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Iridium

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Big Photo

Osmiridium
Urals Region, Russia
© Paul Bongaerts




Formula:
(Ir,Os,Ru)
System:IsometricHardness:6 - 7


Natural iridium often contains distinct amounts of Os, Ru or Pt.
The definition of iridium now incorporates old "osmiridium" and "ruthenosmiridium" mineral species (all have Ir as the dominant element).

See also (hexagonal) rutheniridosmine.


Note: The type locality is not determined.

Classification of Iridium

IMA status:Approved
Strunz 8th edition ID:1/A.14-30
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:1.AF.10

1 : ELEMENTS (Metals and intermetallic alloys; metalloids and nonmetals; carbides, silicides, nitrides, phosphides)
A : Metals and Intermetallic Alloys
F : Platinum group elements
Dana 7th edition ID:1.2.1.2
Dana 8th edition ID:1.2.1.2

1 : NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
2 : Platinum Group Metals and Alloys
Hey's CIM Ref.:1.77

1 : Elements and Alloys (including the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au)
mindat.org URL:http://www.mindat.org/min-2045.html
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Physical Properties of Iridium

Hardness (Mohs):6 - 7

Crystallography of Iridium

Crystal System:Isometric
Cell Parameters:a = 3.83Å
Unit Cell Volume:V 56.18 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Optical Data of Iridium

Type:Isotropic

Chemical Properties of Iridium

Formula:
(Ir,Os,Ru)
Essential elements:Ir
All elements listed in formula:Ir, Os, Ru
Common Impurities:Pt,Au,Pd,Cu,Fe

Relationship of Iridium to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
1.AF.05Osmium
(Os,Ir,Ru)
1.AF.05Rutheniridosmine
(Ir,Os,Ru)
1.AF.05Ruthenium
(Ru,Ir)
1.AF.10Palladium
(Pd,Pt)
1.AF.10Platinum
Pt
1.AF.10Rhodium
(Rh,Pt)
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
1.1Copper
Cu
1.2Silver
Ag
1.5Gold
Au
1.6Auricupride
Cu
 
3
Au
1.7Tetra-auricupride
AuCu
1.8Zinc
Zn
1.9Cadmium
Cd
1.10Danbaite
CuZn
 
2
1.11Zhanghengite
CuZn
1.12Mercury
Hg
1.13Kolymite
Cu
 
7
Hg
 
6
1.14Moschellandsbergite
Ag
 
2
Hg
 
3
1.15Eugenite
Ag
 
11
Hg
 
2
1.16Schachnerite
Ag
 
1.1
Hg
 
0.9
1.17Paraschachnerite
Ag
 
3
Hg
 
2
1.18Luanheite
Ag
 
3
Hg
1.19Weishanite
(Au,Ag)
 
3
Hg
 
2
1.20Indium
In
1.21Aluminium
Al
1.22Khatyrkite
(Cu,Zn)Al
 
2
1.23Cupalite
(Cu,Zn)Al
1.24Diamond
C
1.25Graphite
C
1.26Chaoite
C
1.27Lonsdaleite
C
1.28Silicon
Si
1.29Tin
Sn
1.30Lead
Pb
1.31Anyuiite
Au(Pb,Sb)
 
2
1.31Novodneprite
AuPb
 
3
1.32Leadamalgam
Pb
 
0.7
Hg
 
0.3
1.33Arsenic
As
1.34Arsenolamprite
As
1.35Paxite
CuAs
 
2
1.36Koutekite
Cu
 
5
As
 
2
1.37Domeykite
Cu
 
3
As
1.38Algodonite
(Cu
 
1-x
As
 
x
)
1.39Novakite
Cu
 
20
AgAs
 
10
1.40Kutinaite
Cu
 
2
AgAs
1.41Antimony
Sb
1.42Stibarsen
AsSb
1.43Paradocrasite
Sb
 
3
As
1.44Horsfordite
Cu, Sb
1.45Cuprostibite
Cu
 
2
(Sb,Tl)
1.46Allargentum
(Ag
 
1-x
Sb
 
x
)
1.47Aurostibite
AuSb
 
2
1.48Dyscrasite
Ag
 
3
Sb
1.49Bismuth
Bi
1.50Maldonite
Au
 
2
Bi
1.51Sulphur
S
 
8
1.52Rosickýite
S
1.53Selenium
Se
1.54Tellurium
Te
1.55Chromium
Cr
1.56Rhenium
Re
1.57Iron
Fe
1.58Chromferide
Fe
 
