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Sampleite

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Formula:
NaCaCu
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
Cl · 5H
 
2
O
System:OrthorhombicColour:Light blue, bluish ...
Hardness:4
Member of:Lavendulan Group
Name:Named by Cornelius Hurlbut Jr. in honor of Mr. Matt Sample, Mine Superintendent for the Chile Exploration Company in 1921 (on staff as early as 1915) in Chuquicamata, Chile.


Lavendulan Group. The phosphate analogue of Lavendulan.
A polymorph is known (Giester et al., 2007).

An uncommon mineral in the oxidized zones of copper deposits in arid climates; also occurs as a rare mineral in caves.

Classification of Sampleite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:7/D.25-10
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:8.DG.05

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
D : Phosphates, etc. with additional anions, with H2O
G : With large and medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4< 0.5:1
Dana 8th edition ID:42.9.4.1

42 : HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
9 : (AB)7(XO4)4Zq·xH2O
Hey's CIM Ref.:22.2.1

22 : Phosphates, Arsenates or Vanadates with other Anions
2 : Phosphates, arsenates or vanadates with chloride
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Type Occurrence of Sampleite

Type Locality:Chuquicamata Mine, Chuquicamata District, Calama, El Loa Province, Antofagasta Region, Chile
Place of Conservation of Type Material:Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: 95023, 95024. National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC, USA: 137298.
Year of Discovery:1942
Geological Setting of type material:Highly oxidized ore.
Associated Minerals at type locality:
LimoniteLibetheniteJarositeGypsumAtacamite

Occurrences of Sampleite

Geological Setting:Oxidized zones of copper deposits in arid climates; in caves derived from copper sulfides in cave walls and phosphorus from bat guano; miarolytic cavities in granite; in pegmatites.

Physical Properties of Sampleite

Lustre:Pearly
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Transparent
Comment:Lustre pearly on {010}.
Colour:Light blue, bluish green; blue in transmitted light.
Streak:Light blue
Hardness (Mohs):4
Tenacity:Brittle
Cleavage:Perfect
On {010}, perfect; on {100} and {001}, good.
Density (measured):3.2 g/cm3
Density (calculated):3.26 g/cm3

Crystallography of Sampleite

Crystal System:Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:Cmmm
Space Group Setting:C2/m 2/m 2/m
Cell Parameters:a = 9.72Å, b = 38.48Å, c = 9.67Å
β = 90.0°
Ratio:a:b:c = 0.253 : 1 : 0.251
Unit Cell Volume:V 3,616.83 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:8
Morphology:Thin lath-like, pseudo-orthorhombic plates, flattened on {010}, elongated along [001]; rosettes; commonly aggregated into crusts.
Twinning:Common.
Comment:Pseudo-orthorhombic metrics. Old literature gives "orthorhombic" cell with a = 9.7, b = 38.7, c = 9.45 A. The polymorph described by Giester et al. (2007) has space group P21/c, a = 9.695(2), b = 9.673(2), c = 19.739(4) Å, beta = 102.61(3)°, V = 1806.5(6) Å3, Z = 4.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
9.60 (100)
6.85 (70)
4.30 (80)
3.89 (70)
3.04 (100)
1.79 (70)
1.71 (80)
1.45 (70)
Comments:ICDD 11-349

Optical Data of Sampleite

Type:Biaxial (-)
RI values: nα = 1.625 - 1.629 nβ = 1.674 - 1.677 nγ = 1.674 - 1.679
2V:Measured: 5° to 23°, Calculated: 22°
Birefringence:0.049
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.049 - 0.050

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:High
Dispersion:r > v
Pleochroism:Visible
Comments:X = b = Deep blue, blue-green
Y = a = Light blue, turquoise-blue
Z = c = Turquoise-blue, colourless
Comments:X

Chemical Properties of Sampleite

Formula:
NaCaCu
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
4
Cl · 5H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:NaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl·5H2O
Essential elements:Ca, Cl, Cu, H, Na, O, P
All elements listed in formula:Ca, Cl, Cu, H, Na, O, P

