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Buttgenbachite

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Formula:
Cu
 
19
(NO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
32
Cl
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
System:HexagonalColour:Deep blue; blue in ...
Lustre:VitreousHardness:3
Name:Named for Henri Buttgenbach (1874-1964), Belgian mineralogist


Connellite-Buttgenbachite Series.

A very rare secondary copper mineral.

Classification of Buttgenbachite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:3/D.03-30
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:3.DA.25

3 : HALIDES
D : Oxyhalides, hydroxyhalides and related double halides
A : With Cu, etc., without Pb
Dana 7th edition ID:19.2.2.1
Dana 8th edition ID:19.1.2.1

19 : NITRATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
1 : Anhydrous Nitrates Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
Hey's CIM Ref.:13.7

13 : Nitrates
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Type Occurrence of Buttgenbachite

Type Locality:Likasi Mine (Panda Mine), Likasi (Jadotville; Jadotstad), Katanga Copper Crescent, Katanga (Shaba), Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
Year of Discovery:1925

Physical Properties of Buttgenbachite

Lustre:Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Translucent
Colour:Deep blue; blue in transmitted light.
Streak:Light blue
Hardness (Mohs):3

Crystallography of Buttgenbachite

Crystal System:Hexagonal
Class (H-M):6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) - Dihexagonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:P63/mmc
Cell Parameters:a = 15.75Å, c = 9.161Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 0.582
Unit Cell Volume:V 1968.04 ų
Z:1
Morphology:Crystals acicular [0001] and striated [0001]; radiating groups of needles; felted aggregates.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
d-spacingIntensity
13.70 (100)
7.95 (100)
3.27 (70)
2.75 (100)
2.51 (70)
2.30 (100)
1.621 (90)

Optical Data of Buttgenbachite

Type:Uniaxial (+)
RI values: nω = 1.738 nε = 1.752
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.014

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:High
Pleochroism:Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of Buttgenbachite

Formula:
Cu
 
19
(NO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
32
Cl
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
Simplified for copy/paste:Cu19(NO3)2(OH)32Cl4·2H2O
Essential elements:Cl, Cu, H, N, O
All elements listed in formula:Cl, Cu, H, N, O

Relationship of Buttgenbachite to other Species

Series:Forms a series with Connellite (see here)
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
3.DA.05Melanothallite
Cu
 
2
Cl
 
2
O
3.DA.10aAtacamite
Cu
 
2
(OH)
 
3
Cl
3.DA.10bBotallackite
Cu
 
2
(OH)
 
3
Cl
3.DA.10bClinoatacamite
Cu
 
2
(OH)
 
3
Cl
3.DA.10aHibbingite
Fe
2+
2
(OH)
 
3
Cl
3.DA.10aKempite
Mn
2+
2
(OH)
 
3
Cl
3.DA.10cParatacamite
Cu
 
3
(Cu,Zn)(OH)
 
6
Cl
 
2
3.DA.10bBelloite
Cu(OH)Cl
3.DA.10cHerbertsmithite
Cu
 
3
Zn(OH)
 
6
Cl
 
2
3.DA.10cKapellasite
Cu
 
3
Zn(OH)
 
6
Cl
 
2
3.DA.10cGillardite
Cu
 
3
Ni(OH)
 
6
Cl
 
2
3.DA.10cHaydeeite
Cu
 
3
Mg(OH)
 
6
Cl
 
2
3.DA.10dAnatacamite
Cu
 
2
(OH)
 
3
Cl
3.DA.15Claringbullite
Cu
 
4
(OH)
 
7
Cl · nH
 
2
O
3.DA.15Barlowite
Cu
 
4
BrF(OH)
 
6
3.DA.20Simonkolleite
Zn
 
5
Cl
 
2
(OH)
 
8
· H
 
2
O
3.DA.25Connellite
Cu
 
19
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
32
Cl
 
4
· 3H
 
2
O
3.DA.30Abhurite
Sn
 
21
Cl
 
16
(OH)
 
14
O
 
6
3.DA.35Ponomarevite
K
 
4
Cu
 
4
Cl
 
10
O
3.DA.40Anthonyite
Cu(OH,Cl)
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
3.DA.40Calumetite
Cu(OH,Cl)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
3.DA.45Khaidarkanite
Na
 
0.34
Cu
 
4
Al
 
3
(OH)
 
14
F
 
3
· 2H
 
2
O
3.DA.50Bobkingite
Cu
 
5
Cl
 
2
(OH)
 
8
· 2H
 
2
O
3.DA.55Avdoninite
K
 
2
Cu
 
5
(OH)
 
4
Cl
 
8
· H
 
2
O
3.DA.60Droninoite
Ni
 
6
Fe
2+
3
(OH)
 
16
Cl
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
13.1Nitratine
NaNO
 
3
13.2Niter
KNO
 
3
13.3Gerhardtite
Cu
 
2
(NO
 
3
)(OH)
 
