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Osmium

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Formula:
(Os,Ir,Ru)
System:HexagonalColour:White
Lustre:MetallicHardness:6 - 7
Name:After the Greek for odor, for it's pungent and irritating odor when heated in air.
This page provides mineralogical data about Osmium.

Classification of Osmium

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:1/A.13-20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:1.AF.05

1 : ELEMENTS (Metals and intermetallic alloys; metalloids and nonmetals; carbides, silicides, nitrides, phosphides)
A : Metals and Intermetallic Alloys
F : Platinum group elements
Dana 7th edition ID:1.2.2.1
Dana 8th edition ID:1.2.2.1

1 : NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
2 : Platinum Group Metals and Alloys
Hey's CIM Ref.:1.76

1 : Elements and Alloys (including the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au)
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Occurrences of Osmium

Geological Setting:From ultramafic rocks and placers.

Physical Properties of Osmium

Lustre:Metallic
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Opaque
Colour:White
Streak:Grey
Hardness (Mohs):6 - 7
Hardness (Vickers):VHN25=1206 - 1246 kg/mm2
Density (measured):22.48 g/cm3
Density (calculated):22.59 g/cm3

Crystallography of Osmium

Crystal System:Hexagonal
Class (H-M):6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) - Dihexagonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:P63/mmc
Cell Parameters:a = 2.7341Å, c = 4.3197Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 1.58
Unit Cell Volume:V 27.96 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:2
Morphology:Prismatic inclusions.

Optical Data of Osmium

Type:Anisotropic
Anisotropism:Strong, reddish orange
Colour in reflected light:White with bluish gray tent
Pleochroism:Weak

Chemical Properties of Osmium

Formula:
(Os,Ir,Ru)
Essential elements:Os
All elements listed in formula:Ir, Os, Ru
Common Impurities:Pt,Rh,Pd

Relationship of Osmium to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
1.AF.05Rutheniridosmine
(Ir,Os,Ru)
1.AF.05Ruthenium
(Ru,Ir)
1.AF.10Iridium
(Ir,Os,Ru)
1.AF.10Palladium
(Pd,Pt)
1.AF.10Platinum
Pt
1.AF.10Rhodium
(Rh,Pt)
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
1.1Copper
Cu
1.2Silver
Ag
1.5Gold
Au
1.6Auricupride
Cu
 
3
Au
1.7Tetra-auricupride
AuCu
1.8Zinc
Zn
1.9Cadmium
Cd
1.10Danbaite
CuZn
 
2
1.11Zhanghengite
CuZn
1.12Mercury
Hg
1.13Kolymite
Cu
 
7
Hg
 
6
1.14Moschellandsbergite
Ag
 
2
Hg
 
3
1.15Eugenite
Ag
 
11
Hg
 
2
1.16Schachnerite
Ag
 
1.1
Hg
 
0.9
1.17Paraschachnerite
Ag
 
3
Hg
 
2
1.18Luanheite
Ag
 
3
Hg
1.19Weishanite
(Au,Ag)
 
3
Hg
 
2
1.20Indium
In
1.21Aluminium
Al
1.22Khatyrkite
(Cu,Zn)Al
 
2
1.23Cupalite
(Cu,Zn)Al
1.24Diamond
C
1.25Graphite
C
1.26Chaoite
C
1.27Lonsdaleite
C
1.28Silicon
Si
1.29Tin
Sn
1.30Lead
Pb
1.31Anyuiite
Au(Pb,Sb)
 
2
1.31Novodneprite
AuPb
 
3
1.32Leadamalgam
Pb
 
0.7
Hg
 
0.3
1.33Arsenic
As
1.34Arsenolamprite
As
1.35Paxite
CuAs
 
2
1.36Koutekite
Cu
 
5
As
 
2
1.37Domeykite
Cu
 
3
As
1.38Algodonite
(Cu
 
1-x
As
 
x
)
1.39Novakite
Cu
 
20
AgAs
 
10
1.40Kutinaite
Ag
 
6
Cu
 
14
As
 
7
1.41Antimony
Sb
1.42Stibarsen
AsSb
1.43Paradocrasite
Sb
 
3
As
1.44Horsfordite
Cu, Sb
1.45Cuprostibite
Cu
 
2
(Sb,Tl)
1.46Allargentum
(Ag
 
1-x
Sb
 
x
)
1.47Aurostibite
AuSb
 
2
1.48Dyscrasite
Ag
 
3
Sb
1.49Bismuth
Bi
1.50Maldonite
Au
 
2
Bi
1.51Sulphur
S
 
8
1.52Rosickýite
S
1.53Selenium
Se
1.54Tellurium
Te
1.55Chromium
Cr
1.56Rhenium
Re
1.57Iron
Fe
1.58Chromferide
Fe
 
