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Paratacamite

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Formula:
Cu
 
3
(Cu,Zn)(OH)
 
6
Cl
 
2
System:TrigonalColour:Green to greenish-black.
Lustre:VitreousHardness:3
Member of:Atacamite Group
Name:Named for its relationship to atacamite.


Atacamite Group.
A secondary copper mineral. Easily confused with the closely related Clinoatacamite and Anatacamite.

Derivatives are paratacamite-(Mg) and paratacamite-(Ni).

Also closely related to Herbertsmithite and Gillardite (both have halved a-axes by comparison to paratacamite).
On heating paratacamite reversibly transforms into herbertsmithite between 353 and 393 K (Welch et al., 2014).

Paratacamite contains essential zinc; therefore it is not a polymorph of atacamite.

"Ni-bearing paratacamite": compare Gillardite.

Classification of Paratacamite

IMA status:Valid - first described prior to 1959 (pre-IMA) - "Grandfathered"
Strunz 8th edition ID:3/D.01-55
Nickel-Strunz 10th (pending) edition ID:3.DA.10c

3 : HALIDES
D : Oxyhalides, hydroxyhalides and related double halides
A : With Cu, etc., without Pb
Dana 7th edition ID:10.1.2.1
Dana 8th edition ID:10.1.2.1

10 : OXYHALIDES AND HYDROXYHALIDES
1 : A2(O,OH)3Xq
Hey's CIM Ref.:8.2.5

8 : Halides - Fluorides, Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides; also Fluoborates and Fluosilicates
2 : Halides of Cu
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Type Occurrence of Paratacamite

Co-type Localities:Generosa Mine, Caracoles, Sierra Gorda District, Antofagasta Province, Antofagasta Region, Chile
Herminia Mine, Caracoles, Sierra Gorda District, Antofagasta Province, Antofagasta Region, Chile
Year of Discovery:1906
Associated Minerals at type locality:
SchwartzembergiteCaracoliteAtacamite

Occurrences of Paratacamite

Geological Setting:Oxidized zones of copper deposits, especially in arid climates.

Physical Properties of Paratacamite

Lustre:Vitreous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):Translucent
Colour:Green to greenish-black.
Streak:Green
Hardness (Mohs):3
Cleavage:Distinct/Good
Good on {10_11}
Fracture:Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density (measured):3.74 g/cm3
Density (calculated):3.75 g/cm3

Crystallography of Paratacamite

Crystal System:Trigonal
Class (H-M):3m (3 2/m) - Hexagonal Scalenohedral
Cell Parameters:a = 13.65Å, c = 13.95Å
Ratio:a:c = 1 : 1.022
Unit Cell Volume:V 2,250.97 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:Rhombohedral. Granular massive.
Twinning:On {10_11} common; polysynthetic at times.

Optical Data of Paratacamite

Type:Uniaxial (+)
RI values: nω = 1.843 nε = 1.848
Maximum Birefringence:δ = 0.005

Chart shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:Very High
Pleochroism:Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of Paratacamite

Formula:
Cu
 
3
(Cu,Zn)(OH)
 
6
Cl
 
2
Simplified for copy/paste:Cu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2
Essential elements:Cl, Cu, H, O
All elements listed in formula:Cl, Cu, H, O, Zn
Common Impurities:Zn

Relationship of Paratacamite to other Species

Member of:Atacamite Group
Other Members of Group:

- +
Anatacamite
Cu
 
2
(OH)
 
3
Cl
Atacamite
Cu
 
2
(OH)
 
3
Cl
Botallackite
Cu
 
2
(OH)
 
3
Cl
Clinoatacamite
Cu
 
2
(OH)
 
3
Cl
Gillardite
Cu
 
3
Ni(OH)
 
6
Cl
 
2
Haydeeite
Cu
 
3
Mg(OH)
 
6
Cl
 
2
Herbertsmithite
Cu
 
3
Zn(OH)
 
6
Cl
 
2
Iyoite
MnCuCl(OH)
 
3
Kapellasite
Cu
 
3
Zn(OH)
 
6
Cl
 
2
Leverettite
Cu
 
3
CoCl
 
2
(OH)
 
6
Misakiite
Cu
 
3
Mn(OH)
 
6
Cl
 
2
Paratacamite-(Mg)
Cu
 
3
(Mg,Cu)Cl
 
2
(OH)
 