3
13.4Nitromagnesite
Mg(NO
 
3
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
13.5Nitrocalcite
Ca(NO
 
3
)
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
13.6Nitrobarite
Ba(NO
 
3
)
 
2
13.8Sveite
KAl
 
7
(NO
 
3
)
 
4
(OH)
 
16
Cl
 
2
· 8H
 
2
O
13.9Darapskite
Na
 
3
(SO
 
4
)(NO
 
3
) · H
 
2
O
13.10Humberstonite
Na
 
7
K
 
3
Mg
 
2
(SO
 
4
)
 
6
(NO
 
3
)
 
2
· 6H
 
2
O
13.11Mbobomkulite
(Ni,Cu)Al
 
4
((NO
 
3
)
 
2
,SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
12
· 3H
 
2
O
13.12Hydrombobomkulite
(Ni,Cu)Al
 
4
((NO
 
3
)
 
2
,SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
12
· 13-14H
 
2
O
13.13Nickelalumite
(Ni,Cu)Al
 
4
(SO
 
4
,(NO
 
3
)
 
2
)(OH)
 
12
· 3H
 
2
O

Other Names for Buttgenbachite

Other Languages:
German:Buttgenbachit
Russian:Буттгенбахит
Spanish:Buttgenbachita

Other Information

Other Information:Soluble in acids and in ammonium hydroxide. Insoluble in water.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Buttgenbachite

Reference List:

- +
Penfield (1890) American Journal of Science: 40: 82.

Schoep (1925) Comptes rendu de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 181: 421.

Schoep (1925) Bull. soc. chim. Belgique: 34: 313.

Bannister, F.A., Hey, M.H. and Claringbull, G.F. (1950) Connellite, buttgenbachite, and tallingite. Mineralogical Magazine 29, 280-286.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 572-573.

Mélon, J. and Toussaint, J. (1952) La buttgenbachite de Likasi (Congo belge). Bulletin de la Société Géologique de Belgique 75, 293-296. (in French).

American Mineralogist: 11: 216.

American Mineralogist: 12: 381.

Mineralogical Magazine: 39: 264-270.

Leverett, p., P.A.Williams and D.E.Hibbs, Buttgenbachite from Cornwall: a single crystal study, Journal of the Russell Society 10, 47-50(2007)[abstract: MinAbs 08M/1136]

Internet Links for Buttgenbachite

Search Engines:
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  • External Links:
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  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Buttgenbachite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
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  • Localities for Buttgenbachite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Australia
     
    • Queensland
      • Mount Isa - Cloncurry area
        • Cloncurry District
          • Cloncurry
    Handbook of Mineralogy Vol V
    Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
     
    • Katanga (Shaba)
      • Katanga Copper Crescent
        • Kambove District
    Lapis 17(3), 13-40 (1992)
        • Likasi (Jadotville; Jadotstad)
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 573; Lapis (1992): 17(3), 13-40.
    Norway
     
    • Sør-Trøndelag
      • Oppdal
        • Dindalen
    Witsø, T. (1995): Mineraler i Oppdal med beskrivelse. Driva Kro og steinsenter. Unpublished paper. http://vinstradalen.no/pdf/Mineraler.pdf
    UK
     
    • England
      • Cornwall
        • St Just District
          • St Just
            • Botallack
    Golley, P. & Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
    USA
     
    • Arizona
      • Cochise Co.
        • Mule Mts
          • Warren District
            • Bisbee
    Hibbs, Leverette, Williams (2006) Connellite from Bisbee Arizona: A single Crystal X-ray Study Axis Vol 2 No. 2 http://www.minrec.org/pdfs/CONNELLITE.pdf
        • Tombstone Hills
          • Tombstone District
            • Tombstone
    Hibbs, Leverette, Williams (2006) Connellite from Bisbee Arizona: A single Crystal X-ray Study Axis Vol 2 No. 2 http://www.minrec.org/pdfs/CONNELLITE.pdf
      • Pima Co.
        • Tohono O'odom (Papago) Indian Reservation
          • Comobabi Mts
            • Cababi District (Comobabi District)
              • Ko Vaya
                • Mildren Mine group
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 149; Williams, S.A, (1963), Oxidation of sulfide ores in the Mildren and Steppe mining districts, Pima Co., AZ, Econ.Geol.: 58: 1119-1125.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 149; Williams, S.A, (1963), Oxidation of sulfide ores in the Mildren and Steppe mining districts, Pima Co., AZ, Econ.Geol.: 58: 1119-1125.
    • Michigan
      • Houghton Co.
        • Centennial
    Rocks & Min.:58:109.
    Rocks & Minerals 82:276-297
    Mineralogy of Michigan (E. W. Heinrich & G. W. Robinson)
    • Nevada
      • Esmeralda Co.
        • Coaldale District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
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