Relationship of Sampleite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Lavendulan (see here)
Member of:Lavendulan Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Lavendulan
NaCaCu
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
4
Cl · 5H
 
2
O
Zdenĕkite
NaPbCu
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
4
Cl · 5H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
8.DG.05Lavendulan
NaCaCu
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
4
Cl · 5H
 
2
O
8.DG.05Shubnikovite
Ca
 
2
Cu
 
8
(AsO
 
4
)
 
6
(OH)Cl · 7H
 
2
O
8.DG.05Zdenĕkite
NaPbCu
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
4
Cl · 5H
 
2
O
8.DG.05Lemanskiite
NaCaCu
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
4
Cl · 5H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
22.2.2Lavendulan
NaCaCu
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
4
Cl · 5H
 
2
O
22.2.3Chlorapatite
Ca
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
22.2.4Turneaureite
Ca
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
22.2.5Shubnikovite
Ca
 
2
Cu
 
8
(AsO
 
4
)
 
6
(OH)Cl · 7H
 
2
O
22.2.6Richelsdorfite
Ca
 
2
Cu
 
5
Sb(AsO
 
4
)
 
4
(OH)
 
6
Cl · 6H
 
2
O
22.2.7Alforsite
Ba
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
22.2.8Morelandite
Ca
 
2
Ba
 
3
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
22.2.9Pyromorphite
Pb
 
5
(PO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
22.2.10Mimetite
Pb
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
22.2.11Mimetite-M
Pb
 
5
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
22.2.12Sahlinite
Pb
 
14
(AsO
 
4
)
 
2
O
 
9
Cl
 
4
22.2.13Georgiadèsite
Pb
 
4
(AsO
 
3
)Cl
 
4
(OH)
22.2.14Vanadinite
Pb
 
5
(VO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
22.2.15Kombatite
Pb
 
14
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
O
 
9
Cl
 
4
22.2.16Leningradite
PbCu
 
3
(VO
 
4
)
 
2
Cl
22.2.17Hedyphane
Pb
 
3
Ca
 
2
(AsO
 
4
)
 
3
Cl
22.2.18Nealite
Pb
 
4
Fe
2+
 
(As
3+
 
O
 
3
)
 
2
Cl
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O

Other Names for Sampleite

Other Languages:
German:Sampleit
Spanish:Sampleita

Other Information

Fluorescence in UV light:Not fluorescent
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Sampleite

Reference List:

- +
Hurlbut, C.S, Jr. (1942) Sampleite, a new mineral from Chuquicamata, Chile. American Mineralogist: 27: 586–589.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 945-946.

Guillemin, C. (1956) Contribution a la
minéralogie des arséniates, phosphates et vanadates de cuivre: phosphates et vanadates de cuivre. II. Phosphates et vanadates de cuivre. Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 79: 219–275 (esp. 226–229) (in French).

Fabrizi, M., Ganiaris, H., Tarling, S.E., and Scott, D.A. (1989) The occurrence of sampleite, a complex copper phosphate, as a corrosion product on copper alloy objects from Memphis, Egypt. Studies in Conservation: 34: 45-51.

Giester, G., Kolitsch, U., Leverett, P., Turner, P. & Williams, P.A. (2007): The crystal structures of lavendulan, sampleite, and a new polymorph of sampleite. European Journal of Mineralogy 19, 75-93.