3
Cr
 
1-x
(x=0.6)
1.59Ferchromide
Cr
 
3
Fe
 
1-x
1.60Wairauite
CoFe
1.61Nickel
Ni
1.62Kamacite
(Fe,Ni)
1.63Taenite
(Fe,Ni)
1.64Tetrataenite
FeNi
1.65Awaruite
Ni
 
3
Fe
1.66Palladium
(Pd,Pt)
1.67Potarite
PdHg
1.68Paolovite
Pd
 
2
Sn
1.69Stannopalladinite
(Pd,Cu)
 
3
Sn
 
2
1.70Cabriite
Pd
 
2
CuSn
1.71Taimyrite-I
(Pd,Cu,Pt)
 
3
Sn
1.72Atokite
(Pd,Pt)
 
3
Sn
1.73Rustenburgite
(Pt,Pd)
 
3
Sn
1.74Zvyagintsevite
(Pd,Pt,Au)
 
3
(Pb,Sn)
1.75Plumbopalladinite
Pd
 
3
Pb
 
2
1.77Iridium
(Ir,Os,Ru)
1.82Platinum
Pt
1.83Hongshiite
PtCu
1.84Niggliite
PtSn
1.85Isoferroplatinum
Pt
 
3
Fe
1.86Tetraferroplatinum
PtFe
1.87Tulameenite
Pt
 
2
CuFe
1.88Ferronickelplatinum
Pt
 
2
FeNi
1.89Rhodium
(Rh,Pt)
Related Minerals - Dana Grouping):

- +
1.2.2.2Ruthenium
(Ru,Ir)
1.2.2.3Rhenium
Re

Other Names for Osmium

Other Languages:
Arabic:أوزميوم
Armenian:Օսմիում
Basque:Osmio
Belarusian:Осмій
Bengali:অসমিয়াম
Bosnian (Latin Script):Osmijum
Bulgarian:Осмий
Catalan:Osmi
Corsican:Osmiu
Croatian:Osmij
Czech:Osmium
Danish:Osmium
Dutch:Osmium
Esperanto:Osmio
Estonian:Osmium
Finnish:Osmium
French:Osmium
Friulian:Osmi
Galician:Osmio
German:Osmium
Greek:Όσμιο
Hebrew:אוסמיום
Hungarian:Ozmium
Icelandic:Osmín
Ido:Osmio
Indonesian:Osmium
Italian:Osmio
Japanese:オスミウム
Javanese:Osmium
Korean:오스뮴
Kurdish (Latin Script):Osmiyûm
Latin:Osmium
Latvian:Osmijs
Lithuanian:Osmis
Lojban:jinmrbosmi
Luxembourgish:Osmium
Malayalam:ഓസ്മിയം
Manx:Osmium
Norwegian (Bokmål):Osmium
Norwegian (Nynorsk):Osmium
Occitan:Òsmi
Persian:اسمیوم
Polish:Osm
Portuguese:Ósmio
Romanian:Osmiu
Russian:Осмий
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Осмијум
Serbo-Croatian:Osmijum
Sicilian:Òsmiu
Simplified Chinese:自然锇
Slovak:Osmium
Slovenian:Osmij
Spanish:Osmio
Swedish:Osmium
Thai:ออสเมียม
Traditional Chinese:自然鋨
Turkish:Osmiyum
Ukrainian:Осмій
Varieties:
IridosmineRhodic Nevyanskite

Other Information

Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Osmium

Reference List:

- +
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Seventh edition, Volume I: 111-113.

Canadian Mineralogist (1974): 12: 104-112.

Canadian Mineralogist (1991): 29: 231-237.

Internet Links for Osmium

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Osmium details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Osmium

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Albania
     
    • Tropoja ophiolitic Massif
    http://www.env.duke.edu/faculty/boudreau/9thPtSymposium/Boshnjaku_Abstract.pdf
    Australia
     
    • New South Wales
      • Clarke Co.
    Carlo Tortorella
      • Cunningham Co.
        • Fifield
          • Woodburn
    [var: Iridosmine] Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data
      • Kennedy Co.
        • Condobolin district
          • Fifield
    No reference listed
      • Rous Co.
    [var: Iridosmine] G. A. Albertson Data
    G. A. Albertson Data
    Carlo Tortorella
        • Evans Head
    G. A. Albertson Data
    • Tasmania
    Bottrill & Baker in prep
    Bottrill, R. S.; 1989, Economic Geology Appendix A; Tasmanian Geol. Surv. Explanatory Rept. 73 ( Huntley.)
      • Corinna-Savage River district
        • Corinna
    Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
      • Heazlewood district
    Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
    Bottrill & Baker 2008
      • Huon district
        • Weld river
    Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
      • Rosebery district
    Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
    Brazil
     