6
Paratacamite-(Ni)
Cu
 
3
(Ni,Cu)Cl
 
2
(OH)
 
6
Tondiite
Cu
 
3
MgCl
 
2
(OH)
 
6
Common Associates:
EriochalciteAtacamite
Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping):

- +
3.DA.05Melanothallite
Cu
 
2
Cl
 
2
O
3.DA.10aAtacamite
Cu
 
2
(OH)
 
3
Cl
3.DA.10bBotallackite
Cu
 
2
(OH)
 
3
Cl
3.DA.10bClinoatacamite
Cu
 
2
(OH)
 
3
Cl
3.DA.10aHibbingite
Fe
2+
2
(OH)
 
3
Cl
3.DA.10aKempite
Mn
2+
2
(OH)
 
3
Cl
3.DA.10bBelloite
Cu(OH)Cl
3.DA.10cHerbertsmithite
Cu
 
3
Zn(OH)
 
6
Cl
 
2
3.DA.10cKapellasite
Cu
 
3
Zn(OH)
 
6
Cl
 
2
3.DA.10cGillardite
Cu
 
3
Ni(OH)
 
6
Cl
 
2
3.DA.10cHaydeeite
Cu
 
3
Mg(OH)
 
6
Cl
 
2
3.DA.10dAnatacamite
Cu
 
2
(OH)
 
3
Cl
3.DA.15Claringbullite
Cu
 
4
(OH)
 
7
Cl · nH
 
2
O
3.DA.15Barlowite
Cu
 
4
BrF(OH)
 
6
3.DA.20Simonkolleite
Zn
 
5
Cl
 
2
(OH)
 
8
· H
 
2
O
3.DA.25Buttgenbachite
Cu
 
19
(NO
 
3
)
 
2
(OH)
 
32
Cl
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
3.DA.25Connellite
Cu
 
19
(SO
 
4
)(OH)
 
32
Cl
 
4
· 3H
 
2
O
3.DA.30Abhurite
Sn
 
21
Cl
 
16
(OH)
 
14
O
 
6
3.DA.35Ponomarevite
K
 
4
Cu
 
4
Cl
 
10
O
3.DA.40Anthonyite
Cu(OH,Cl)
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
3.DA.40Calumetite
Cu(OH,Cl)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
3.DA.45Khaidarkanite
Na
 
0.34
Cu
 
4
Al
 
3
(OH)
 
14
F
 
3
· 2H
 
2
O
3.DA.50Bobkingite
Cu
 
5
Cl
 
2
(OH)
 
8
· 2H
 
2
O
3.DA.55Avdoninite
K
 
2
Cu
 
5
(OH)
 
4
Cl
 
8
· H
 
2
O
3.DA.60Droninoite
Ni
 
6
Fe
2+
3
(OH)
 
16
Cl
 
2
· 4H
 
2
O
Related Minerals - Hey's Index Grouping:

- +
8.2.1Nantokite
CuCl
8.2.2Tolbachite
CuCl
 
2
8.2.3Eriochalcite
CuCl
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
8.2.4Atacamite
Cu
 
2
(OH)
 
3
Cl
8.2.6Botallackite
Cu
 
2
(OH)
 
3
Cl
8.2.7Melanothallite
Cu
 
2
Cl
 
2
O
8.2.8Calumetite
Cu(OH,Cl)
 
2
· 2H
 
2
O
8.2.9Anthonyite
Cu(OH,Cl)
 
2
· 3H
 
2
O
8.2.10Claringbullite
Cu
 
4
(OH)
 
7
Cl · nH
 
2
O
8.2.11Marshite
CuI
8.2.12Mitscherlichite
K
 
2
CuCl
 
4
· 2H
 
2
O
8.2.13Ponomarevite
K
 
4
Cu
 
4
Cl
 
10
O
Related Minerals - Dana Grouping):

- +
10.1.2.2Clinoatacamite
Cu
 
2
(OH)
 
3
Cl

Other Names for Paratacamite

Synonyms:
Atelite
Other Languages:
German:Atelit
Paratacamit
Italian:Atelina
Russian:Паратакамит
Simplified Chinese:副氯铜矿
Spanish:Atelita
Paratacamita

Other Information

Other Information:Readily soluble in acids.
Health Warning:No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Paratacamite

Reference List:

- +
Scacchi (1873) Reale accademia delle scienze fisische e matematiche, Naples: 6, no. 9: 22.

Smith (1906) Mineralogical Magazine: 14: 170.

