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Paulkerrite

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Formula:
K(Mg,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
(Fe
3+
 
,Al,Ti,Mg)
 
2
Ti(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
3
· 15H
 
2
O
System:OrthorhombicColour:Colorless to very light ...
Hardness:3
Name:
Named by Donald Peacor, Pete Dunn, and William Simmons in honor of Paul Francis Kerr [January 12, 1897 Helmet, California, USA - February 27, 1981 Chicago, Illinois, USA], professor of mineralogy, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA.

Classification of Paulkerrite

IMA status:Approved 1984
Strunz 8th edition ID:7/D.33-20
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:8.DH.35

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
D : Phosphates, etc. with additional anions, with H2O
H : With large and medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 < 1:1
Dana 8th edition ID:42.11.21.1

42 : HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
11 : (AB)3(XO4)2Zq·xH2O
Hey's CIM Ref.:19.8.24

19 : Phosphates
8 : Phosphates of Al and other metals
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Type Occurrence of Paulkerrite

Type Locality:7U7 Ranch (7-U-7 Ranch), Bagdad Mine area, Hillside, Eureka District, Yavapai Co., Arizona, USA
General Appearance of Type Material:Flattened to equant transparent nearly colorless to very light yellowish brown 0.2 mm crystals
Year of Discovery:1984
Geological Setting of type material:Secondary phosphate mineralization in a granite pegmatite
Associated Minerals at type locality:
TripliteStrengiteStrengitePhosphosideriteLeucophosphite
Bermanite

Occurrences of Paulkerrite

Geological Setting:Granite pegmatite

Physical Properties of Paulkerrite

Lustre:Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent
Colour:Colorless to very light yellow-brown
Streak:White
Hardness (Mohs):3
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
{100} perfect
Fracture:Sub-Conchoidal
Density (measured):2.36 g/cm3
Density (calculated):2.36 g/cm3

Crystallography of Paulkerrite

Crystal System:Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:Pbca
Space Group Setting:Pbca
Cell Parameters:a = 10.497Å, b = 20.751Å, c = 12.442Å
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.506 : 1 : 0.6
Unit Cell Volume:V 2,710.16 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:4
Morphology:Nearly colorless equant to nearly equant flattened crystals with simple forms: {010}, {100}, and {111}.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
10.3 (90)
7.46 (80)
6.20 (100)
3.75 (40)
3.13 (70)
2.872 (40)

Optical Data of Paulkerrite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.591 - 1.598 nβ = 1.615 - 1.624 nγ = 1.639 - 1.643
2V:Measured: 80° , Calculated: 78° to 88°
Birefringence:0.045
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.048

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Moderate
Dispersion:r > v strong
Optical Extinction:Parallel, XYZ = cba
Pleochroism:Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of Paulkerrite

Formula:
K(Mg,Mn
2+
 
)
 
2
(Fe
3+
 
,Al,Ti,Mg)
 
2
Ti(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
3
· 15H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:K(Mg,Mn2+)2(Fe3+,Al,Ti,Mg)2Ti(PO4)4(OH)3·15H2O
Essential elements:Fe, H, K, Mg, O, P, Ti
All elements listed in formula:Al, Fe, H, K, Mg, Mn, O, P, Ti

Relationship of Paulkerrite to other Species

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
8.DH.05Minyulite
KAl
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH,F) · 4H
 
2
O
8.DH.10Leucophosphite
KFe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 2H
 
2
O
8.DH.10Spheniscidite
(NH
 
4
,K)(Fe
3+
 
,Al)
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 2H
 
2
O
8.DH.10Tinsleyite
KAl
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 2H
 
2
O
8.DH.15Jahnsite-(CaMnFe)
{Ca}{Mn
2+
 
}{Fe
2+
2
}{Fe
3+
2
}(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.DH.15Jahnsite-(CaMnMg)
{Ca}{Mn
2+
 
}{(Mg,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
}{Fe
3+
2
}(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.DH.15Jahnsite-(CaMnMn)
{Ca}{Mn
2+
 
}{Mn
2+
2
}{Fe
3+
2
}(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.DH.15Keckite
CaMn
2+
 
Fe
3+
2
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
3
(H
 
2
O)
 
7
8.DH.15Rittmannite
{(Mn
2+
 
,Ca)}{Mn
2+
 
}{(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
,Mg)
 