    • Bahia
    33rd International Geological Congress (2008) session MPM-04 Platinum-group mineralogy: Diversity of Platinum group minerals (PGM) in chromitites from Brazil, preliminary results
    Bulgaria
     
    • Blagoevgrad Oblast
    Цинцов, З. (1998). Състав, разпространение и транспорт на минералите на елементите от групата на платината в алувиалните седименти на Благоевградския грабен. Сп. БГД, 59(2), 59-65.
    • Burgas Oblast (Bourgas Oblast)
      • Kameno Obshtina
    Atanasov, A. V. (1990). Vasilite,(Pd, Cu) 16 (S, Te) 7, a new mineral species from Novoseltsi, Bulgaria. The Canadian Mineralogist, 28(3), 687-689.
      • Sozopol Obshtina
    [var: Iridosmine] Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
    Canada
     
    • British Columbia
      • Atlin Mining Division
    Canadian Mineralogist (2005): 43: 1705.
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
    [var: Iridosmine] Harris D C, Cabri L J (1973) The nomenclature of the natural alloys of osmium, iridium and ruthenium based on new compositional data of alloys from world-wide occurrences. The Canadian Mineralogist 12, 104-112
      • Liard Mining Division
        • Dease Lake
    Canadian Mineralogist (2005): 43: 1705.
      • Similkameen Mining Division
        • Tulameen
    [var: Iridosmine] Harris D C, Cabri L J (1973) The nomenclature of the natural alloys of osmium, iridium and ruthenium based on new compositional data of alloys from world-wide occurrences. The Canadian Mineralogist 12, 104-112
    Nixon, G.T., Cabri, L.J., and Laflamme, J.H.G. (1990) Platinum-group-element mineralizaton in lode and placer deposits associated with the Tulameen Alaskan-type complex, British Columbia. Canadian Mineralogist: 28, 503-535.
    [var: Iridosmine] Harris D C, Cabri L J (1973) The nomenclature of the natural alloys of osmium, iridium and ruthenium based on new compositional data of alloys from world-wide occurrences. The Canadian Mineralogist 12, 104-112
    Nixon, G. T., Cabri, L. J., & Laflamme, J. G. (1990). Platinum-group-element mineralization in lode and placer deposits associated with the Tulameen Alaskan-type complex, British Columbia. The Canadian Mineralogist, 28(3), 503-535.
    • Newfoundland and Labrador
      • Newfoundland
        • Baie Verte Peninsula
          • Baie Verte
            • Advocate Ophiolite complex
    Escayola, M., Garuti, G., Zaccarini, F., Proenza, J.A., Bédard, J.H. & Van Staal, C. (2011) Chromitite and platinum-group-element mineralization at Middle Arm Brook, Advocate Ophiolite complex, Baie Verte Peninsula, Newfoundland, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist 49, 1523-1547.
    • Québec
      • Chaudière-Appalaches
        • Les Appalaches RCM
          • Thetford Mines
    Can. Min. 28, 579.;
        • Robert-Cliche RCM
          • Beauceville
    [var: Iridosmine] J.J. O'Neill and H.C. Gunning, Platinum and Allied Metal Deposits of Canada, Canada Department of Mines, 1934. (Pg. 55)
    [var: Iridosmine] Traill, R. J. (1980) Catalog of Canadian Minerals: Revised 1980. Geological Survey of Canada Paper 80-18.
    [var: Iridosmine] Traill, R. J. (1980) Catalog of Canadian Minerals: Revised 1980. Geological Survey of Canada Paper 80-18.
    • Yukon Territory
      • Watson Lake Mining District
    Fedortchouk, Y., LeBarge, W., Barkov, A.Y., Fedele, L. and Bodnar, R.J., 2010. Major- and trace-element composition of platinum group minerals and their inclusions from several Yukon placers. In: Yukon Exploration and Geology 2009, K.E. MacFarlane, L.H. Weston and L.R. Blackburn (eds.), Yukon Geological Survey, p. 185-196.
      • Whitehorse Mining District
        • Kluane District
    BARKOV, A.Y. & MARTIN, R.F. (2008) Grains of Pt-Fe alloy and inclusions in Pt-Fe alloy from Florence Creek, Yukon, Canada: Evidence for mobility of Os in a Na-H2O-Cl-rich fluid. Canadian Mineralogist 46, 343-360.
    China
     
