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Buttgenbachite

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Formula:
Cu19(NO3)2(OH)32Cl4 · 2H2O
System:
Hexagonal
Colour:
Deep blue; blue in ...
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
3
Name:
Named for Henri Buttgenbach (1874-1964), Belgian mineralogist
Connellite-Buttgenbachite Series.

A very rare secondary copper mineral.

Classification of Buttgenbachite

Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
3.DA.25

3 : HALIDES
D : Oxyhalides, hydroxyhalides and related double halides
A : With Cu, etc., without Pb
Dana 7th ed.:
19.2.2.1
19.1.2.1

19 : NITRATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
1 : Anhydrous Nitrates Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
13.7

13 : Nitrates
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Type Occurrence of Buttgenbachite

Year of Discovery:
1925

Physical Properties of Buttgenbachite

Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Translucent
Colour:
Deep blue; blue in transmitted light.
Streak:
Light blue
Hardness (Mohs):
3

Crystallography of Buttgenbachite

Crystal System:
Hexagonal
Class (H-M):
6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) - Dihexagonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
P63/mmc
Cell Parameters:
a = 15.75Å, c = 9.161Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 0.582
Unit Cell Volume:
V 1968.04 ų
Z:
1
Morphology:
Crystals acicular [0001] and striated [0001]; radiating groups of needles; felted aggregates.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
13.70 (100)
7.95 (100)
3.27 (70)
2.75 (100)
2.51 (70)
2.30 (100)
1.621 (90)

Optical Data of Buttgenbachite

Type:
Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.738 nε = 1.752
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.014
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of Buttgenbachite

Formula:
Cu19(NO3)2(OH)32Cl4 · 2H2O
Essential elements:
All elements listed in formula:

Relationship of Buttgenbachite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Connellite (see here)
3.DA.05MelanothalliteCu2Cl2O
3.DA.10aAtacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
3.DA.10bBotallackiteCu2(OH)3Cl
3.DA.10bClinoatacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
3.DA.10aHibbingiteFe22+(OH)3Cl
3.DA.10aKempiteMn22+(OH)3Cl
3.DA.10cParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
3.DA.10bBelloiteCu(OH)Cl
3.DA.10cHerbertsmithiteCu3Zn(OH)6Cl2
3.DA.10cKapellasiteCu3Zn(OH)6Cl2
3.DA.10cGillarditeCu3Ni(OH)6Cl2
3.DA.10cHaydeeiteCu3Mg(OH)6Cl2
3.DA.10dAnatacamiteCu2(OH)3Cl
3.DA.15ClaringbulliteCu4ClF(OH)6
3.DA.15BarlowiteCu4BrF(OH)6
3.DA.20SimonkolleiteZn5Cl2(OH)8 · H2O
3.DA.25ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2O
3.DA.30AbhuriteSn21Cl16(OH)14O6
3.DA.35PonomareviteK4Cu4Cl10O
3.DA.40AnthonyiteCu(OH,Cl)2 · 3H2O
3.DA.40CalumetiteCu(OH,Cl)2 · 2H2O
3.DA.45KhaidarkaniteNa0.34Cu4Al3(OH)14F3 · 2H2O
3.DA.50BobkingiteCu5Cl2(OH)8 · 2H2O
3.DA.55AvdoniniteK2Cu5(OH)4Cl8 · H2O
3.DA.60DroninoiteNi6Fe32+(OH)16Cl2 · 4H2O
13.1NitratineNaNO3
13.2NiterKNO3
13.3GerhardtiteCu2(NO3)(OH)3
13.4NitromagnesiteMg(NO3)2 · 6H2O
13.5NitrocalciteCa(NO3)2 · 4H2O
13.6NitrobariteBa(NO3)2
13.8SveiteKAl7(NO3)4(OH)16Cl2 · 8H2O
13.9DarapskiteNa3(SO4)(NO3) · H2O
13.10HumberstoniteNa7K3Mg2(SO4)6(NO3)2 · 6H2O
13.11Mbobomkulite(Ni,Cu)Al4((NO3)2,SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2O
13.12Hydrombobomkulite(Ni,Cu)Al4((NO3)2,SO4)(OH)12 · 13-14H2O
13.13Nickelalumite(Ni,Cu)Al4(SO4,(NO3)2)(OH)12 · 3H2O