2
}{(Al,Fe
3+
 
)
 
2
}(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.DH.15Whiteite-(CaFeMg)
{Ca}{(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)}{Mg
 
2
}{Al
 
2
}(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.DH.15Whiteite-(CaMnMg)
{Ca}{Mn
2+
 
}{Mg
 
2
}{Al
 
2
}(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.DH.15Whiteite-(MnFeMg)
{(Mn
2+
 
,Ca)}{(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)}{Mg
 
2
}{Al
 
2
}(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.DH.15Jahnsite-(MnMnMn)
{Mn
2+
 
}{Mn
2+
 
}{Mn
2+
2
}{Fe
3+
2
}(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.DH.15Kaluginite
(Mn
2+
 
,Ca)MgFe
3+
 
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 4H
 
2
O
8.DH.15Jahnsite-(CaFeFe)
{Ca}{Fe
2+
 
}{Fe
2+
2
}{Fe
3+
2
}(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.DH.15Jahnsite-(NaFeMg)
NaFe
3+
 
Mg
 
2
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.DH.15Jahnsite-(NaMnMg)
{Na}{Mn
3+
 
}{Mg
 
2
}{Fe
3+
2
}(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.DH.15Jahnsite-(CaMgMg)
{Ca}{Mg}{Mg
 
2
}{Fe
3+
2
}(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.DH.20Manganosegelerite
(Mn
2+
 
,Ca)(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
,Mg)Fe
3+
 
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 4H
 
2
O
8.DH.20Overite
CaMgAl(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 4H
 
2
O
8.DH.20Segelerite
Ca
 
2
Mg
 
2
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
8.DH.20Wilhelmvierlingite
CaMnFe
3+
 
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 2H
 
2
O
8.DH.20Juonniite
CaMgSc(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 4H
 
2
O
8.DH.25Calcioferrite
Ca
 
2
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH) · 7H
 
2
O
8.DH.25Kingsmountite
Ca
 
4
(Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)Al
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
6
(OH)
 
4
· 12H
 
2
O
8.DH.25Montgomeryite
Ca
 
4
MgAl
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
6
(OH)
 
4
· 12H
 
2
O
8.DH.25Zodacite
Ca
 
4
Mn
2+
 
Fe
3+
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
6
(OH)
 
4
· 12H
 
2
O
8.DH.30Arseniosiderite
Ca
 
2
Fe
3+
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
O
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
8.DH.30Kolfanite
Ca
 
2
Fe
3+
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
O
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
8.DH.30Mitridatite
Ca
 
2
Fe
3+
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
O
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
8.DH.30Pararobertsite
Ca
 
2
Mn
3+
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
O
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
8.DH.30Robertsite
Ca
 
3
Mn
3+
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
O
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
8.DH.30Sailaufite
(Ca,Na,☐)
 
2
Mn
3+
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
(CO
 
3
)O
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
8.DH.35Mantienneite
KMg
 
2
Al
 
2
Ti(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
3
· 15H
 
2
O
8.DH.35Benyacarite
(H
 
2
O,K)
 
2
(Mn
2+
 
,Fe
2+
 
)
 
2
(Fe
3+
 
,Ti)
 
2
Ti(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(O,F)
 
2
· 14H
 
2
O
8.DH.40Xanthoxenite
Ca
 
4
Fe
3+
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
8.DH.45Mahnertite
NaCu
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
Cl · 5H
 
2
O
8.DH.50Andyrobertsite
KCdCu
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
4
(H
 
2
AsO
 
4
) · 2H
 
2
O
8.DH.50Calcioandyrobertsite
KCaCu
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
4
(H
 
2
AsO
 
4
) · 2H
 
2
O
8.DH.55Englishite
K
 
3
Na
 
2
Ca
 
10
Al
 
15
(PO
 
4
)
 
21
(OH)
 
7
· 26H
 
2
O
8.DH.60Bouazzerite
Bi
 
6
(Mg,Co)
 
11
Fe
3+
14
(AsO
 
4
)
 
18
(OH)
 
4
O
 
12
· 86H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
19.8.1Montebrasite
LiAl(PO
 
4
)(OH)
19.8.2Brazilianite
NaAl
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
19.8.3Wardite
NaAl
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
19.8.4Tancoite
LiNa
 