Frondel, C. (1950) Mineralogical Magazine: 29: 34.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 74-76.

American Mineralogist (1951): 36: 384.

Acta Crystallographica: B31: 183-187.

Pollard, A.M., Thomas, R.G., and Williams, P.A. (1989): Synthesis and stabilities of the basic copper(II) chlorides atacamite, paratacamite and botallackite. Minerlogical Magazine 53, 557-563.

Braithwaite, R.S.W., Mereiter, K., Paar, W.H. and Clark, A.M. (2004) Herbertsmithite, Cu3Zn(OH)6Cl2, a new species, and the definition of paratacamite. Mineralogical Magazine, 68, 527-539.

Malcherek, T. & Schlüter, J. (2008): The crystal structure of clinoatacamite and the quest for paratacamite. Poster, Annual Meeting of the DMG, Berlin, Germany, September 14-17, 2008; CD with abstracts, Abs. no. 527.

Welch, M.D., Sciberras, M.J., Williams, P.A., Leverett, P., Schlüter, J., Malcherek, T. (2014): A temperature-induced reversible transformation between paratacamite and herbertsmithite. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals, 41, 33-48.

Internet Links for Paratacamite

Search Engines:
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  • External Links:
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  • Look for Paratacamite on Athena Mineralogy
  • Look for Paratacamite on Mineralien Atlas
  • Raman and XRD data at RRUFF project
  • American Mineralogist Crystal Structure Database
  • Paratacamite details from Handbook of Mineralogy (PDF)
  • Mineral Dealers:
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  • Search for Paratacamite on Well-Arranged Molecules
  • DAKOTA MATRIX offers Cabinet and Rare Species from Worldwide Localities.
  • Buy fine minerals and gemstones from Pala International
  • Rare and Unusual minerals at Mineralogical Research Company
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  • Find Paratacamite on www.crystalclassics.co.uk
  • Buy rare minerals from Excalibur Minerals
  • Buy from Dave Bunk Minerals
  • Buy from McDougall Minerals
  • Lapis Mineral Magazin
  • Specimens:The following Paratacamite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

    Localities for Paratacamite

    The map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
    (TL) indicates type locality. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
    Antarctica
     
    • Western Antarctica
    Vennum, W.R.; Nishi, J.M. (1981) New Antarctic mineral occurrences. Antarctic Journal of the U.S., 16(5), 14-15.
    Argentina
     
    • Río Negro
    American Mineralogist (1978) 63, 1175-1181
    Atlantic Ocean
     
    • Mid-Atlantic Ridge complex
    Gablina, I.F., Semkova, T.A., Stepanova, T.V., and Gor'kova, N.V. (2006): Lithology and Mineral Resources 41(1), 27-44.
      • Trans-Atlantic Geotraverse hydrothermal field (TAG)
    Canadian Mineralogist Vol.26, pp. 697-711 (1988)
    Australia
     
    • New South Wales
      • Yancowinna Co.
        • Broken Hill
    Australian Min. 3:1 (1997)
    • Queensland
      • Mount Isa - Cloncurry area
        • Cloncurry District
          • Cloncurry
        • Selwyn district
    • South Australia
      • Eyre Peninsula
        • Middleback Range
          • Iron Knob
    Australian Jour.Min. v.6, no. 1
      • Flinders Ranges
        • North Flinders Ranges
          • Leigh Creek
            • Copley
              • Mount Coffin Mines
    Personal Collection of Mark Willoughby
      • Olary Province
        • Boolcoomatta Reserve (Boolcoomata Station; Boolcoomatta)
    No reference listed
        • Wadnaminga goldfield
    Pring, A., Elliot, P. (1987) Sideronatrite: first recorded occurrences in Australia. Australian Mineralogist, Vol. 2, No. 2, pg. 3-6.
      • Stuart Shelf
        • Pernatty Lagoon
          • Mount Gunson Copper mines (Pernatty Lagoon - Mount Gunson Cu Deposits)
    Noble R.J., Just J. and Johnson J. E., 1983, Catalogue of South Australian Minerals-1983, Government Printer, Adelaide.; Noble R.J., Just J. and Johnson J. E., 1983, Catalogue of South Australian Minerals:1983, Government Printer, Adelaide.
    • Tasmania
      • Balfour-Temma district
        • Temma
    Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
      • Devonport district
    http://www.crocoite.com/locationbulletins/part1/zeolites.pdf
      • Penguin
    Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
    • Victoria
      • Flinders area
      • Phillip Island
    • Western Australia
      • Ashburton Shire
    Min. Record 24,203-218(1993)
    Min. Record 24,203-218(1993)
    Mineralogical Record 24,203-216,218.
    Ashburtonite, a new bicarbonate-silicate mineral from Ashburton Downs; J.D. Grice, E.H. Nickel, R.A. Gault; American Mineralogist, Vol 76, 001701-1707, 1991
    Min.Record 24,203-218(1993)
      • Coolgardie Shire
        • Nepean
    M. Jacobson, M. Calderwood, B. Grguric; Pegmatites of Western Australia; (Perth 2007)
        • Widgiemooltha
    Colchester et al., 2007
    Eardleyite as a Product of the Supergene Alteration of Nickel Sulphides; E Nickel, C Davis, M Bussell, P Bridge, J Dunn, R Macdonald; American MIneralogist, Vol 62, pp449-457, 1977
      • Menzies Shire
        • Menangina Station
    Mineralogical Magazine 1974 39 : 737-743; Mineralogical Magazine 1977 41 : 37-41; Min Mag (1979) 43, 97-98
    Austria
     