Other Names for Buttgenbachite

Name in Other Languages:

Other Information

Other Information:
Soluble in acids and in ammonium hydroxide. Insoluble in water.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Buttgenbachite

Reference List:
Penfield (1890) American Journal of Science: 40: 82.

Schoep (1925) Comptes rendu de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 181: 421.

Schoep (1925) Bull. soc. chim. Belgique: 34: 313.

Bannister, F.A., Hey, M.H. and Claringbull, G.F. (1950) Connellite, buttgenbachite, and tallingite. Mineralogical Magazine 29, 280-286.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 572-573.

Mélon, J. and Toussaint, J. (1952) La buttgenbachite de Likasi (Congo belge). Bulletin de la Société Géologique de Belgique 75, 293-296. (in French).

American Mineralogist: 11: 216.

American Mineralogist: 12: 381.

Mineralogical Magazine: 39: 264-270.

Leverett, p., P.A.Williams and D.E.Hibbs, Buttgenbachite from Cornwall: a single crystal study, Journal of the Russell Society 10, 47-50(2007)[abstract: MinAbs 08M/1136]

Internet Links for Buttgenbachite

Localities for Buttgenbachite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Australia
 
  • Queensland
    • Mount Isa - Cloncurry area
      • Cloncurry District
        • Cloncurry
Handbook of Mineralogy Vol V
Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
 
  • Katanga (Shaba)
    • Katanga Copper Crescent
      • Kambove District
Lapis 17(3), 13-40 (1992)
      • Likasi (Jadotville; Jadotstad)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 573; Lapis (1992): 17(3), 13-40.
Norway
 
  • Sør-Trøndelag
    • Oppdal
      • Dindalen
Witsø, T. (1995): Mineraler i Oppdal med beskrivelse. Driva Kro og steinsenter. Unpublished paper. http://vinstradalen.no/pdf/Mineraler.pdf
UK
 
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • St Just District
        • St Just
          • Botallack
Golley, P. & Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Cochise Co.
      • Mule Mts
        • Warren District
          • Bisbee
Hibbs, Leverette, Williams (2006) Connellite from Bisbee Arizona: A single Crystal X-ray Study Axis Vol 2 No. 2 http://www.minrec.org/pdfs/CONNELLITE.pdf
      • Tombstone Hills
        • Tombstone District
          • Tombstone
Hibbs, Leverette, Williams (2006) Connellite from Bisbee Arizona: A single Crystal X-ray Study Axis Vol 2 No. 2 http://www.minrec.org/pdfs/CONNELLITE.pdf
    • Pima Co.
      • Tohono O'odom (Papago) Indian Reservation
        • Comobabi Mts
          • Cababi District (Comobabi District)
            • Ko Vaya
              • Mildren Mine group
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 149; Williams, S.A, (1963), Oxidation of sulfide ores in the Mildren and Steppe mining districts, Pima Co., AZ, Econ.Geol.: 58: 1119-1125.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 149; Williams, S.A, (1963), Oxidation of sulfide ores in the Mildren and Steppe mining districts, Pima Co., AZ, Econ.Geol.: 58: 1119-1125.
  • Michigan
    • Houghton Co.
      • Centennial
Rocks & Min.:58:109.
Rocks & Minerals 82:276-297
Mineralogy of Michigan (E. W. Heinrich & G. W. Robinson)
  • Nevada
    • Esmeralda Co.
      • Coaldale District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
Mineral and/or Locality  
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