2
Al(PO
 
4
)(HPO
 
4
)(OH)
19.8.5Bertossaite
(Li,Na)
 
2
(Ca,Fe
2+
 
,Mn
2+
 
)Al
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH,F)
 
4
19.8.6Tinsleyite
KAl
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 2H
 
2
O
19.8.7Taranakite
(K,NH
 
4
)Al
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
(OH) · 9H
 
2
O
19.8.8Francoanellite
K
 
3
Al
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(HPO
 
4
)
 
3
· 12H
 
2
O
19.8.9Gordonite
MgAl
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
19.8.10Aldermanite
Mg
 
5
Al
 
12
(PO
 
4
)
 
8
(OH)
 
22
· 32H
 
2
O
19.8.11Overite
CaMgAl(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH) · 4H
 
2
O
19.8.12Montgomeryite
Ca
 
4
MgAl
 
4
(PO
 
4
)
 
6
(OH)
 
4
· 12H
 
2
O
19.8.14Foggite
CaAl(PO
 
4
)(OH)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
19.8.15Gatumbaite
CaAl
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· H
 
2
O
19.8.16Crandallite
CaAl
 
3
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
5
· H
 
2
O
19.8.17Matulaite
(Fe
3+
 
,Al)Al
 
7
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(PO
 
3
OH)
 
2
(OH)
 
8
(H
 
2
O)
 
8
· 8H
 
2
O
19.8.19Lehiite
19.8.20Millisite
(Na,K)CaAl
 
6
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
9
· 3H
 
2
O
19.8.21Englishite
K
 
3
Na
 
2
Ca
 
10
Al
 
15
(PO
 
4
)
 
21
(OH)
 
7
· 26H
 
2
O
19.8.22Kleemanite
ZnAl
 
2
(PO
 
4
)
 
2
(OH)
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
19.8.23Mantienneite
KMg
 
2
Al
 
2
Ti(PO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
3
· 15H
 
2
O

Other Names for Paulkerrite

Synonyms:
IMA1983-014
Other Languages:
German:Paulkerrit
Russian:Полкеррит
Spanish:Paulkerrita

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Not fluorescent
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Paulkerrite

Reference List:

- +
American Mineralogist (1985): 70: 875.

Peacor, Donald R., Dunn, Pete J., and Simmons, William, 1984, Paulkerrite, a New Titanium Phosphate from Arizona, Mineralogical Record: 15: 303-306.

Canadian Mineralogist (1997): 35: 707-712.

Schnorrer, G. & Tetzer, G. (2005): Paulkerrite, K(Mg,Mn)2Fe2Ti[(OH)3|(PO4)4]×15H2O from Folgosinho quarry in Portugal, an additional locality for this rare compound. Aufschluss 56, 258-260. (in German).

Internet Links for Paulkerrite

Search Engines:
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  • External Links:
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  • Look for Paulkerrite on Athena Mineralogy
  • Look for Paulkerrite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Paulkerrite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Paulkerrite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Czech Republic
     
    • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
      • Vysočina Region
        • Žďár nad Sázavou
    Staněk, J.: Parageneze minerálů pegmatitových žil z Hatí u Dolních Borů na západní Moravě. Acta Mus. Moraviae, Sci. nat., vol. 76, pages 19-49.
    Morocco
     
    • Marrakech-Tensift-El Haouz Region
      • El Kelaâ des Sraghna Province
        • Sidi Bou Othmane
    Favreau, G. (2012): Deux pegmatites à phosphates de Sidi Bou Othmane (Maroc). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 71-109.
    Portugal
     
    • Guarda District
      • Gouveia
        • Folgosinho
    Schnorrer, G. & Tetzer, G. (2005): Paulkerrite, K(Mg,Mn)2Fe2Ti[(OH)3|(PO4)4]×15H2O from Folgosinho quarry in Portugal, an additional locality for this rare compound. Aufschluss 56, 258-260. (in German)
    Lapis 15(7/8), 12 (1990)
      • Sabugal
        • Bendada
    Schnorrer-Köhler (1991), Mineral Occurrences.
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Yavapai Co.
        • Eureka District
          • Hillside
            • Bagdad Mine area
    Peacor, D., et al., Paulkerrite, a new titanium phosphate from AZ, Min.Rec.: 15: 303-307(1984); Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 323
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