3
Cr
 
1-x
(x=0.6)
1.59Ferchromide
Cr
 
1.5
Fe
 
0.5-x
1.60Wairauite
CoFe
1.61Nickel
Ni
1.62Kamacite
(Fe,Ni)
1.63Taenite
(Fe,Ni)
1.64Tetrataenite
FeNi
1.65Awaruite
Ni
 
3
Fe
1.66Palladium
(Pd,Pt)
1.67Potarite
PdHg
1.68Paolovite
Pd
 
2
Sn
1.69Stannopalladinite
(Pd,Cu)
 
3
Sn
 
2
1.70Cabriite
Pd
 
2
CuSn
1.71Taimyrite-I
(Pd,Cu,Pt)
 
3
Sn
1.72Atokite
(Pd,Pt)
 
3
Sn
1.73Rustenburgite
(Pt,Pd)
 
3
Sn
1.74Zvyagintsevite
(Pd,Pt,Au)
 
3
(Pb,Sn)
1.75Plumbopalladinite
Pd
 
3
Pb
 
2
1.76Osmium
(Os,Ir,Ru)
1.82Platinum
Pt
1.83Hongshiite
PtCu
1.84Niggliite
PtSn
1.85Isoferroplatinum
Pt
 
3
Fe
1.86Tetraferroplatinum
PtFe
1.87Tulameenite
Pt
 
2
CuFe
1.88Ferronickelplatinum
Pt
 
2
FeNi
1.89Rhodium
(Rh,Pt)
Related Minerals - Dana Grouping):

- +
1.2.1.1Platinum
Pt
1.2.1.3Rhodium
(Rh,Pt)
1.2.1.4Palladium
(Pd,Pt)
1.2.1.5Rutheniridosmine
(Ir,Os,Ru)

Other Names for Iridium

Synonyms:
Osmiridium (of Zvyagintsev)
Other Languages:
Japanese:自然イリジウム
Russian:Иридий
Simplified Chinese:自然铱
Varieties:
AurosmiridiumOsmiridiumPlatiniridiumRutheniridiumRuthenosmiridium

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Iridium

Reference List:

- +
Canadian Mineralogist: 12: 104-112.

Canadian Mineralogist (1991): 29: 231-237.

Internet Links for Iridium

Search Engines:
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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Iridium details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Iridium

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • New South Wales
      • Clarke Co.
    Carlo Tortorella
      • Cunningham Co.
        • Fifield
          • Woodburn
    Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data
      • Kennedy Co.
        • Condobolin district
          • Fifield
    [var: Osmiridium] Carlo Tortorella
      • Rous Co.
    [var: Osmiridium] G. A. Albertson Data
    Carlo Tortorella
    Carlo Tortorella
        • Evans Head
    G. A. Albertson Data
    • Tasmania
    [var: Osmiridium]
    [var: Osmiridium] Bottrill, R. S.; 1989, Economic Geology Appendix A; Tasmanian Geol. Surv. Explanatory Rept. 73 ( Huntley.)
      • Beaconsfield district
    [var: Osmiridium] Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
      • Corinna-Savage River district
    [var: Osmiridium] Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
      • Heazlewood district
    Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
    [var: Osmiridium] Bottrill & Baker, 2008, Catalogue of Minerals of Tasmania
    Bottrill & Baker 2008
      • Huon district
        • Weld river
    Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
      • Rosebery district
    Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
      • Wynyard district
    [var: Osmiridium] M Latham collection
    Bulgaria
     
    • Blagoevgrad Oblast
    Burma (Myanmar)
     
