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Hydrozincite

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Formula:
Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
System:
Monoclinic
Colour:
White to grey, stained ...
Hardness:
2 - 2½
Name:
Named in 1853 by Gustav Adolph Kenngott in allusion to its composition, containing water of hydration and zinc.
Typically found as massive, earthy, porous to compact, powdery aggregates and encrustations of very small to microscopic crystals. The colour is white to grey, but it may be stained a wide variety of hues by impurities, with yellowish and brownish to pinkish hues predominating. An alteration product generally of sphalerite, also of hemimorphite, and smithsonite.

May be confused with the visually similar zinc carbonate-sulphate brianyoungite.

Chemically related to parádsasvárite.

Classification of Hydrozincite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
5/C.01-100
5.BA.15

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
B : Carbonates with additional anions, without H2O
A : With Cu, Co, Ni, Zn, Mg, Mn
Dana 7th ed.:
16.4.1.1
16a.4.1.1

16a : ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
4 : (AB)5(XO3)2Zq
11.6.2

11 : Carbonates
6 : Carbonates of Zn and Cd
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Type Occurrence of Hydrozincite

Year of Discovery:
1853

Occurrences of Hydrozincite

Geological Setting:
Oxidized zones of zinc mineral deposits, particularly those with sphalerite.

Physical Properties of Hydrozincite

Silky, Pearly, Dull, Earthy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
White to grey, stained pale pink, or pale yellow or brown; colourless in transmitted light.
Streak:
White
Hardness (Mohs):
2 - 2½
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Very brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {100}.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
3.5 - 4 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.97 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Crystallography of Hydrozincite

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
B2/m
Cell Parameters:
a = 13.58Å, b = 6.28Å, c = 5.41Å
β = 95.51°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 2.162 : 1 : 0.861
Unit Cell Volume:
V 459.25 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Crystals usually very small to microscopic, lath-like or bladed, flattened on {100} and elongated [001], often tapering to a sharp point. Typically found as massive aggregates of either powdery material, earthy and porous, to compact material, with fibrous radial structure, may be reniform. Dense agate-like masses, stalactic, and pisolitic.
Twinning:
Intimate twinning has been observed, but the morphology has not been reported.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
6.77(100)
3.66(40)
3.14(50)
2.85(30)
2.72(60)
2.48(70)
1.915(30)
1.688(40)

Optical Data of Hydrozincite

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.630 nβ = 1.642 nγ = 1.750
2V:
Measured: 40° , Calculated: 40°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.120
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
relatively strong

Chemical Properties of Hydrozincite

Formula:
Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Fe,Cu

Relationship of Hydrozincite to other Species

5.BA.05AzuriteCu3(CO3)2(OH)2
5.BA.10GeorgeiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2 · 6H2O
5.BA.10Glaukosphaerite(Cu,Ni)2(CO3)(OH)2
5.BA.10Kolwezite(Cu,Co)2(CO3)(OH)2
5.BA.10MalachiteCu2(CO3)(OH)2
5.BA.10Mcguinnessite(Mg,Cu)2(CO3)(OH)2
5.BA.10NullaginiteNi2(CO3)(OH)2
5.BA.10PokrovskiteMg2(CO3)(OH)2
5.BA.10Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
5.BA.10Zincrosasite(Zn,Cu)2(CO3)(OH)2
5.BA.10ChukanoviteFe22+(CO3)(OH)2
5.BA.15Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
5.BA.20HoldawayiteMn6(CO3)2(OH)7(Cl,OH)
5.BA.25DeferniteCa6(CO3)2-x(SiO4)x(OH)7(Cl,OH)1-2x (x<0.5)
5.BA.25UM1977-03-COSiO:CaClHCa10(SiO4)(CO3)7(Cl,OH)2
5.BA.30Loseyite(Mn2+,Zn,Mg)4Zn3(CO3)2(OH)10
5.BA.30Sclarite(Zn,Mg,Mn2+)4Zn3(CO3)2(OH)10
11.6.1SmithsoniteZnCO3
11.6.3Rosasite(Cu,Zn)2(CO3)(OH)2
11.6.4Zincrosasite(Zn,Cu)2(CO3)(OH)2
11.6.5Aurichalcite(Zn,Cu)5(CO3)2(OH)6
11.6.6Claraite(Cu,Zn)3(CO3)(OH)4 · 4H2O
11.6.7MinrecorditeCaZn(CO3)2
11.6.8Loseyite(Mn2+,Zn,Mg)4Zn3(CO3)2(OH)10
11.6.9Sclarite(Zn,Mg,Mn2+)4Zn3(CO3)2(OH)10
11.6.10OtaviteCdCO3

Other Names for Hydrozincite

Other Information

Light blue (SW UV).
Electrical:
Readily soluble in acids.

Observed as pseudomorphs after Dolomite.
Thermal Behaviour:
H2O and CO2 are lost starting at about 230°, leaving ZnO.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
A minor ore of zinc.

References for Hydrozincite

Reference List:
Smithson (1803) Royal Society of London, Philosophical Transactions: 12 (as Calamine).

Karsten, D.L.G. (1808) Mineralogische Tabellen, Berlin, second edition: 70, 99 (as Zinkblüthe).

Beudant, F.S. (1832), Trailé élémentaire de Minéralogie, second edition, 2 volumes: 2: 357 (as Zincosine).

Kenngott, G.A. (1853) Ubersichte der Resultate mineralogischer Forschungen, for the years 1850-51, Vienna (as Hydrozinkit).

Elderhorst (1858) Geological Report of Arkansas: 153. (as Marionite).

Weisbach, Albin (1875) Synopsis mineralogical, systematische Übersicht des Mineralreiches: 36 (as Cegamit).

Cabolet analysis in: Kraut (1897) Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie, Hamburg, Leipzig: 13: 8.

Calderón y Arana, S. (1910) Los minerales de España, 2 volumes, Madrid: 2: 107.

Ford and Bradley (1916) American Journal of Science: 42: 59.

Perrier (1916) Atti soc. ital. sc. Nat.: 54: 188.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 90.

Hintze, Carl (1929) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3A]: 3354.

Ulrich (1930) Příroda, Brno: 23: 387.

Larsen, E.S. and Berman, H. (1934) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, Second edition, USGS Bulletin 848: 194.

Lauro (1938) Periodico de Mineralogia-Roma: 9: 120.

Prider (1941) Mineralogical Magazine: 26: 60.

Beck (1946) Ph.D. thesis, Harvard University (unpublished).

Ramsdell (1947) American Mineralogist: 32: 207.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 247-249.

Jambor, J. L. (1964): Studies of basic copper and zinc carbonates. I - Synthetic zinc carbonates and their relationship to hydrozincite. Canadian Mineralogist 8, 92-108.

Jambor, J. L. and Pouliot, G. (1965): X-ray crystallography of aurichalcite and hydrozincite. Can. Mineral. 8, 385-389.

W. Zabinski (1966): The problem of stacking order in natural hydrozincite. Can. Mineral. 8, 649-652.

J. L. Jambor (1966): Natural and synthetic hydrozincites. Can. Mineral. 8, 652-653.

Acta Crystallographica: 17: 1051-1057.

Gaines, Richard V., H. Catherine, W. Skinner, Eugene E. Foord, Brian Mason, Abraham Rosenzweig (1997), Dana's New Mineralogy : The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana: 493.

Internet Links for Hydrozincite

Specimens:
The following Hydrozincite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Hydrozincite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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