    • Lower Austria
      • Waldviertel
        • Raabs an der Thaya
          • Eibenstein an der Thaya
    Niedermayr, G. (1997): 1085. Cuprit, Paratakamit und Skapolith von Eibenstein, Niederösterreich. In: Niedermayr et al. (1997): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich XLVI. – Carinthia II, 187./107. 169-214.
    Canada
     
    • Nova Scotia
      • Hants Co.
    R.W. Boyle, "The Geology, Geochemistry, and Origin of the Barite, Manganese, and Lead-Zinc-Copper-Silver Deposits of the Walton-Cheverie Area, Nova Scotia", Geological Survey of Canada, Bulletin 166, 1972.
      • Pictou Co.
    A.P. Sabina, "Rocks and Minerals for the Collector - Northeastern Nova Scotia, Cape Breton, and Prince Edward Island", GSC Paper 65-10, 1965.
    • Ontario
      • Timiskaming District
        • Cobalt-Gowganda region
          • Cobalt area
            • Coleman Township
    Sabina, Ann P., 2000. Rocks and Minerals for the Collector: Cobalt-Belleterre-Timmins, Ontario and Quebec, Miscellaneous Report 57, 266 p. and R.Mielke 2009
    • Prince Edward Island
    SABINA, A.P. (1965): Rocks & minerals for the collector: Northeastern Nova Scotia, Cape Breton and Prince Edward Island. Geological Survey of Canada Paper 65-10, 58-63.
    • Québec
      • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
        • Abitibi RCM
          • Launay
    Crook III, W.W. & Jambor, J.L. (1979) Nickelbischofite, a new nickel chloride hydrate. Canadian Mineralogist 17, 107-109.
      • Estrie
        • Les Sources RCM
          • Asbestos
    HORVÁTH, L., PFENNINGER-HORVÁTH, E. and SPERTINI, F. (2013) The Jeffrey mine, Asbestos, Québec, Canada: A mineralogical review. Mineralogical Record, 44, 375-417.
      • Montréal
    TARASSOFF, P., HORVÁTH, L. and PFENNINGER-HORVÁTH, E. (2006) Famous mineral localities: the Francon quarry, Montréal, Québec. Mineralogical Record, 37, 5-60.
    Chile
     