    • Hebei Province
      • Chengde Prefecture
        • Luan River valley (Luanhe valley)
    Yu Zuxiang (1995): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 15(1), 1-4.; Bilun Luo (1979): Geology and Prospecting 15(3), 11-15
    [var: Iridosmine] Yu Zuxiang (1985): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 5(1), 6-9
    Yu Zuxiang (1998): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 18(2), 134-137
    • Hunan Province
      • Huaihua Prefecture
        • Yuanling Co.
          • Yuan river placers (Yuanjiang placers)
    Chen Lichang, Tang Cuiqing, Zhang Jianhong, and Liu Zhenyun (1994): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 13(3), 232-238
    • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
      • Hohhot League (Huhehaote Prefecture)
        • Wuchuan Co.
    [var: Iridosmine] Chen Keqiao, Yang Huifang, Ma Letian, and Peng Zhizhong (1981): Dizhi Lunping [Geological Review] 27(2), 108-115.
    Dianhao Huang, Keqiao Chen, Chengyu Wu, and Shimei Yu (1995): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 15(3), 312-316
    • Tibet Autonomous Region
      • Nagchu Prefecture (Naqu Prefecture)
        • Amdo Co. (Anduo Co.)
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
          • Dongqiao ophiolite (Donqiao ophiolite)
    [var: Iridosmine] Shi, R.D., Zhi, X.C., O'Reilly, S.Y., Griffin, W.L., Pearson, N.J., Bai, W.J., Fang, Q.S., Alard, O., and Zhang, M. (2006): Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts 2006, A 583.
      • Shannan Prefecture (Lhokha Prefecture; Lhoka Prefecture)
        • Qusum Co. (Qusong Co.)
    Wenji Bai, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Binggang Yan, Zhongming Zhang, Yufeng Ren, Nicheng Shi, Zhesheng Ma, and Mingquan Dai (2004): Earth Science Frontiers 11(1), 179-187
    • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
      • Changji Autonomous Prefecture (Sanji Autonomous Prefecture)
        • Manasi Co. (Manas Co.)
    [var: Iridosmine] Jianxun Bai (1987): Geology and Prospecting 23(12), 24-27
    • Yunnan Province
      • Dali Autonomous Prefecture
        • Midu Co.
    [var: Iridosmine] Min Liu (2002): Multipurpose Utilization of Mineral Resources 10(5), 28-32
    Colombia
     
    • Cauca Department
      • Mun. de Guapí
    Min Mag (1997) 61:367-375
    Costa Rica
     
    • Guanacaste Province
    Federica Zaccarini, Ronald J. Bakker, Giorgio Garuti, Thomas Aiglsperger, Oskar A. R. Thalhammer, Lolita Campos, Joaquin A. Proenza, John F. Lewis (2010) Platinum group minerals in chromitite bodies of the Santa Elena Nappe, Costa Rica: mineralogical characterization by electron microprobe and Raman–spectroscopy. Boletín de la Sociedad Geológica Mexicana 62:161-171
    Czech Republic
     
    • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
      • Hradec Králové Region
        • Nová Paka (Neupaka)
    [var: Iridosmine] Moravec, B.: Zajímavé nerosty z granátových náplavů v Podkrkonoší. Minerál, 2002, roč. 10 č. 4, s. 262-268.
    Ecuador
     
    • Esmeraldas Province
    Weiser, T. and Schmidt-Thome, M. (1993) Platinum-group minerals from the Santiago river, Esmeraldas province, Ecuador. Canadian Mineralogist, 31, 61-73.
    Ethiopia
     
    • Benshangul-Gumaz Province
      • Asosa region (Assosa region)
    P.M. Kartashov data
    • Oromia Province (Oromiya Province)
      • Gimbi
    Econ Geol (1986) 81:1278-1285; Kebede H. Belete, Aberra Mogessie and , John F.W. Bowles Platinum-Group Minerals in the Alaskan Type Mafic-Ultramafic Intrusions of the Yubdo Area, Western Ethiopia. 9th Platinum symposium
    C. J. Stanley et al.: Mineralogical Magazine 69(4):447-453 (2005)
    Finland
     