    • Sagaing Division
      • Monywa District
        • Chindwin river
    [var: Platiniridium] Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
    Canada
     
    • British Columbia
      • Atlin Mining Division
    Canadian Mineralogist (2005): 43: 1705.
    [var: Osmiridium] Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
      • Cariboo Mining Division
        • Quesnel River area
    [var: Osmiridium] No reference listed
      • Liard Mining Division
        • Dease Lake
    Canadian Mineralogist (2005): 43: 1705.
      • Similkameen Mining Division
        • Princeton
          • Similkameen River
    Alfredo Petrov collection
        • Tulameen
    Canadian Mineralogist (2005): 43: 1705.
    Alfredo Petrov specimen, obtained from Lismarck Minerals, analysis #19 14/04/06.
    Alfredo Petrov collection
    • Québec
      • Chaudière-Appalaches
        • Les Appalaches RCM
          • Thetford Mines
    Corrivaux, L. & Laflamme, J.H. G. (1990) Minéralogie des éléments du group du platin dans les chromitites de l'ophiolite de Thetford Mines, Québec. Canadian Mineralogist 28, 579-595.
    • Yukon Territory
      • Watson Lake Mining District
    Fedortchouk, Y., LeBarge, W., Barkov, A.Y., Fedele, L. and Bodnar, R.J., 2010. Major- and trace-element composition of platinum group minerals and their inclusions from several Yukon placers. In: Yukon Exploration and Geology 2009, K.E. MacFarlane, L.H. Weston and L.R. Blackburn (eds.), Yukon Geological Survey, p. 185-196.
      • Whitehorse Mining District
        • Kluane District
    BARKOV, A.Y. & MARTIN, R.F. (2008) Grains of Pt-Fe alloy and inclusions in Pt-Fe alloy from Florence Creek, Yukon, Canada: Evidence for mobility of Os in a Na-H2O-Cl-rich fluid. Canadian Mineralogist 46, 343-360.
    Barkov, A.Y., Laflamme, J.H.G., Cabri, L.J., and Martin, R.F. (2002) Platinum-group minerals from the Wellgreen Cu-Ni-PGE deposit, Yukon, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist: 40: 651-669.
    China
     
    • Hebei Province
      • Chengde Prefecture
        • Luan River valley (Luanhe valley)
    Yu Zuxiang (1995): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 15(1), 1-4.
    [var: Osmiridium] Yu Zuxiang (1997): Acta Geologica Sinica 71(4), 486-490.
        • Xinglong Co.
    [var: Osmiridium] Yu Zuxiang (1981): Geological Review 27, 55-71.
    • Sichuan Province
      • Panzhihua Prefecture
        • Eastern District
    [var: Osmiridium]
    • Tibet Autonomous Region
      • Nagchu Prefecture (Naqu Prefecture)
        • Amdo Co. (Anduo Co.)
    [var: Ruthenosmiridium] Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
          • Dongqiao ophiolite (Donqiao ophiolite)
    [var: Osmiridium] Shi, R.D., Zhi, X.C., O'Reilly, S.Y., Griffin, W.L., Pearson, N.J., Bai, W.J., Fang, Q.S., Alard, O., and Zhang, M. (2006): Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts 2006, A 583.
      • Shannan Prefecture (Lhokha Prefecture; Lhoka Prefecture)
        • Qusum Co. (Qusong Co.)
    Wenji Bai, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Binggan Yan, and Zhongming Zhang (2001): Earth Science Frontiers 8(3), 111-121
    Colombia
     
    • Cauca Department
      • Mun. de Guapí
    Min Mag (1997) 61:367-375
    • Chocó Department
      • Mun. de Riosucio
    [var: Ruthenosmiridium]
    Cuba
     