    • Antofagasta Region
      • Antofagasta Province
        • Baquedano
    Samples analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter (Hamburg University), Germany.
        • Cuevitas
          • San Cristóbal
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 75.
    Econ Geol (1991) 86:1222-1237
    Cameron, E.M., Leybourne, M.I., and Palacios, C. (2007): Mineralium Deposita 42, 205-218.
        • Sierra Gorda District
          • Caracoles
    Mineralogical Magazine (1906): 14: 170; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 75.
    Mineralogical Magazine (1906): 14: 170; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 75.
    M.Dini & A.Molina collections-analysed material
    Neues Jahrbuch Min. Mon.: 1996:188-192. (much of it here is zincian)
    Knut Eldjarn specimen
      • El Loa Province
        • Calama
          • Chuquicamata District
    R.B. Cook: "Famous mineal locality; Chuquicamata, Chile": Mineralogical Record, sept.-oct. 1973
            • Toki Cu deposit (Toki Cluster)
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 45, 75, 374.
      • Tocopilla Province
    Samples analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter (Hamburg University), Germany.
        • Sierra Gorda district
          • Caracoles
    Maurizio Dini, Dr. Jochen Schluter.
    • Atacama Region
      • Chañaral Province
        • El Salado
    Collected by Skip Szenics. In the collection of Brent Thorne.
          • Cerro Negro district
    maurizio dini collection
    Bob Jenkins & M. Dini collections
      • Copiapó Province
        • Cabeza de Vaca district
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 75.
        • Nantoko
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 76.
        • Tierra Amarilla
          • Las Pintadas district
            • Cerro Pintado
    No reference listed
      • Huasco Province
        • Vallenar
    Frondel C. (1950); "On Paratacamite and some related copper chlorides; Min. Magazine, Vol. 29
    • Tarapacá Region
      • El Tamarugal Province
        • Challacollo
    maurizio dini collection - analysed material
        • Huara
    Samples analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter, Curator of Hamburg Mineralogical Museum, Germany
        • Pozo Almonte
    M.Dini & A.Molina collection
        • Quebrada Maní
    Samples analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter (Hamburg University), Germany.
        • Salar Grande
    samples analysed by Anthony Kampf, Curator Emeritus of Mineral Sciences at NHM of LAC, California
    China
     
    • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
      • Tulufan Prefecture (Turfan Prefecture; Turpan Prefecture)
        • Shanshan Co. (Piqan Co.; Pichan Co.)
          • Kanggur-Xifengshan gold belt
    Kaiyin Bai and Zhaoxin Han (2007): Northwestern Geology 40(2), 114-117
    France
     
    • Brittany
      • Finistère
        • Crozon
          • Telgruc-sur-Mer
    R.PIERROT, L. CHAURIS, C. LAFORET (1973) : "Inventaire minéralogique de la France : 29- Finistère.", B.R.G.M. Paris.
    • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
      • Var
        • Le Pradet
    No reference listed
    Germany
     
    • Baden-Württemberg
      • Black Forest
        • Lahr
          • Reichenbach
            • Weiler
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
        • Wolfach
          • Oberwolfach
            • Rankach valley
    Walenta, K. (1992): Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes. Chr. Weise Verlag, München, 336 pp. (in German)
    • Hesse
      • Richelsdorf District
        • Süss
          • Richelsdorf Smelter
    S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Lower Saxony
      • Harz
        • Goslar
          • Astfeld
    No reference listed
    • North Rhine-Westphalia
      • Eifel
        • Mechernich
          • Kall
    Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
      • Ruhr Coal Mining area
        • Essen
    Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
      • Siegerland
    Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
    Greece
     
    • Aegean Islands Department (Aiyaíon)
      • Kykládes Prefecture
        • Cyclade Islands (Cyclades; Kikladhes; Nomos Kikladhon)
          • Milos Island (Melos)
    Alfieris, D., & Voudouris, P. (2005). Ore mineralogy of transitional submarine to subaerial magmatic-hydrothermal deposits in W. Milos, Greece. Au-Ag-Te–Se deposits, Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Petrology, 43Sofia, 1-6
    • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
      • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
        • Lavrion District Mines
          • Agios Konstantinos [St Constantine] (Kamariza)
            • Kamariza Mines (Kamareza Mines)
              • Hilarion area
    J. Gröbner und U. Kolitsch (2002): Neufunde von Laurion aus den Jahren 2001 und 2002. Aufschluss 53 (5-6), 363-371.
          • Sounion area
    Hanke, H. (1998): Laurion - ein Rückblick auf die Funde der letzten drei Jahre. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (2), 37-45.
    Lapis, 24, 7/8 (1999); W. Krause, H.-J. Bernhardt, R. S. W. Braithwaite, U. Kolitsch and R. Pritchard (2006): Kapellasite, Cu3Zn(OH)6Cl2, a new mineral from Lavrion, Greece. Mineral. Mag. 70, 331-342; Kolitsch, U., Rieck, B., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fabritz, K. H., Blaß, G. & Gröbner, J. (2014): Neufunde aus dem altem Bergbau und den Schlacken von Lavrion (I). Mineralien-Welt 25 (1), 60-75 (in German).
    Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Standfuss, K. & Standfuss, L. (1982a): Connellit, Botallackit, Paratacamit und Leadhillit in den antiken Bleischlacken Laurions. Der Aufschluss 33, 3-6. ; Grolig, H. & Grolig, E. (1978): Lavrion in Attika. Lapis, 3 (5), 16-25; 40 (in German).
          • Passa Limani area
    Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals of the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Sounion area
    Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian, (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Thorikos area
    Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
          • Vrissaki area
    Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
    Hungary
     
    • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Co.
      • Rudabányai Mtns
        • Rudabánya
    Szakáll: Minerals of Rudabánya, 2001
    Szakáll: Minerals of Rudabánya, 2001
    Iran
     
    • Esfahan Province (Isfahan Province; Aspadana Province)
      • Nain County (Nayin County)
        • Anarak District
    S. Weiß: Lapis 29(12):38-39 (2004)
    • Hormozgan Province
      • Qeshm Island
    Michal Filippi, et al (2002) Mineralien Welt, 13, 1, 60-72.
    Israel
     
    • Southern District (HaDarom District)
      • Eilat
    http://whc.unesco.org/en/tentativelists/1489/
    Italy
     
    • Campania
      • Naples Province
        • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
    Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 75.
    • Liguria
      • Genova Province
        • Genova
          • Varenna Valley
    Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 2 (Avril/Juin), 175-188.
    • Sardinia
      • Carbonia-Iglesias Province
        • Domusnovas
    Stara, P., Rizzo, R., Tanca, G.A. (1996): Iglesiente e Arburese. Miniere e Minerali. Edito a cura dell'EMSA e "varie associazioni mineralogiche", Volume 1, 238 pp.
      • Medio Campidano Province
        • Furtei
    Da Pelo, S. & Frau, F (2000):, Magnesian aubertite, (Cu,Mg)Al(SO4)2Cl·14H4O, from the gold mine of Furtei in Sardinia, Italy. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte, 2000(6), 279-288.
      • Sassari Province
        • Porto Torres
    Orlandi, P., & Gelosa, M. (2007). Argentiera della Nurra. I minerali di alterazione della miniera di sfalerite e galena argentifera. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 31 (1), 22-31.
    • Tuscany
      • Livorno Province
        • Elba Island
          • Capoliveri
    C.L. Garavelli (1955) – Sulla presenza di paratacamite e di gesso cuprifero fra i minerali secondari del giacimento di Capo Calamita (Isola d'Elba) – Rend. Soc. Min. It., 11: 147-175.
          • Rio Marina
    AA. VV., 1996. Collezionare minerali. Hobby & Work.
        • Piombino
    Cerutti, G. and Preite, D. (1995): Mineralien der etruskischen Schlacken von Baratti, Toskana. Lapis, 20 (4), 13-18; 50 (in German).
    • Veneto
      • Belluno Province
        • Auronzo di Cadore
    Ara, D., Sanna, L., Rossi, A., Galli, E., & De Waele, J. (2013). Minerali secondari in ambiente sotterraneo: la miniera dell’Argentiera (Sardegna nord-occidentale).
    Japan
     
    • Kyushu Region
      • Kagoshima Prefecture
        • Satsumasendai City
          • Koshiki Archipelago
            • Sato-mura
    Masutomi Museum specimen (Kyoto); Kato et al (1980) Chigaku Kenkyu, 31, 455-459
    • Shikoku Island
      • Ehime Prefecture
        • Ikata (Sadamisaki Peninsula)
    www.issp.u-tokyo.ac.jp/labs/mdcl/lab/denken/wordpress/?page_id=803
    Mexico
     
    • Baja California Sur (BC Sur)
      • Mun. de Mulegé
        • Boleo District
    [MinRec 29:43]
    Bariand, P. et al. (1998). Famous mineral localities: Boléo, Baja California, Mexico. Mineralogical Record. 29: 4-49
    Namibia
     
    • Karas Region
      • Lüderitz District
        • Rosh Pinah
    Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2007): Namibia. Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag, Haltern, 396 pp. (in English)
    New Zealand
     
    • North Island
      • Waikato
        • Taupo
          • Orakeikorako Thermal Area
    Rod Martin, Minerals of Ruatapu Cave, Orakei Korako, Taupo Volcanic Zone. Essence of Microscope (NZ)
    Nicaragua
     
    • León Department
      • Cerro Negro Volcano
    www.excaliburmineral.com
    Peru
     