Best Localities for Sampleite

Best of Species:Sampleite

Internet Links for Sampleite

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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Sampleite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
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  • SpiriferMinerals.com - high quality low prices
  • DAKOTA MATRIX offers Cabinet and Rare Species from Worldwide Localities.
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  • Rare and Unusual minerals at Mineralogical Research Company
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  • Buy RARE Minerals from Rocks of Africa
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  • Buy from McDougall Minerals
  • Specimens:The following Sampleite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Sampleite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • New South Wales
      • Kennedy Co.
        • Northparkes Mine (Goonumbla Mine; Endeavour Mine)
    A.L. McLean, J.Chapman, J.L. Sharpe and P.A. Williams (2004): The mineralogy of the oxidised zone of the E26 orebody at Northparkes, New South Wales. Australian Journal of Mineralogy 10, 53-57.
      • Yancowinna Co.
        • Broken Hill
    Australian Min. 3:1 (1997)
    Australian Min. 3:1 (1997)
    • South Australia
      • Flinders Ranges
        • South Flinders Ranges
          • Wilmington
    Australian Journal of Mineralogy. Vol 2. No. 2. 1996. 57-70
    • Victoria
      • Swan Hill Rural City
        • Lake Boga
    Henry, D. A. and Birch, W. D. (1988): Sampleite and associated minerals from the Lake Boga granite quarry, Victoria, Australia. Austral. Mineral. 3, 135-148; Giester, G., Kolitsch, U., Leverett, P., Turner, P. & Williams, P.A. (2007): The crystal structures of lavendulan, sampleite, and a new polymorph of sampleite. European Journal of Mineralogy 19, 75-93.; W.D. Birch & D.A.Henry 1993. Phosphate Minerals of Victoria, The Mineralogical Society of Victoria special publication No. 3, pp. 14-27; D.A.Henry & W.D.Birch 1998. Sampleite and associated minerals from Lake Boga granite quarry, Victoria, Australia. Australian Mineralogist Vol. 3 Oct.-Dec. 1988, pp. 135-148
    • Western Australia
      • Brookton Shire
        • Brookton
    Bridge, P.J., Pryce, M.W., Clarke, R.M., and Costello, M.B. (1978) Sampleite from Jingemia Cave, Western Australia. Mineralogical Magazine: 42: 369-371.
      • Moora Shire
    Bridge, P.J., Pryce, M.W., Clarke, R.M., and Costello, M.B. (1978) Sampleite from Jingemia Cave, Western Australia. Mineralogical Magazine: 42: 369-371.
      • Upper Gascoyne Shire
        • Yinnietharra (Yinnietharra Station; Yinnetharra)
    http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/sampleite.pdf
    Austria
     
    • Lower Austria
      • Waldviertel
        • Weinzierl am Walde
          • Maigen
    Kolitsch, U. & Gröbner, J. (2008)
    peter neschen collection
    • Salzburg
      • Abtenau
        • Webing
    A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989); Kirchner, E. C. (1978): Eine Paragenese seltener Kupferminerale auf Diabas von Webing bei Abtenau, Salzburg Translated Title: Paragenesis of some rare copper minerals in diabase from Webing near Abtenau, Salzburg. Der Aufschluss, Sonderheft. 29, 351-354.
      • Hohe Tauern
        • Untersulzbach valley
    Lewandowski, K., Lerch, H. & Seemann, R. (2006): Chronik - Schaubergwerk Hochfeld "Bergbau im Untersulzbachtal – Eine fast vergessene Welt" Die 500-jährige Geschichte des Kupferbergbaus am Hochfeld im Untersulzbachtal. Zukunftskollegium Nationalpark Hohe Tauern, Neukirchen a. G., 288 pp.; Natural History Museum Vienna collection
      • Radstädter Tauern
        • Großarl valley
          • Hüttschlag
    Adlassnig, W., Sassmann, S., Lendl, T., Wernitznig, S., Hofhansl, F., Lang, I., Lichtscheidl, I.K. (2013): Metal contamination and retention of the former mining site Schwarzwand (Salzburg, Austria). Applied Geochemistry 35, 196-206.
    Chile
     
