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Hydrozincite

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Formula:
Zn
 
5
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
System:MonoclinicColour:White to grey, stained ...
Hardness:2 - 2½
Name:Named in 1853 by Gustav Adolph Kenngott in allusion to its composition, containing water of hydration and zinc.


Typically found as massive, earthy, porous to compact, powdery aggregates and encrustations of very small to microscopic crystals. The color is white to grey, but it may be stained a wide variety of hues by impurities, with yellowish and brownish to pinkish hues predominating. An alteration product generally of Sphalerite, also of Hemimorphite, and Smithsonite.

May be confused with the visually similar zinc carbonate-sulphate Brianyoungite.

Classification of Hydrozincite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:5/C.01-100
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:5.BA.15

5 : CARBONATES (NITRATES)
B : Carbonates with additional anions, without H2O
A : With Cu, Co, Ni, Zn, Mg, Mn
Dana 7th edition ID:16.4.1.1
Dana 8th edition ID:16a.4.1.1

16a : ANHYDROUS CARBONATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
4 : (AB)5(XO3)2Zq
Hey's CIM Ref.:11.6.2

11 : Carbonates
6 : Carbonates of Zn and Cd
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Type Occurrence of Hydrozincite

Type Locality:Bad Bleiberg, Bleiberg District, Gailtaler Alpen & Karnische Alpen, Carinthia, Austria
Year of Discovery:1853

Occurrences of Hydrozincite

Geological Setting:Oxidized zones of zinc mineral deposits, particularly those with sphalerite.

Physical Properties of Hydrozincite

Lustre:Silky, Pearly, Dull, Earthy
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent, Translucent
Colour:White to grey, stained pale pink, or pale yellow or brown; colourless in transmitted light.
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):2 - 2½
Hardness Data:Measured
Tenacity:Very brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
On {100}.
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven
Density (measured):3.5 - 4 g/cm3
Density (calculated):3.97 g/cm3

Crystallography of Hydrozincite

Crystal System:Monoclinic
Class (H-M):2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:B2/m
Cell Parameters:a = 13.58Å, b = 6.28Å, c = 5.41Å
β = 95.51°
Ratio:a:b:c = 2.162 : 1 : 0.861
Unit Cell Volume:V 459.25 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Crystals usually very small to microscopic, lath-like or bladed, flattened on {100} and elongated [001], often tapering to a sharp point. Typically found as massive aggregates of either powdery material, earthy and porous, to compact material, with fibrous radial structure, may be reniform. Dense agate-like masses, stalactic, and pisolitic.
Twinning:Intimate twinning has been observed, but the morphology has not been reported.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Horizontal Axis: ° to ° Vertical Axis: % Source Data: Filtered Data:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
6.77(100)
3.66(40)
3.14(50)
2.85(30)
2.72(60)
2.48(70)
1.915(30)
1.688(40)

Optical Data of Hydrozincite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.630 nβ = 1.642 nγ = 1.750
2V:Measured: 40° , Calculated: 40°
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.120

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Dispersion:relatively strong

Chemical Properties of Hydrozincite

Formula:
Zn
 
5
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
Simplified for copy/paste:Zn5(CO3)2(OH)6
Essential elements:C, H, O, Zn
All elements listed in formula:C, H, O, Zn
Common Impurities:Fe,Cu

Relationship of Hydrozincite to other Species

Common Associates:
SmithsoniteLimoniteHemimorphiteCerussiteCalcite
Aurichalcite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
5.BA.05Azurite
Cu
 
3
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
5.BA.10Georgeite
Cu
 
2
(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
5.BA.10Glaukosphaerite
(Cu,Ni)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
2
5.BA.10Kolwezite
(Cu,Co)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
2
5.BA.10Malachite
Cu
 
2
(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
2
5.BA.10Mcguinnessite
(Mg,Cu)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
2
5.BA.10Nullaginite
Ni
 
2
(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
2
5.BA.10Pokrovskite
Mg
 
2
(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
2
5.BA.10Rosasite
(Cu,Zn)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
2
5.BA.10Zincrosasite
(Zn,Cu)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
2
5.BA.10Chukanovite
Fe
2+
2
(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
2
5.BA.15Aurichalcite
(Zn,Cu)
 
5
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
5.BA.20Holdawayite
Mn
 
6
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
7
(Cl,OH)
5.BA.25Defernite
Ca
 
6
(CO
 
3
)
 
2-x
(SiO
 
4
)
 
x
(OH)
 
7
(Cl,OH)
 
1-2x
(x<0.5)
5.BA.25UM1977-03-COSiO:CaClH
Ca
 
10
(SiO
 
4
)(CO
 
3
)
 
7
(Cl,OH)
 