    • Holguín Province
      • Mayarí-Baracoa Belt
    González-Jiménez, J. M., Proenza, J. A., Gervilla, F., Melgarejo, J. C., Blanco-Moreno, J. A., Ruiz-Sánchez, R., & Griffin, W. L. (2011). High-Cr and high-Al chromitites from the Sagua de Tánamo district, Mayarí-Cristal Ophiolitic Massif (eastern Cuba): constraints on their origin from mineralogy and geochemistry of chromian spinel and platinum-group elements. Lithos, 125(1), 101-121.
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Hradec Králové Region
        • Nová Paka (Neupaka)
    [var: Osmiridium] Moravec, B.: Zajímavé nerosty z granátových náplavů v Podkrkonoší. Minerál, 2002, roč. 10 č. 4, s. 262-268.
    Ethiopia
     
    • Benshangul-Gumaz Province
      • Asosa region (Assosa region)
    P.M. Kartashov data
    Finland
     
    Törroos Ragnar, Johanson Bo, Kojonen Kar, 1998. Alluvial nuggets of platinum group minerals and alloys from Finnish Lapland. Geological survey of Finland, Special Paper
      • Inari
        • Ivalojoki
    Mutanen, T.1980. GTK:n kallioperäosaston mineralogisen osaston röntgenajo 20539. Unpublished
    France
     
    • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
      • Bouches-du-Rhône
        • Aix-en-Provence
          • Peyrolles-en-Provence
    Y. Moëlo : "Compte-rendu de la réunion "Systématique des Minéraux" du 23 novembre 1989", Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéral.
    Germany
     
    • Bavaria
      • Lower Bavaria
        • Straubing
    Harald G. Dill, Detlev Klosa, Gustav Steyer, The “Donauplatin”: source rock analysis and origin of a distal fluvial Au-PGE placer in Central Europe, Miner Petrol (2009) 96:141–161.
    Greece
     
    • Macedonia Department
      • Kozáni Prefecture
        • Kozáni and Grevena prefectures border area
          • Vourinos Mt ophiolite complex
    [var: Osmiridium] Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
    Indonesia
     
    • Kalimantan Island (Borneo Island)
      • Kalimantan Selatan Province (South Kalimantan Province)
    Coggon, J. (2010). Application of the 190Pt-186Os isotope decay system to dating platinum-group minerals (Doctoral dissertation, Durham University).
    Japan
     
    • Hokkaido
      • Kamikawa Province
        • Uryu-gun
          • Uryugawa
    Robert C. Smith, II, Ph.D., P.G.
    Urashima et al (1972) Reports of the Faculty of Science, Kagoshima University, 21, 119-135.
    Malaysia
     
    • Pahang
    [var: Osmiridium] Geological Society of Malaysia Bulletin 15 (1982)
    Morocco
     
    • Souss-Massa-Draâ Region
      • Ouarzazate Province
        • Tazenakht
    S. Weiß: Lapis 31(7/8), 72-73 (2006)
    New Caledonia
     
    • Northern Province
      • Koumac Commune
        • Tiébaghi Massif
    [var: Ruthenosmiridium] Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
    • Southern Province
      • Pirogues River
    Economic Geology: 89: 1454-1468
    New Zealand
     
    • South Island
      • Parapara
    [var: Osmiridium] www.med.govt.nz/crown_minerals/minerals/docs/comreports/report05_pgm.pdf.
      • Southland
        • Southland District
    [var: Osmiridium] http://www.med.govt.nz/crown_minerals/minerals/docs/comreports/report05_pgm.pdf
    Norway
     
    • Sør-Trøndelag
      • Røros
        • Feragen
    [var: Osmiridium] Nilson, L. P. (1990): Platinum-group mineral inclusions in chromitite from the Osthammeren ultramafic tectonite body, South Central Norway. Mineralogy and Petrology 42: 249-263
    Oman
     
    • Northern Oman Ophiolite
    [var: Platiniridium] Ahmed, A. H., & Arai, S. (2003). Platinum-group minerals in podiform chromitites of the Oman ophiolite. The Canadian Mineralogist, 41(3), 597-616.
    Philippines
     