    Törroos Ragnar, Johanson Bo, Kojonen Kar, 1998. Alluvial nuggets of platinum group minerals and alloys from Finnish Lapland. Geological survey of Finland, Special Paper; Törnroos, Ragnar, Johanson, Bo, Kojonen, Kari 1998. Alluvial nuggets of Platinum-group minerals and alloys from Finnish Lapland. Geological Survey of Finland, Special Paper 26
      • Kemi
    Stanislav S. Gornostayev, Kauko V.O. Laajoki & Ossi Leinonen (2000) The platinum-group minerals in the Kemi chromite deposit, Finland: a case study of the Elijärvi ore body. In Abstract volume and Field trip Guidebook, 2nd annual GEODE-Fennoscandian shield field workshop on Palaeoproterozoic and Archean greenstone belts and VMS districts in the Fennoscandian Shield (Vol. 28).
    France
     
    • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
      • Bouches-du-Rhône
        • Aix-en-Provence
          • Peyrolles-en-Provence
    Y. Moëlo : "Compte-rendu de la réunion "Systématique des Minéraux" du 23 novembre 1989", Bull. Soc. Franç. Minéral. ; 5th International Platinum Symposium Bulletin of The Geological Society of Finland Number 61, Part 1,1989,1-64
    Germany
     
    • Bavaria
      • Lower Bavaria
        • Straubing
    Harald G. Dill, Detlev Klosa, Gustav Steyer, The “Donauplatin”: source rock analysis and origin of a distal fluvial Au-PGE placer in Central Europe, Miner Petrol (2009) 96:141–161.
    Greece
     
    • Epirus Department (Ipeiros)
      • Pindos Mtn
        • Pindos ophiolite complex
    Argirios Kapsiotis, Tassos A. Grammatikopoulos, Basilios Tsikouras, Konstantin Hatzipanagiotou, Federica Zaccarini und Giorgio Garuti (2011): Mineralogy, composition and PGM of chromitites from Pefki, Pindos ophiolite complex (NW Greece): evidence for progressively elevated fAs conditions in the upper mantle sequence. Mineralogy and Petrology 101, 129-150.
    • Macedonia Department
      • Kozáni Prefecture
        • Kozáni and Grevena prefectures border area
          • Vourinos Mt ophiolite complex
    [var: Iridosmine] Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; Auge, T. (1985). Platinum-group-mineral inclusions in ophiolitic chromitite from the Vourinos Complex, Greece. The Canadian Mineralogist, 23(2), 163-171.
    Kapsiotis, A., Grammatikopoulos, T. A., Zaccarini, F., Tsikouras, B., Garuti, G., & Hatzipanagiotou, K. (2006). Platinum-group mineral characterisation in concentrates from low-grade PGE chromitites from the Vourinos ophiolite complex, northern Greece. Applied Earth Science: Transactions of the Institutions of Mining and Metallurgy: Section B, 115(2), 49-57.
    [var: Iridosmine] Auge, T. (1985). Platinum-group-mineral inclusions in ophiolitic chromitite from the Vourinos Complex, Greece. The Canadian Mineralogist, 23(2), 163-171.
    India
     
    • Orissa
    CanMin 40:277-309
    Indonesia
     
    • Kalimantan Island (Borneo Island)
      • Kalimantan Selatan Province (South Kalimantan Province)
    Frank Keutsch specimen; microprobe analysis
    Iran
     
    • Kerman Province
      • Esfandagheh
    Jannessary, M. R., Melcher, F., Lodziak, J., & Meisel, T. C. (2012). Review of platinum-group element distribution and mineralogy in chromitite ores from southern Iran. Ore Geology Reviews, 48, 278-305.
    Japan
     
    • Hokkaido
      • Kamikawa Province
        • Uryu-gun
    [var: Iridosmine] Masutomi Museum specimen (Kyoto)
    Robert C. Smith, II, Ph.D., P.G.
    [var: Iridosmine] www.mineralmundi.com
      • Sorachi Province
        • Yubari District
    [var: Iridosmine] Ryoichi SADANAGA and Michiaki BUNNO (1974) THE WAKABAYASHI MINERAL COLLECTION Bulletin No. 7 The University Museum, The University of Tokyo
      • Soya Province
        • Esashi-gun
    [var: Iridosmine] Mitsubishi Corporation mineral collection, Ikuno
    Urashima et al (1972) Reports of the Faculty of Science, Kagoshima University, 21, 119-135.; Urashima, Y., & Wakabayashi, T. (1972). Mineral compositions of placer platinum from Teshio in Hokkaido, Japan(Quantitative analysis and identification of chemical properties of minerals in Japanese placer platinoids). Kagoshima Daigaku Rika Hokoku,(Kagoshima), (21), 119-135.
    [var: Iridosmine] Ryoichi SADANAGA and Michiaki BUNNO (1974) THE WAKABAYASHI MINERAL COLLECTION Bulletin No. 7 The University Museum, The University of Tokyo
    Morocco
     