2
5.BA.30Loseyite
(Mn
2+
 
,Zn,Mg)
 
4
Zn
 
3
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
10
5.BA.30Sclarite
(Zn,Mg,Mn
2+
 
)
 
4
Zn
 
3
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
10
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
11.6.1Smithsonite
ZnCO
 
3
11.6.3Rosasite
(Cu,Zn)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
2
11.6.4Zincrosasite
(Zn,Cu)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
2
11.6.5Aurichalcite
(Zn,Cu)
 
5
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
6
11.6.6Claraite
(Cu,Zn)
 
3
(CO
 
3
)(OH)
 
4
· 4H
 
2
O
11.6.7Minrecordite
CaZn(CO
 
3
)
 
2
11.6.8Loseyite
(Mn
2+
 
,Zn,Mg)
 
4
Zn
 
3
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
10
11.6.9Sclarite
(Zn,Mg,Mn
2+
 
)
 
4
Zn
 
3
(CO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
10
11.6.10Otavite
CdCO
 
3

Other Names for Hydrozincite

Synonyms:
CegamiteEarthy CalamineHydro-carbonate of zincMarioniteZinc Bloom
Zinconine
Other Languages:
Dutch:Hydrozinkiet
French:Zinconise
German:Cegamit
Hydrozincit
Hydrozinkit
Idrozincit
Marionit
Zinkblüte
Zinkblüthe
Italian:Idrozincite
Polish:Hydrocynkit
Russian:Гидроцинкит
Simplified Chinese:水锌矿
Spanish:Hidrocincita
Cegamita
Hydrozincita
Idrozincita
Marionita

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Light blue (SW UV).
Electrical:Readily soluble in acids.

Observed as pseudomorphs after Dolomite.
Thermal Behaviour:H2O and CO2 are lost starting at about 230°, leaving ZnO.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:A minor ore of zinc.

References for Hydrozincite

Reference List:

- +
Smithson (1803) Royal Society of London, Philosophical Transactions: 12 (as Calamine).

Karsten, D.L.G. (1808) Mineralogische Tabellen, Berlin, second edition: 70, 99 (as Zinkblüthe).

Beudant, F.S. (1832), Trailé élémentaire de Minéralogie, second edition, 2 volumes: 2: 357 (as Zincosine).

Kenngott, G.A. (1853) Ubersichte der Resultate mineralogischer Forschungen, for the years 1850-51, Vienna (as Hydrozinkit).

Elderhorst (1858) Geological Report of Arkansas: 153. (as Marionite).

Weisbach, Albin (1875) Synopsis mineralogical, systematische Übersicht des Mineralreiches: 36 (as Cegamit).

Cabolet analysis in: Kraut (1897) Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie, Hamburg, Leipzig: 13: 8.

Calderón y Arana, S. (1910) Los minerales de España, 2 volumes, Madrid: 2: 107.

Ford and Bradley (1916) American Journal of Science: 42: 59.

Perrier (1916) Atti soc. ital. sc. Nat.: 54: 188.

Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 90.

Hintze, Carl (1929) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3A]: 3354.

Ulrich (1930) Příroda, Brno: 23: 387.

Larsen, E.S. and Berman, H. (1934) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, Second edition, USGS Bulletin 848: 194.

Lauro (1938) Periodico de Mineralogia-Roma: 9: 120.

Prider (1941) Mineralogical Magazine: 26: 60.

Beck (1946) Ph.D. thesis, Harvard University (unpublished).

Ramsdell (1947) American Mineralogist: 32: 207.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 247-249.

Jambor, J. L. (1964): Studies of basic copper and zinc carbonates. I - Synthetic zinc carbonates and their relationship to hydrozincite. Canadian Mineralogist 8, 92-108.

Jambor, J. L. and Pouliot, G. (1965): X-ray crystallography of aurichalcite and hydrozincite. Can. Mineral. 8, 385-389.

W. Zabinski (1966): The problem of stacking order in natural hydrozincite. Can. Mineral. 8, 649-652.

J. L. Jambor (1966): Natural and synthetic hydrozincites. Can. Mineral. 8, 652-653.

Acta Crystallographica: 17: 1051-1057.

Gaines, Richard V., H. Catherine, W. Skinner, Eugene E. Foord, Brian Mason, Abraham Rosenzweig (1997), Dana's New Mineralogy : The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana: 493.

Internet Links for Hydrozincite

Search Engines:
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  • External Links:
  • Look for Hydrozincite on Webmineral
  • Look for Hydrozincite on Athena Mineralogy
  • Look for Hydrozincite on Wikipedia
  • Look for Hydrozincite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Hydrozincite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
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    Localities for Hydrozincite

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