    • Antofagasta Region
      • Antofagasta Province
        • Baquedano
    http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/sampleite.pdf
    Knobler, R. and Joseph, W., 1962. Mining Engin. 14, 40-45; http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/sampleite.pdf
        • Santa Catalina
          • Guanaco (Huanaco)
    http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/sampleite.pdf
        • Sierra Gorda District
          • Caracoles
    http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/sampleite.pdf; Mr. Terry Szenics (found in 1993 and subsequently analysed; pers. comm. to Herwig Pelckmans, 1999); V. Sapienza collection.
      • El Loa Province
        • Calama
          • Chuquicamata District
    Hurlbut, C.S., Jr. (1942) Sampleite, a new mineral from Chuquicamata, Chile. American Mineralogist: 27: 586-589; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 946.
      • Tocopilla Province
    Samples analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter (Hamburg University), Germany.
    Samples analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter (Hamburg University), Germany.
        • Pedro de Valdivia
    No reference listed
    • Atacama Region
      • Copiapó Province
        • Tierra Amarilla
          • Las Pintadas district
            • Cerro Pintado
    various added photos
    David J. Eicher collection
    Egypt
     
    • Al Jizah Governorate (Giza Governorate)
      • Al Jizah (Giza)
    Fabrizi, M., Ganiaris, H., Tarling, S.E., and Scott, D.A. (1989) The occurrence of sampleite, a complex copper phosphate, as a corrosion product on copper alloy objects from Memphis, Egypt. Studies in Conservation: 34: 45-51.
    Germany
     
    • North Rhine-Westphalia
      • Eifel
        • Mechernich
          • Kall
    Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
    Italy
     
    • Sardinia
      • Medio Campidano Province
        • Furtei
          • Furtei mine
    Ruggieri, G., Lattanzi, P., Luxoro, S., Dessi, R., Benvenuti. M, & Tanelli, G., 1997. Geology, Mineralogy and Fluid Inclusion Data of the Furtei High Sulfidation Gold Deposit, Sardinia, Italy. Economic Geology, 92 (1), 1-19.
    Ruggieri, G., Lattanzi, P., Luxoro, S., Dessi, R., Benvenuti. M, & Tanelli, G., 1997. Geology, Mineralogy and Fluid Inclusion Data of the Furtei High Sulfidation Gold Deposit, Sardinia, Italy. Economic Geology, 92 (1), 1-19.
        • Gonnosfanadiga
          • Fenugu Sibiri Mine
    Brizzi, G., Olmi, F., Sabelli, C. (1994): Gli arseniati di Pira Inferida, Gonnofanadiga (CA). Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 3/1994, 193-206.
    Morocco
     
    • Souss-Massa-Draâ Region
      • Ouarzazate Province
        • Tazenakht
    Favreau, G. (2012): Les minéralisations à phosphates de la pegmatite d'Angarf-Sud (Maroc).Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 3-70.
    Namibia
     
    • Erongo Region
      • Karibib District
        • Tsaobismund Farm 85
    Jahn, S. (2001): Schon gesehen? Sampleit. Mineralien-Welt 12 (4), 10-11.
    Romania
     
    • Hunedoara Co.
      • Hunedoara
        • Boșorod
    Onac, B.P., Breban, R., Kearns, J., and Tamas, T. (2002) Unusual minerals related to phosphate deposits in Cioclovina Cave, Şureanu Mts. (Romania). Theoretical and Applied Karstology: 15: 27-34.
    Russia
     
    • Far-Eastern Region
      • Sakhalinskaya Oblast'
        • Kuril Islands
          • Paramushir Island
    Bortnikova, S. B., Bessonova, E. P., & Zelenskii, M. E. (2005). Hydrogeochemistry of thermal springs at Ebeco volcano (Kuril Islands). In Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2005. Antalia, Turkey, 24-29 April.
    South Africa
    Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995), Minerals of South Africa.
    • Mpumalanga Province
      • Ehlanzeni District
        • Nelspruit
    Martini, J.E.J. et al (1997), "Mbobo Mkulu Cave, South Africa", in "Cave Minerals of the World" (1997);
    Spain
     
    • Asturias
      • Cabrales
        • Arenas
    No reference listed
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