    • Mindanao
      • Southern Mindanao Region
        • Davao del Sur Province
    [var: Osmiridium] Shaofeng Huang (2011): Geology and Exploration 47(5), 935-942
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
    www.cosis.net/abstracts/EAE03/14099/EAE03-A-14099.pdf.
    • Far-Eastern Region
      • Chukotskii Autonomous Okrug
        • Kolyma area
          • Bol'shoi Anyui River Basin
            • Baimka River
              • Aluchinskii Massif (Aluchin horst)
    Gornostayev, S.S., Crocket, J.H., Mochalov, A.G., and Lajoki, K.V.O. (1999) The platinum-group minerals of the Baimka placer deposits, Aluchin horst, Russian Far East. Canadian Mineralogist: 37: 1117-1129.
        • Pekul'nei Range
          • Northern Pekul'nei River
    [var: Osmiridium] Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
      • Kamchatka Oblast'
        • Koryak Mts
    [var: Osmiridium]
    Sidorov, E. G., Tolstykh, N. D., Podlipsky, M. Y., & Pakhomov, I. O. (2004). Placer PGE minerals from the Filippa clinopyroxenite-dunite massif (Kamchatka). Geologiya i Geofizika (Russian Geology and Geophysics), 45(9), 1128-1144.
    [CanMin 38 p1251-1264 "The association of platinum-group minerals in placers of the Pustaya River, Kamchatka, Russia"]
      • Khabarovskiy Kray
        • Ayan-Maya district
          • Aldan shield
    [var: Osmiridium] Cabri, L.J., Laflamme, H.H. Giles, (1997), Platinum Group Minerals from the Konder Massif, Russian Far East, Min Rec. 28, 97-106
      • Primorskiy Kray
        • Khanka lake
    Shcheka G.G., Vrzhosek A.A., Lehmann B., Tolstykh N.D. (2004) Associations of platinum-group minerals from the Zolotaya gold placiers, Primorye, Russian Far East, - Can. Miner., v.42, pp. 583-599.
    • Northern Region
      • Karelia Republic
        • Ladoga Region
          • Pitkyaranta District (Pitkäranta District)
    [var: Osmiridium] V. I. Ivashchenko, O. B. Lavrov, K. Sundblad and A. N. Toritsin (2007) Au-Ag-Bi-Te-Se vein mineralization at Roikonkoski, Karelia, northern Lake Ladoga region. Geological Survey of Finland, Guide 53 pp 51-56
      • Murmanskaja Oblast'
        • Kola Peninsula
          • Monche-Tundra
            • Monchegorsk
    Neradovsky, Y.N., and Savchenko, E.E. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 746-748.
    [var: Aurosmiridium] Heys Mineral Index 3rd ed.
      • Middle Urals
        • Sverdlovskaya Oblast'
          • Nizhnii Tagil
    [var: Platiniridium] Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
            • Solov'eva Mtn
    [var: Platiniridium] Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
          • Sysert' district
    [var: Osmiridium] Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data
    9th International platinum symposium Chromite-PGE mineralization in the Uktus Alaskan-Type Complex (Central Urals,)
      • Southern Urals
        • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
    analysed by EDS, grain not showing any hexagonal outlook in the SEM; Franz Neuhold
    South Africa
     
    • Free State Province
      • Lejweleputswa District
    [var: Osmiridium] Econ Geol (1989) 84:1651-1655
        • Witwatersrand field
          • Welkom
    [var: Osmiridium] Econ Geol (1989) 84:1651-1655
    [var: Osmiridium] Econ Geol (1989) 84:1651-1655
    Minerals of South Africa
    • Mpumalanga Province
      • Eastern Bushveld Complex
        • Lydenburg District
    [var: Osmiridium] Minerals of South Africa
      • Witwatersrand field
        • West Rand
    [var: Osmiridium]
    Sweden
     
    • Småland
      • Vetlanda
        • Alseda
    H.-J.Wilke: Die Mineralien und Fundstellen von Schweden.1997
    UK
     
    • Scotland
      • North West Highlands (Inverness-shire)
        • Isle of Rum
    [var: Platiniridium] Power, M.R., Pirrie, D., Andersen, J.C.O., and Butcher, A.R. (2000): Mineralium Deposita 35, 762-775.
    USA
     
