
(1977c) The birefringence-structural state relation in natural zinc sulfides and its application to the schalenblende from Pribram. Canadian Mineralogist: 15: 303-308.
Augustithis, S. S. and Vgenopoulos, A. (1982) On the hawleyite-sphalerite-wurtzite-galena paragenesis from Ragada, Komotini, (Rhodope) North Greece. Special Publication of the Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits: 2: 413-417.
Hollenbaugh, D. W. & Carlson, E. H. (1983): The occurrence of wurtzite polytypes in eastern Ohio. Canadian Mineralogist, 21, 697-703.
Fleet, M. E. (1987) Layer-disordered wurtzite (ZnS-2H): diffuse X-ray scattering recorded by c-axis precession photography. Journal of Applied Crystallography: 20: 191-194.
Xu, Y. N. and Ching, W. Y. (1993) Electronic, optical, and structural properties of some wurtzite crystals. Physical review, B, Condensed Matter: 48: 4335-4351.
Gaines, Richard V., H. Catherine, W. Skinner, Eugene E. Foord, Brian Mason, Abraham Rosenzweig (1997), Dana's New Mineralogy : The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana: 72.

Chao, George Y. & Gault, Robert A.
(1998): The occurrence of two rare polytypes of wurtzite, 4H and 8H, at Mont Saint-Hilaire, Quebec Canadian Mineralogist, 36, 775-778.
Rocke, Alan J. (2001) Nationizing Science. Adolphe Wurtz and the Battle for Chemistry, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, pp. 443.
Graeser, S. (2011): Die Wurtzite vom Lengenbach - Polymorphie und Polytypie. Schweizer Strahler 45, 16-24. [-2H and -4H polytypes]

Internet Links for Wurtzite

Specimens:
The following Wurtzite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Wurtzite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
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