    • Souss-Massa-Draâ Region
      • Ouarzazate Province
        • Tazenakht
    S. Weiß: Lapis 31(7/8), 72-73 (2006)
    New Caledonia
     
    • Southern Province
      • Pirogues River
    Economic Geology: 89: 1454-1468
    New Zealand
     
    • South Island
      • Parapara
    [var: Iridosmine] www.med.govt.nz/crown_minerals/minerals/docs/comreports/report05_pgm.pdf.
    Norway
     
    • Nord-Trøndelag
      • Leka
    Nilsson, L. P. & Larsen, R. B. (1998): Edle mineraler i mafiske og ultramafiske bergarter- en oppsummering av platina-gruppe mineraler (PGM) funnet i Norge i de senere år. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift 14: 40-49; Econ Geol (1993) 88:782-803
    • Sogn og Fjordane
      • Vik
        • Stølsheimen
    [var: Iridosmine] Nilsson, L. P. & Larsen, R. B. (1998): Edle mineraler i mafiske og ultramafiske bergarter- en oppsummering av platina-gruppe mineraler (PGM) funnet i Norge i de senere år. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift 14: 40-49
    • Sør-Trøndelag
      • Røros
        • Feragen
    Nilson, L. P. (1990): Platinum-group mineral inclusions in chromitite from the Osthammeren ultramafic tectonite body, South Central Norway. Mineralogy and Petrology 42: 249-263
    Oman
     
    • Northern Oman Ophiolite
    [var: Iridosmine] Ahmed, A. H., & Arai, S. (2003). Platinum-group minerals in podiform chromitites of the Oman ophiolite. The Canadian Mineralogist, 41(3), 597-616.
    Papua New Guinea
     
    • Central Province
      • Port Moresby area
    http://www.minport.com/showmrds-M045032.html
    • Enga Province
    Mineralogy and Petrology 68:159-176 (2000).
    • Northern Province (Oro Province)
    [AmMin 85:1325]
    Russia
     
    • Eastern-Siberian Region
    www.cosis.net/abstracts/EAE03/14099/EAE03-A-14099.pdf.
        • Maimecha and Kotui Rivers Basin
    Malitch K.N., Badanina I.Yu., Goncharov M.M., Lopatin G.G. (2001) Platinum-group minerals (PGMs) of the Bor-Uryakh massif (Maimecha-Kotui Province). Abstracts of XXVII International conference School «Geochemistry of Alkaline rocks». – Moscow-Koktebel’. pp. 240 pp.
    Pavel M. Kartashov data
      • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
    [var: Iridosmine] [World of Stones 12:49]
          • Aldan
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    • Far-Eastern Region
      • Amurskaya Oblast'
    [var: Iridosmine] Stepanov, V.A., Rogulina, L.I., Melnikov, A.V., and Yusupov, D.V. (2007): Geology of Ore Deposits 49(7), 619-623.
      • Chukotskii Autonomous Okrug
        • Kolyma area
          • Bol'shoi Anyui River Basin
            • Baimka River
              • Aluchinskii Massif (Aluchin horst)
    Gornostayev, S.S., Crocket, J.H., Mochalov, A.G., and Lajoki, K.V.O. (1999) The platinum-group minerals of the Baimka placer deposits, Aluchin horst, Russian Far East. Canadian Mineralogist: 37: 1117-1129.
        • Pekul'nei Range
          • Northern Pekul'nei River
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
      • Kamchatka Oblast'
        • Koryak Mts
    [MinRec 31:201]
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow; Sidorov, E. G., Tolstykh, N. D., Podlipsky, M. Y., & Pakhomov, I. O. (2004). Placer PGE minerals from the Filippa clinopyroxenite-dunite massif (Kamchatka). Geologiya i Geofizika (Russian Geology and Geophysics), 45(9), 1128-1144.
    [CanMin 38 p1251-1264 "The association of platinum-group minerals in placers of the Pustaya River, Kamchatka, Russia"]
      • Khabarovskiy Kray
        • Ayan-Maya district
          • Aldan shield
    [MinRec 31:201]; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    Cabri, L.J., Laflamme, H.H. Giles, (1997), Platinum Group Minerals from the Konder Massif, Russian Far East, Min Rec. 28, 97-106
      • Koriak Autonomous Okrug
        • Koryak Upland (Koriak; Koriakskhiye)
          • Ust'-Bel'skii ultrabasic Massif
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
      • Primorskiy Kray
        • Kavalerovo Mining District
    [var: Iridosmine] ROGULINA, L., MAKEEVA, T., PISKUNOV, Y. G., & SVESHNIKOVA, O. (2004). Первая находка платиноидов в рудах Майского золото-серебряного месторождения (Дальнегорск, Приморье).
        • Khanka lake
    Shcheka G.G., Vrzhosek A.A., Lehmann B., Tolstykh N.D. (2004) Associations of platinum-group minerals from the Zolotaya gold placiers, Primorye, Russian Far East, - Can. Miner., v.42, pp. 583-599.
    • Northern Region
      • Murmanskaja Oblast'
        • Kola Peninsula
          • Monche-Tundra
    [var: Iridosmine] Yury L. Voytekhovsky, Yury N. Neradovsky (2008) The Cu-Ni-PGE and Cr deposits of the Monchegorsk area, the Kola Peninsula, Russia. 33 IGC excursion No 48, August 15 – 21, 2008
    Neradovsky, Y.N., and Savchenko, E.E. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 746-748.
    • Urals Region
      • Middle Urals
        • Sverdlovskaya Oblast'
          • Isovsky District
    P.M. Kartashov data
    [var: Iridosmine] Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data
          • Nizhnii Tagil
            • Solov'eva Mtn
    Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    [var: Iridosmine] P.M. Kartashov data
      • Southern Urals
        • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
    [var: Iridosmine] P.M. Kartashov data
      • Subarctic Urals
    M.I. Novgorodova e.a. (1995) A native wolfram with inclusions of yttrium oxide from an alluvium of Bol’shaja Pol’ja river (Prepolar Ural)” - Doklady RAN, 340, N5, pp. 681-684 (in Rus.).
    • Western-Siberian Region
      • Polar Urals
        • Tyumenskaya Oblast'
    [var: Iridosmine] Seltmann, R., Soloviev, S., Shatov, V., Pirajno, F., Naumov, E., & Cherkasov, S. (2010). Metallogeny of Siberia: tectonic, geologic and metallogenic settings of selected significant deposits*. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 57(6), 655-706
    South Africa
     