    • Alaska
      • Bethel Borough
        • Goodnews Bay
          • Salmon River - Red Mountain District
    [var: Osmiridium] USGS Open-File Report 01-269
    USGS Open-File Report 01-269
    [var: Osmiridium] USGS Open-File Report 01-269
    [var: Osmiridium] Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; Min Mag (1997) 61:367-375
    [var: Osmiridium] USGS Open-File Report 01-269
        • Goodnews Bay District
    [var: Osmiridium] U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
      • Matanuska-Susitna Borough
        • Yentna District
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
      • Southeast Fairbanks Borough
        • Chistochina District
    [var: Osmiridium] U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
      • Wrangell-Petersburg Borough
        • Ketchikan District
    [var: Platiniridium] U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
    [var: Platiniridium] U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
    [var: Platiniridium] U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
    [var: Platiniridium] U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
    [var: Platiniridium] U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
    [var: Platiniridium] U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
      • Yukon-Koyukuk Borough
        • Circle District
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
        • Innoko District
    [var: Osmiridium] Alaska Geological Survey Public-data F i l e 89-20
    • California
    Norman King (cubic crystals with osmium from placer)
      • El Dorado Co.
        • Middle Fork American River
    Logan, Clarence August (1918), Platinum and allied metals in California: California Mining Bureau. Bulletin 85, 120 pp.: 29; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 41.
      • Humboldt Co.
        • Klamath Mts
          • Weitchpec District
            • Weitchpec
              • Klamath River
    [var: Osmiridium] Logan, Clarence August (1918), Platinum and allied metals in California: California Mining Bureau. Bulletin 85, 120 pp.: 65, 109; Mertie, J.B. (1969) Economic geology of the platinum metals. USGS Professional Paper 630, 120 pp.: 94; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 41.
      • Mariposa Co.
        • West Belt
          • Hornitos District
            • Quartzburg
              • Quartzburg School
    Min Mag (1997) 61:367-375
      • Mendocino Co.
        • Coastal Range
          • Anderson Valley
            • Navarro River
    Hanks, Henry Garber (1884), Fourth report of the State Mineralogist: California Mining Bureau. Report 4, 410 pp. (includes catalog of minerals of California pp. 63-410), and miscellaneous observations on mineral products): 310; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 149, 229.
      • Merced Co.
        • Cressey
    [var: Ruthenosmiridium] Sjoberg, J. and Gomes, J.M. (1980) Platinum-group minerals in California alluvial deposits. US Bureau of Mines, Reno Research Center, unpublished manuscript: 15; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 41, 43.
        • Snelling District
          • Snelling
            • Merced River
    [var: Ruthenosmiridium] Sjoberg, J. and Gomes, J.M. (1980) Platinum-group minerals in California alluvial deposits. US Bureau of Mines, Reno Research Center, unpublished manuscript: 15; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 41, 43.
      • Nevada Co.
        • North San Juan District (Badger Hill District)
          • Yuba River
    Sjoberg, J. and Gomes, J.M. (1980) Platinum-group minerals in California alluvial deposits. US Bureau of Mines, Reno Research Center, unpublished manuscript: 15, figure 1; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 45.
      • Sacramento Co.
        • Folsom District
          • Folsom
    [var: Ruthenosmiridium] Sjoberg, J. and Gomes, J.M. (1980) Platinum-group minerals in California alluvial deposits. US Bureau of Mines, Reno Research Center, unpublished manuscript: 15, figure 1; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 43.
      • San Joaquin Co.
        • Camanche District
          • Dogtown
    [var: Ruthenosmiridium] Sjoberg, J. and Gomes, J.M. (1980) Platinum-group minerals in California alluvial deposits. US Bureau of Mines, Reno Research Center, unpublished manuscript: 15, figure 1; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 43.
      • Shasta Co.
        • Redding District
          • Redding
    Sjoberg, J. and Gomes, J.M. (1980) Platinum-group minerals in California alluvial deposits. US Bureau of Mines, Reno Research Center, unpublished manuscript: 15, figure 1; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 43.