    • Ica Department
      • Nazca Province
    Yuming Chen and Kaitian Wang (2008): Geophysical & Geochemical Exploration 32(2), 126-130
      • Pisco Umay
    Hyrsl & Rosales (2003) Mineralogical Record, 34, 241-254.; Hyrsl & Rosales (2003) Mineralogical Record, 34, 241-254.
    Portugal
     
    • Castelo Branco District
      • Vila Velha de Rodão
    Romania
     
    • Hunedoara Co.
      • Hunedoara
        • Boșorod
    Onac, B.P., Breban, R., Kearns, J., and Tamas, T. (2002) Unusual minerals related to phosphate deposits in Cioclovina Cave, Şureanu Mts. (Romania). Theoretical and Applied Karstology: 15: 27-34.
    Russia
     
    • Far-Eastern Region
      • Kamchatka Oblast'
        • Tolbachik volcano
          • Great Fissure eruption (Main Fracture)
            • Northern Breakthrough (North Breach)
              • Second scoria cone
    N. V. Chukanov, M. N. Murashko, A. E. Zadov & A. F. Bushmakin (2006): Avdoninite, K2Cu5Cl8(OH)4• H2O, a new mineral from volcanic exhalations and from the zone of technogenesis at massive sulphide ore deposits. Proceedings of the Russian Mineralogical Society 135(3), 38–42
    • Urals Region
      • Southern Urals
        • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
    Cesnokov, B., Kotrly, M. and Nisanbajev, T. (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
    South Africa
     
    • Northern Cape Province
      • Namakwa District (Namaqualand)
        • Aggeneys
    T. Q. Meyer, W. A. van der Westhuizen, G. J. Beukes, H. de Bruiyn and A. E. Schoch (1986) An Occurrence of the Hydrous Lead-Copper-Iron Silicate Creaseyite in South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine 50:346-348
    • Western Cape Province
      • Central Karoo District
    Minerals of South Africa
    Spain
     
    • Andalusia
      • Almería
        • Huércal-Overa
          • Cuesta Alta
            • Cerro Minado Mines
    VIÑALS, J., CALVO, M., and MARTÍ, J. (2004): Parnauita, paratacamita y otros minerales secundarios de Cerro Minado, Almería. Revista de Minerales, 2, 5, 47-49.(in Spanish). Versions simultaneously published in Catalan (Mineralogistes de Catalunya) and in English version (Mineral Up)
        • Níjar
          • Rodalquilar
            • Cerro de los Guardias
    Christiane & Jean-Robert EYTIER collection
    • Valencian Community
      • Castellón
        • Villahermosa del Rio
          • San Rafael claim
    Casanova Honrubia, Juan Miguel & Canseco Caballé, Manuel, 2002, Minerales de la Comunidad Valenciana : 237 p. Ed. Caja de Ahorros del Mediterráneo. Alicante; - Cócera, H., Menor-Salván, C. and Muñoz-Alvarado, R. (2010): Mineralogía de la concesión San Rafael, Villahermosa del Río, Castellón, España. Acopios, 1, 1-51. [http://mti-acopios.blogspot.com/ ; http://issuu.com/malacate/docs/acopios-1-1?mode=a_p]
    Switzerland
     
    • Vaud (Waadt)
      • Bex
    Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Verlag Wepf & Co. (Basel), p. 55-56
    Turkmenistan
     
    • Balkan Province
      • Cheleken Peninsula
    Lebedev, L.M., Nikitina, J.B. (1983): The Cheleken ore forming system. Russ. Acad. Sci., Moscow (in Russian.)
    U.S. Virgin Islands
     
    • St. John
    Alminas, Henry V.; Foord, Eugene E.; Tucker, Robert E. (1994) Geochemistry, mineralogy, and geochronology of the U.S. Virgin Islands USGS Bulletin 2057 36p
    UK
     
    • England
      • Cornwall
        • Mount's Bay District
          • St Hilary
    Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
        • St Agnes District
          • Crantock
    BMS Newsletter 79, March 2010 (http://britishmicromountsociety.homestead.com/Gannell-Smelter.html)
          • Perranzabuloe
            • Cligga Head
    [Golley & Williams, 1995, 46 - "Cornish Mineral Reference Manual"]
        • St Just District
          • St Just
            • Botallack
    Golley, P. & Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
    Golley, P. & Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
    Golley, P. & Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
    P Haas, collected May 2005
              • Cliff outcrops
    Golley, P. & Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
              • Wheal Owles
    Golley, P. & Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.
            • Kenidjack Valley
              • Boswedden Mine (incl. Wheal Praze; Wheal Williams; Yankee Boy Mine)
    P Haas, collected 2009
            • Pendeen
    [Golley & Williams, 1995, 46 - "Cornish Mineral Reference Manual"]
            • Trewellard
    Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
        • Wadebridge District
          • Padstow
            • Gunver Head
    No reference listed
          • Tintagel
            • Trebarwith
    No reference listed
    Ukraine
     