    • Free State Province
    Minerals of South Africa
    • Limpopo Province
      • Bushveld Complex
        • Burgersfort
          • Sekhukhuneland
    Melcher, F., & Lodziak, J. (2007). Platinum-group minerals of concentrates from the Driekop platinum pipe, Eastern Bushveld Complex Tribute to Eugen F. Stumpfl. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Abhandlungen: Journal of Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 183(2), 173-195.
    Turkey
     
    • Aegean Region
      • Muğla Province
        • Muğla ophiolite
    Uysal, İ., Tarkian, M., Sadiklar, M. B., Zaccarini, F., Meisel, T., Garuti, G., & Heidrich, S. (2009). Petrology of Al-and Cr-rich ophiolitic chromitites from the Muğla, SW Turkey: implications from composition of chromite, solid inclusions of platinum-group mineral, silicate, and base-metal mineral, and Os-isotope geochemistry. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 158(5), 659-674.
    UK
     
    • Scotland
      • Shetland Islands
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
    USA
     
    • Alaska
      • Bethel Borough
        • Goodnews Bay
    Canadian Mineralogist: 22: 543-552.
    USGS Open-File Report 01-269
    Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
    USGS Open-File Report 01-269
      • Wrangell-Petersburg Borough
        • Ketchikan District
    [var: Iridosmine] U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
    [var: Iridosmine] U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
    [var: Iridosmine] U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
    [var: Iridosmine] U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
    [var: Iridosmine] U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
    [var: Iridosmine] U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
    • California
      • Butte Co.
        • Cherokee District
    [var: Iridosmine] Silliman, Benjamin, Jr. (1873c), On the probable existence of microscopic diamonds with zircons and topaz, in the sands of hydraulic washings in California: A.I.M.E. Transactions: 1: 132; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 229.
      • Calaveras Co.
        • Mokelumne Hill District
          • Mokelumne Hill
    USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10028717.
      • Del Norte Co.
        • Coastal Range
    [var: Iridosmine] Hittell, John Sherzer (1868), The resources of California, 494 pp., San Francisco, A. Roman & Co.: 61; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 229.
      • Humboldt Co.
        • Eureka
          • Humboldt Bay
    [var: Iridosmine] Richthofen, Ferdinand [Baron von] (1865), Die Metall-Produktion Californiens und der angrenzenden Länden: Petermanns Mitt. Erganzungsband III, Erganzung Heft 14, 58 pp.: 46; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 229.
        • Klamath Mts
          • Willow Creek District
            • Willow Creek (China Flat)
              • China Flat
    [var: Iridosmine] Horton, Frederick W. (1912), Iridium in American placer platinum: Engineering & Mining Journal: 94: 873-875; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 229.
      • Mariposa Co.
        • West Belt
          • Hornitos District
            • Quartzburg
              • Quartzburg School
    Min Mag (1997) 61:367-375
      • Mendocino Co.
        • Coastal Range
          • Calpella
    [var: Iridosmine] Logan, Clarence August (1918), Platinum and allied metals in California: California Mining Bureau. Bulletin 85, 120 pp.: 46-47; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 41.
      • Nevada Co.
        • North San Juan District (Badger Hill District)
          • Yuba River
    [var: Iridosmine] Sjoberg, J. and Gomes, J.M. (1980) Platinum-group minerals in California alluvial deposits. US Bureau of Mines, Reno Research Center, unpublished manuscript: 15, figure 1; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 45.
      • Placer Co.
        • American River
          • North Fork American River