      • Siskiyou Co.
        • Klamath Mts
          • Forks of Salmon
    [var: Osmiridium] Logan, Clarence August (1918), Platinum and allied metals in California: California Mining Bureau. Bulletin 85, 120 pp.: 66-67, 78-79; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 43.
          • Somes Bar
            • Sugarloaf
    [var: Osmiridium] Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 44.
          • Yoakumville
    [var: Osmiridium] Logan, Clarence August (1918), Platinum and allied metals in California: California Mining Bureau. Bulletin 85, 120 pp.: 66-67; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 43.
      • Stanislaus Co.
    [var: Ruthenosmiridium] Sjoberg, J. and Gomes, J.M. (1980) Platinum-group minerals in California alluvial deposits. US Bureau of Mines, Reno Research Center, unpublished manuscript: 15, figure 1; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 44.
      • Tehama Co.
        • Klamath Mts
          • Beegum
    [var: Osmiridium] Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 44.
      • Trinity Co.
        • Klamath Mts
    [var: Osmiridium] Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 45.
            • Hayfork
    USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10305135.
          • Junction City District
            • Junction City
    Harvard University spec. 100263
              • Red Hill
    [var: Osmiridium] Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 45.
          • Trinity Center
    [var: Platiniridium] Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 290.
          • Weaverville District
            • Douglas City
    [var: Ruthenosmiridium] Sjoberg, J. and Gomes, J.M. (1980) Platinum-group minerals in California alluvial deposits. US Bureau of Mines, Reno Research Center, unpublished manuscript: 15; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 45.
          • Willow Creek District
            • Salyer
    [var: Osmiridium] USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10109530.
      • Yuba Co.
        • Hammonton District (Yuba River District; Yuba Gold Field; Yuba Dredge Field; Yuba Consolidated Gold Fields)
          • Hammonton
    Sjoberg, J. and Gomes, J.M. (1980) Platinum-group minerals in California alluvial deposits. US Bureau of Mines, Reno Research Center, unpublished manuscript: 15; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 45.
    • Colorado
      • Clear Creek Co.
        • Georgetown District
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.; U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 223
      • Summit Co.
        • Breckenridge District
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
    • Nevada
      • Clark Co.
        • Goodsprings District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • New Mexico
      • Sierra Co.
    [var: Platiniridium] Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    • Oregon
      • Coos Co.
        • Beach Area
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    [var: Osmiridium] Bird, J. M., and W. A. Bassett (1980), Evidence of a Deep Mantle History in Terrestrial Osmium-Iridium-Ruthenium Alloys, J. Geophys. Res., 85(B10), 5461–5470.
      • Jackson Co.
        • Applegate District
    Min Mag (1997) 61:367-375
      • Josephine Co.
        • Illinois River District
    Oregon Metal Mines Handbook, 1952, Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries: Bulletin No. 14-C, Vol. 2, Section 1 - Josephine Co., 2nd Edition, page 122.
        • Josephine Creek District
    Oregon Metal Mines Handbook, 1952, Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries: Bulletin No. 14-C, Vol. 2, Section 1 - Josephine Co., 2nd Edition, page 134.
    [var: Osmiridium] www.geo.cornell.edu/geology/faculty/Bird.html.
    Oregon Metal Mines Handbook, 1952, Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries: Bulletin No. 14-C, Vol. 2, Section 1 - Josephine Co., 2nd Edition, page 123.
    • Pennsylvania
      • Chester Co.
        • State Line Chromite District
    Smith and Barnes (2011) Pennsylvania Geology v. 41, no. 3/4.
      • Lancaster Co.
        • State Line Chromite District
    Smith and Barnes (2011) Pennsylvania Geology Fall/Winter 2011; Smith and Barnes (2011) Pennsylvania Geology v. 41, no. 3/4.
    • Wyoming
      • Albany Co.
        • Centennial Ridge District (La Plata District)
    [var: Platiniridium] In the collections of Jason McAvoy and Brent Thorne.
    Zimbabwe
     
    • Midlands
      • Gweru District (Gwelo District)
    [var: Osmiridium] Rocks & Minerals (1955) 30:464-471
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