    • Crimea Oblast'
      • Crimea peninsula
        • Sivash Gulf area
          • Armyansk area
    Geologiya SSSR. Poleznye iskopaemye (The geology of USSR. Commercial mineral)- Nedra (Moscou), 1974, vol. VIII, 205 p.
    USA
     
    • Alabama
      • Clay Co.
        • Alabama Copper Belt
          • Coleta
    Rocks & Min 70:5 pp 320-333
    • Alaska
      • Aleutians West Borough
        • Aleutian Islands District
          • Gareloi Island
    U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
    • Arizona
      • Cochise Co.
        • Mule Mts
          • Warren District
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 143.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 321.
              • Queen Hill
                • Copper Queen Mine (Halero Mine)
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 320.
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 175, 321, 351; Graeme, R. (1993), Bisbee revisited, Min.Rec.: 24: 421-436.
    Rolf Luetcke
      • Maricopa Co.
        • Big Horn Mts
          • Osborn District
            • Tonopah
              • Belmont Mountain
    Am.Min.: 81: 244-248.
      • Pima Co.
        • Tohono O'odom (Papago) Indian Reservation
          • Comobabi Mts
            • Cababi District (Comobabi District)
              • Ko Vaya
                • Mildren Mine group
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 278, 321; Williams, S.A, (1963), Oxidation of sulfide ores in the Mildren and Steppe mining districts, Pima Co., AZ, Econ.Geol.: 58: 1119-1125.
      • Pinal Co.
        • Mammoth District
          • Tiger
            • St. Anthony deposit
    Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 321; Bideaux, R.A. (1980), Tiger, AZ, Min.Rec.: 11: 155-181.
    • California
      • Inyo Co.
        • Nopah Range
          • Upper Noonday Camp
            • Shoshone Mines (Shoshone Mines group; Shoshone Mine group; Grant Mine; Mabel Mine; Black Prince Mine)
    Robert M. Housley (2005) Noonday and War Eagle mines, Tecopa Pass, Inyo Co. CA. Abstracts from the 2005 Desert Symposium. California State University, Desert Studies Consortium and LSA Associates, Inc.
      • San Bernardino Co.
        • Baker
          • Otto Mountain
    Collected by and in the collection of Brent Thorne. PXRD analyzed by Tony Kampf.
    XRD analyzed by Tony Kampf.
    • Colorado
      • Boulder Co.
        • Jamestown District
    Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
    • Connecticut
      • Fairfield Co.
        • Stamford
    Henderson, William, A., Jr. (1967), A Copper Analog of Laurium, Greece. Rocks & Minerals: 42(5): 273-276.
    • Kentucky
      • Lincoln Co.
    Rocks & Minerals Vol. 70, No. 4, p.256
    Mineralogical Record, v. 28, n. 6, 1997 ; Rocks & Minerals 81:420-440
    • Michigan
      • Houghton Co.
        • Centennial
    Rocks & Min.:58:109. 80:163
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
    Mineralogy of Michigan (E. W. Heinrich & G. W. Robinson)
        • Hancock
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
        • Osceola
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
      • Keweenaw Co.
        • Mohawk
          • Mohawk Mine
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
      • Ontonagon Co.
        • Mass City
    Rocks & Min.:58:112.
        • White Pine
    Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
    • Nevada
      • Clark Co.
        • Spring Mts
          • Goodsprings District
    Rocks & Minerals 83:1 pp 65-69
      • Esmeralda Co.
        • Weepah District
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Humboldt Co.
        • Iron Point District
          • Valmy
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Lyon Co.
        • Churchill District
    Rocks & Minerals, Nov. 1999
        • Yerington District
          • Artesia Lake
    NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
          • Yerington
    Pullman, Steven, and Thomssen, Richard, "Nevada Mineral Locality Index" Rocks & Minerals, Vol. 74 No. 6. pg. 375
    • New York
      • St. Lawrence Co.
        • Balmat-Edwards Zinc District
    No reference listed
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