    [var: Iridosmine] Genth, Frederick Augustus (1852), On some minerals which accompany gold in California: Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia Proceedings: 6: 113-114; […(abstract): Neues Jahrb.: 68-69 (1855)]: 113; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 229.
      • Sacramento Co.
        • Folsom District
          • Folsom
    Sjoberg, J. and Gomes, J.M. (1980) Platinum-group minerals in California alluvial deposits. US Bureau of Mines, Reno Research Center, unpublished manuscript: 15, figure 1; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 43.
      • Shasta Co.
        • Cottonwood Creek
    [var: Iridosmine] Mining and Scientific Press (1901), Tin in California: Mining and Scientific Press: 82: 209; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 229.
        • Klamath Mts
          • Harrison Gulch District
            • Platina
    USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10286939; U.S. Bureau of Mines, Western Field Operations Center (WFOC), Minerals Information Listing Service (MILS); (MILS-WFOC) production files.
      • Trinity Co.
        • Klamath Mts
          • Junction City District
            • Junction City
    [var: Iridosmine] Horton, Frederick W. (1912), Iridium in American placer platinum: Engineering & Mining Journal: 94: 873-875; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 229.
    USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10190235; U.S. Bureau of Mines, Western Field Operations Center (WFOC), Minerals Information Listing Service (MILS), (MILS-WFOC) production files.
          • Salmon Mts
            • North Fork District
    Alfredo Petrov collection; Excalibur Mineral Co. analyses
          • Weaverville District
            • Douglas City
    Sjoberg, J. and Gomes, J.M. (1980) Platinum-group minerals in California alluvial deposits. US Bureau of Mines, Reno Research Center, unpublished manuscript: 15; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 45.
          • Willow Creek District
            • Salyer
    [var: Iridosmine] U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
      • Tuolumne Co.
        • Stanislaus
    [var: Iridosmine] Genth, Frederick Augustus (1852), On some minerals which accompany gold in California: Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia Proceedings: 6: 113; Genth, Frederick Augustus (1852), On a probably new element with iridosmine and platinum from California: Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia Proceedings: 6: 209, 247; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 229.
      • Yuba Co.
        • Hammonton District (Yuba River District; Yuba Gold Field; Yuba Dredge Field; Yuba Consolidated Gold Fields)
          • Hammonton
    [var: Iridosmine] Sjoberg, J. and Gomes, J.M. (1980) Platinum-group minerals in California alluvial deposits. US Bureau of Mines, Reno Research Center, unpublished manuscript: 15; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 45.
    • Nevada
      • Clark Co.
        • Crescent District
    [var: Iridosmine] NBMG ofr 88-1
    • Oregon
      • Coos Co.
    [var: Iridosmine] Bird, J. M., and W. A. Bassett (1980), Evidence of a Deep Mantle History in Terrestrial Osmium-Iridium-Ruthenium Alloys, J. Geophys. Res., 85(B10), 5461–5470.
      • Curry Co.
        • Beach Area
    [var: Iridosmine] U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
        • Sixes River District
    [var: Iridosmine] U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
    [var: Iridosmine] U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.
      • Jackson Co.
        • Applegate District
    Min Mag (1997) 61:367-375
      • Josephine Co.
        • Josephine Creek District
    [var: Iridosmine] www.geo.cornell.edu/geology/faculty/Bird.html.
    • Pennsylvania
      • Lancaster Co.
        • State Line Chromite District
    Smith and Barnes (2011) Pennsylvania Geology Fall/Winter 2011; Smith, II, R. C. and Barnes, J. H. (2008)
    • Washington
      • Clallam Co.
        • Cape Flattery District
          • Makah Bay
    [var: Iridosmine] Metal Mines of Washington-Preliminary Report; Derkey, Joseph, Lasmanis
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